Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1321. Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview

Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview Chene G, Lequen L, Schaeverbeke T Authors' objectives To review clinical trials of antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis. Searching An algorithm developed by Stewart et al (see Other Publications of Related Interest)was used to search MEDLINE from 1983 to 1997. Bibliographies of retrieved articles (...) were searched to find further articles and rheumatology experts were consulted. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in adults that had at least one antibiotic therapy arm and included an intention-to-treat analysis. Specific interventions included in the review Cycline plus standard treatment compared to placebo plus standard treatment. Participants included in the review Adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (both long-standing

1999 DARE.

1322. Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era

Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era Kramer K M, Levy H Authors' objectives To determine the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing the infectious complications of acute pancreatitis. Searching MEDLINE was searched for studies published in the English language from 1966 (...) to present using the keywords 'pancreatitis' and 'antibiotics'. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Studies of the following designs that assessed the effect of systemic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis were included: prospective randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), retrospective cohort studies; prospective case series with historical control; case control; and retrospective review with historical control. Specific interventions included in the review

1999 DARE.

1323. Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis

Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis McCaffery K, Olver RE, Franklin M, Mukhopadhyay S Authors' objectives To determine the efficacy of antistaphylococcal therapy, as assessed by clinical outcomes, in patients with cystic fibrosis. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1995 using a Cochrane (...) in cystic fibrosis were included. Duration of RCTs ranged from 2 months to 2 years. Specific interventions included in the review The following antibiotics were used either alone or in combination: trimethoprim; sulphamethoxazole; cefadroxil; dicloxacillin; cephalexin; flucloxacillin; cloxacillin; ampicillin; amoxycillin (with and without clavulanic acid); penicillin V; erythromycin; cotrimoxazole; cephalosporin; ciprofloxacin; fusidic acid; lincomycin; chloramphenicol; novobiocin; carbenicillin

1999 DARE.

1324. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review Journals Library An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue

1999 NIHR HTA programme

1325. A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters.

A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

1999 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

1326. Antimicrobial resistance and clinical effectiveness of co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin for pneumonia among children in Pakistan: randomised controlled trial. Pakistan Co-trimoxazole Study Group. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial resistance and clinical effectiveness of co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin for pneumonia among children in Pakistan: randomised controlled trial. Pakistan Co-trimoxazole Study Group. Co-trimoxazole is widely used in treatment of paediatric pneumonia in developing countries, but drug resistance may decrease its effectiveness. We studied the effectiveness of co-trimoxazole compared with that of amoxycillin in pneumonia therapy, and assessed the clinical impact of co-trimoxazole (...) %) therapy failures in the co-trimoxazole group and 30 (15%) in the amoxycillin group (p=0.03)-26 (13%) versus 12 (12%) among children with non-severe pneumonia (p=0.856) and 66 (33%) versus 18 (18%) among those with severe pneumonia (p=0.009). For patients with severe pneumonia, age under 1 year (p=0.056) and positive chest radiographs (p=0.005) also predicted therapy failure. There was no significant association between antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentration and outcome among bacteraemic

1998 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1327. Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics before insertion of intrauterine devices. IUD Study Group. (Abstract)

Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics before insertion of intrauterine devices. IUD Study Group. The value of antibiotic prophylaxis before insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) remains uncertain. We undertook a triple-masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trial to find out whether such prophylaxis reduces the rate of IUD removal within 90 days.11 clinic sites in southern California enrolled women who requested IUD insertion and were at low risk of sexually transmitted (...) infection according to self-reported medical history. We randomly assigned 1985 participants either 500 mg azithromycin or placebo capsules of identical appearance taken about 1 h before insertion of a Copper T 380A IUD. 118 women did not have an IUD inserted. We followed up 1833 of the remaining 1867 (98%) participants for at least 90 days after insertion.The rate of IUD removal for any reason other than partial expulsion was 3.8% (35/918) in the antibiotic group and 3.4% (31/915) in the placebo group

1998 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1328. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Song F, Glenny AM Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made (...) for the HTA database. Citation Song F, Glenny AM. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Health Technology Assessment 1998; 2(7): 1-110 Authors' objectives This review evaluates the relative efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing colorectal surgery where there is a high risk of surgical wound infection (SWI). Authors' conclusions The use of antimicrobial prophylaxis is efficacious in the prevention of SWI in colorectal

1998 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1329. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery

different regimens, though certain regimens appear to be inadequate. Single dose regimen may be as effective as multiple dose regimen and have related cost benefits. Guidelines based on existing evidence should take into account local prevalence of pathogens and resistance profiles in order to achieve more cost-effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. Appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery may help to reduce the development of antibiotic resistant (...) bacteria. Despite adverse publicity concerning the use of antibiotics, GP's should advise patients being referred for colorectal surgery that the appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis can reduce the risk of surgical wound infections. Project page URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Colon /surgery; Costs and Cost Analysis; Rectum /surgery; Surgical Wound Infection /prevention & control Language Published English Country

1998 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1330. Antibiotic prophylaxis after basilar skull fractures: a meta-analysis

Antibiotic prophylaxis after basilar skull fractures: a meta-analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis after basilar skull fractures: a meta-analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis after basilar skull fractures: a meta-analysis Villalobos T, Arango C, Kubilis P, Rathore M Authors' objectives To apply meta-analytic techniques to determine if antibiotic prophylaxis prevents the development of bacterial meningitis in patients with basilar skull fractures. A subset of patients with CSF leaks were also analysed (...) separately. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1970 to 1996 using search terms 'basilar skull fracture', 'meningitis', and 'antibiotics'. Bibliographies of relevant studies were examined for further studies. Searches were carried out independently by two investigators and a medical librarian. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review No selection criteria were stated. 2 prospective randomised controlled trials, 1 combined retrospective/prospective study and nine retrospective

