Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1341. A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis

A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis Das A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. The treatment strategies were as follows: (1) antibiotic prophylaxis administered to all patients; (2) patients were stratified into a low and high risk group on the basis of serum bilirubin and ascitic fluid protein levels; only patients in the high risk group

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1342. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection

Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Bold R J, Mansfield P F, Berger D H, Pollock R E, Singletary S E, Ames F C, Balch C M, Hohn D C, Ross M I Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation (...) that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Administering cefonicid (a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods) in a single dose of 1g intravenously 60 minutes prior to the initiation of the surgical procedure

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1343. Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes

Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Macy E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) . Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Elective penicillin skin testing (PenSTs) in advance of acute antibiotic need and (optional) amoxicillin challenge (AC) in patients with negative skin test responses. Patients were previously entered in a study of new penicillin reagents and received at least 1 prescription drug over a 2-year period

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1344. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis

Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Omidvari K, de Boisblanc B P, Karam G, Nelson S, Haponik E, Summer W Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Using an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by switch to oral antibiotics (cefaclor)) for the treatment of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1345. Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs

results A total cost of $13,533 across the 39 stepdown treatment courses was avoided. Synthesis of costs and benefits The antibacterial cost avoidance was $347 per treatment course realised. Authors' conclusions Cefixime has a potential role as a stepdown agent for ceftriaxone. The study has shown that costs can be avoided without apparent negative impact on patient care. CRD COMMENTARY - Selection of comparators The reason for the choice of comparator is clear. Cefixime possesses an antimicrobial (...) Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Elbe D, Frighetto L, Nickoloff D, Jewesson P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1346. A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents Evans R S, Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Clemmer T P, Weaver L K, Orme J F, Lloyd J F, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains (...) design The study was a nonrandomised trial with historical controls carried out in a single centre. The duration of follow-up was not clearly reported. Analysis of effectiveness The analysis was based on intention-to-treat and the primary health outcomes used in the analysis being thenumber of adverse events caused by antiinfective agents, number of days of excessive antibiotic dosage, and mortality. A regression model was used to investigate the differences in costs and outcomes between strategies

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1347. Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis

and, if so, whether newer and more expensive antibiotics with broad spectra of antimicrobial activity are more effective than amoxycillin or folate inhibitors. Searching MEDLINE was searched up to May 1998 (start date unclear) using the terms of specific antibiotic classes and 'sinusitis'. The authors also scanned Excerpta Medicus, and recent abstracts from the American Society for Microbiology's programme of meetings and Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (...) Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis de Ferranti S D, Ioannidis J P, Lau J, Anninger W V, Barza M Authors' objectives To examine whether antibiotics are indicated in treating uncomplicated acute sinusitis

1998 DARE.

1348. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

. The methodological quality of the included trials improved over time, but problems concerning randomisation, blinding and insufficient sample size remained. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the rate of SWI in comparison with no antibiotic (4 trials, n=293). The OR was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.43). The overall rate of SWI with various regimens of prophylactic antimicrobial agents in colorectal surgery across all the included studies was 11.1% (2,540 out of 22,927). It was 10.6% for the 120 trials (...) was as effective but less expensive than combination therapy. The authors stated that guidelines for cost-effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery should be developed locally. Authors' conclusions Antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in preventing SWI in colorectal surgery. There was no significant difference between many regimens, although some were inadequate. Multiple-dose regimens may be unnecessary. The evidence did not support the idea that new cephalosporins are more effective

1998 DARE.

1349. Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based?

Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Damoiseaux R A, van Balen F A, Hoes A W, De Melker R A Authors' objectives To assess whether the current high prescription rates of antibiotics for acute otitis media (AOM) in children under two years of age (being (...) Publications of Related Interest). Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Articles with random allocation to the different treatment groups were included. Studies had to compare antibiotic treatment with non-antibiotic treatment in AOM (not comparison of different antibiotics or different durations of treatment). Specific interventions included in the review The following antibiotic treatments were included: ampicillin/penicillin-sulfa (+ myringotomy-A), penicillin, erytromycin

1998 DARE.

1350. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Journals Library An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search

1998 NIHR HTA programme

1351. Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis. (Abstract)

Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis. The value of antibiotics in acute rhinosinusitis is uncertain. Although maxillary sinusitis is commonly diagnosed and treated in general practice, no effectiveness studies have been done on unselected primary-care patients. We used a randomised, placebo-controlled design to test the hypothesis that there would be an improvement associated with amoxycillin treatment for acute maxillary (...) %) during the follow-up year.Antibiotic treatment did not improve the clinical course of acute maxillary sinusitis presenting to general practice. For these patients, an initial radiographic examination is not necessary and initial management can be limited to symptomatic treatment. Whether antibiotics are necessary in more severe cases warrants further study.