1998 DARE.

1331. Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review

MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the following keywords: 'antibiotic prophylaxis'; 'antimicrobial prophylaxis' plus 'surgical prophylaxis'; and 'single-dose', 'multiple-dose'. Current Contents was also searched and The references from other publications, especially reviews, were back-searched for additional material. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antimicrobial surgical prophylaxis, with comparable (...) Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review McDonald M, Grabsch E, Marshall C, Forbes A Authors' objectives To determine the overall efficacy of single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery and across surgical disciplines. Searching

1998 DARE.

1332. Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Rothrock S G, Green S M (...) , Harper M B, Clark M C, McIlmail D P, Bachur R Authors' objectives To determine whether parenteral antibiotics are superior to oral antibiotics in preventing serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteraemia. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 through 1996 for articles published in the English language. Bibliographies of articles retrieved were reviewed. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Articles containing a series

1998 DARE.

1333. Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes

', 'antimicrobial therapy' or 'treatment'. The original published report had to be written in English. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Two studies used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and three were randomised and non-blinded. The length of treatment (administration of antibiotics) varied in each study, ranging from: every 6 hours, every 6 hours for 24 hours, every 8 hours until delivery, to every 6 hours for 72 hours (...) Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes Leitich H, Egarter C, Reisenberger K, Kaider A, Berghammer P Authors' objectives

1998 DARE.

1334. Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis

Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis Da Costa A, Kirkorian G, Cucherat M, Delahaye F, Chevalier P, Cerisier A, Isaaz K, Touboul P Authors' objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce infection rates after pacemaker implantation. Searching MEDLINE from January (...) 1967 to June 1996, EMBASE from January 1974 to June 1996, and Current Contents from January 1967 to June 1996, were searched for published trials of the use of antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of permanent pacemaker implantation, to prevent secondary infection. Additional published and unpublished studies were identified by searching meeting abstracts (from 1980 to 1997) and the reference lists in reviews and trials, and by contacting colleagues, investigators and the manufacturers of pacemakers

1998 DARE.

1335. Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Golub R, Siddiqi F, Pohl D Authors' objectives To determine the role of antibiotics in preventing infectious complications in acute pancreatitis. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to June 1997, with search terms including 'pancreatitis', 'antibiotics' and 'randomised studies'. The bibliographies of identified (...) trials, and other recent publications on the treatment of pancreatitis, were reviewed. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised prospective trials. Specific interventions included in the review Systemic and oral antibiotics were compared with standard care (pain medication, nasogastric suction, intravenous hydration, and nutritional support, and some studies used atropine or antiprotease drugs). The antibiotics studied included: ampicillin (500 mg to 1 g every 6

1998 DARE.

1336. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia

Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Richerson M A, Ambrose P G, Quintiliani R, Bui K Q, Nightingale C H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Intravenous antibiotic monotherapy for hospitalised patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hypothetical patients requiring treatment

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1337. The clinical benefit of in-hospital observation in low-risk pneumonia patients after conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial therapy

evaluating whether in-hospital observation after conversion to oral antibiotics is necessary in risk-stratified populations of pneumonia patients. Source of funding None stated. Bibliographic details Rhew D C, Hackner D, Henderson L, Ellrodt A G, Weingarten S R. The clinical benefit of in-hospital observation in low-risk pneumonia patients after conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial therapy. Chest 1998; 113(1): 142-146 PubMedID Other publications of related interest Macrolides in community (...) The clinical benefit of in-hospital observation in low-risk pneumonia patients after conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial therapy The clinical benefit of in-hospital observation in low-risk pneumonia patients after conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial therapy The clinical benefit of in-hospital observation in low-risk pneumonia patients after conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial therapy Rhew D C, Hackner D, Henderson L, Ellrodt A G, Weingarten S R Record

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1338. Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults

Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Fahey T, Stocks N, Thomas T Authors' objectives To assess whether antibiotic treatment for acute cough is effective and to measure (...) the side-effects of such treatment. Searching MEDLINE (from 1966 onwards) and EMBASE (from 1982 onwards) were searched with the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy and MeSH terms 'cough', 'bronchitis', 'sputum', 'respiratory tract infections'. The Science Citation Index and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched using the search terms 'bronchitis' and 'common cold'. Authors of trials were contacted for details of unpublished studies and UK antibiotic manufacturers were contacted

1998 DARE.

1339. Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis

Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Kozyrskyj A L, Hildes-Ripstein G E, Longstaffe S E, Wincott J L, Sitar D S, Klassen T P, Moffatt M E Authors' objectives To conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM (...) ) in children to determine whether outcomes are comparable in children treated with antibiotics for less than 7 days or at least 7 days or more. Searching MEDLINE (JANUARY 1966 TO July 1997), EMBASE (January 1974 to July 1997), Current Contents (January to July 1997), and Science Citation Index were searched. There were no language restrictions. In MEDLINE, search terms employed were "otitis media" in medical subject headings, modified by "acute" in the title or abstract. These terms were combined

1998 DARE.

1340. A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group

A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute (...) of the antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB). The dose recommended was 500-mg bid, but dose and duration were left to the physician's discretion as was the decision to prescribe ciprofloxacin for subsequent AECBs within the follow-up period in the event of treatment failure. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Study population Adult outpatient men and women aged 18 and over, presenting

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.