1997 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1352. Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics. To assess the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics for sore throat.11 general practices in England.Randomised trial of three approaches to sore throat: a 10 day prescription of antibiotics, no antibiotics, or a delayed prescription if the sore throat had not started to settle after three days.716 patients aged 4 and over with sore throat (...) and an abnormal physical sign: 84% had tonsillitis or pharyngitis.Number and rate of patients making a first return with sore throat, pharyngitis, or tonsillitis. Early returns (within two weeks) and complications (otitis media, sinusitis, quinsy). Outcomes were documented in 675 subjects (94%).Mean follow up time was similar (antibiotic group 1.07 years, other two groups 1.03 years). More of those initially prescribed antibiotics initially returned to the surgery with sore throat (38% v 27%, adjusted hazard

1997 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1353. Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. (Abstract)

Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Intrauterine infection is thought to be one cause of preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). Antibiotic therapy has been shown to prolong pregnancy, but the effect on infant morbidity has been inconsistent.To determine if antibiotic treatment during (...) expectant management of PPROM will reduce infant morbidity.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.University hospitals of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network.A total of 614 of 804 eligible gravidas with PPROM between 24 weeks' and 0 days' and 32 weeks' and 0 days' gestation who were considered candidates for pregnancy prolongation and had not received corticosteroids for fetal maturation or antibiotic treatment within 1 week

1997 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1354. A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions

A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions Bailey T C, Ritchie D J, McMullin S T, Kahn M, Reichley (...) R M, Casabar E, Shannon W, Dunagan W C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A labour-intensive, pharmacist intervention aimed at discontinuing intravenous antibiotics or switching patients from intravenous to oral

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1355. A pharmacist-initiated program of intravenous to oral antibiotic conversion

, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A pharmacist-initiated programme of conversion from parenteral to oral antibiotics in patients with mild and moderate infections. The intervention programme targeted those antimicrobials with high use or high cost to the study institution including ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, imipenem-cilastatin, cefuroxime, cefazolin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (...) of cure rate. Authors' conclusions The intervention programme appeared to provide a cost-effective conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial administration without compromising patient care. CRD COMMENTARY - Selection of comparators A justification was implicitly provided for the choice of the comparator (not using the conversion programme and using intravenous antibiotic); in 1993, more than 90% of all antibiotics prescribed in the study institution were parenteral. You, as a database user

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1356. Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery

Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Wieck J A, Jackson J K, O'Brien T J, Lurate R B, Russell J M, Dorchak J D Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical (...) assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness study. Study population Male and female patients undergoing arthroscopy. The average age was 31, with a range of 13 to 70 years. Patients with penicillin or cefazolin allergy were excluded, as were patients requiring metal implants. Setting Hospital. The economic study

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1357. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection

Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Quenzer R W, Pettit K G, Arnold R J, Kaniecki D J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotics (clarithromycin, cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin and cefaclor) to treat community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbation

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1358. Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis

Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis de Bock G H, Dekker F W, Stolk J, Springer M P, Kievit J, van Houwelingen J C Authors' objectives To assess which antibiotic is most effective in the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults and adolescents, and which has the fewest side effects. Searching (...) , 95% CI: 1.36, 3.40); macrolids vs penicillins (OR=2.06, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.24); broad-spectrum vs narrow-spectrum antimicrobials (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.69); bactericidal vs bacteriostatic antimicrobials (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.72). Stratification by study: These analyses yielded clinically significant (<0.67 or >1.50) for five contingency tables: beta-lactamase inhibition regarding clinical cure; type of antibiotic (penicillins, macrolids) regarding clinical success; spectrum regarding clinical

1997 DARE.

1359. The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Bulloch B, Craig W R, Klassen T P Authors' objectives To determine whether antibiotics prevent serious bacterial infections in children at risk for occult bacteremia (...) Antibiotic versus no antibiotic, or oral antibiotic versus IM antibiotic. Specific antibiotics studied included penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Participants included in the review Children between 3 months and 36 months of age who had a fever of greater or equal to 39C, no identified focus of infection and a blood culture obtained on initial visit. Patients were excluded if they had a focus of infection, a known or suspected hypersensitivity to the antibiotics being

1997 DARE.

1360. Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence

Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Shann F Authors' objectives To assess whether prophylactic antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high (more than 1%) fatality rate. Searching MEDLINE (...) was searched from 1966 to 1995 using the terms 'measles' plus either 'antibiotic', 'penicillin', 'sulphonamide', 'prospective studies' or 'RCT'. Additional studies were obtained by examining results of previous handsearches of studies of pneumonia in children, in all the journals in the University library from 1935 to 1946. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no antibiotic or with selective

1997 DARE.