Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1341. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for preterm, prelabour rupture of fetal membranes: the ORACLE I randomised trial. ORACLE Collaborative Group. (Abstract)

Broad-spectrum antibiotics for preterm, prelabour rupture of fetal membranes: the ORACLE I randomised trial. ORACLE Collaborative Group. Preterm, prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes (pPROM) is the commonest antecedent of preterm birth, and can lead to death, neonatal disease, and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for pPROM suggested some health benefits for the neonate, but the results were inconclusive. We did a randomised multicentre trial to try to resolve

2001 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1342. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for spontaneous preterm labour: the ORACLE II randomised trial. ORACLE Collaborative Group. (Abstract)

Broad-spectrum antibiotics for spontaneous preterm labour: the ORACLE II randomised trial. ORACLE Collaborative Group. Preterm birth after spontaneous preterm labour is associated with death, neonatal disease, and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for spontaneous preterm labour have reported inconclusive results. We did a randomised multicentre trial to resolve this issue.6295 women in spontaneous preterm labour with intact membranes and without evidence of clinical (...) infection were randomly assigned 250 mg erythromycin (n=1611), 325 mg co-amoxiclav (250 mg amoxicillin and 125 mg clavulanic acid; n=1550), both (n=1565), or placebo (n=1569) four times daily for 10 days or until delivery, whichever occurred earlier. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease, or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. Analysis was by intention to treat.None of the trial antibiotics was associated

2001 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1343. Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. It is controversial whether prolonged antibiotic treatment is effective for patients in whom symptoms persist after the recommended antibiotic treatment for acute Lyme disease.We conducted two randomized trials: one in 78 patients who were seropositive for IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at the time of enrollment and the other in 51 patients who were seronegative (...) in the patients' health-related quality of life. In intention-to-treat analyses, there were no significant differences in the outcomes with prolonged antibiotic treatment as compared with placebo. Among the seropositive patients who were treated with antibiotics, there was improvement in the score on the physical-component summary scale of the SF-36, the mental-component summary scale, or both in 37 percent, no change in 29 percent, and worsening in 34 percent; among seropositive patients receiving placebo

2001 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1344. Prophylactic antibiotic administration reduces sepsis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

Prophylactic antibiotic administration reduces sepsis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Prophylactic antibiotic administration reduces sepsis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Prophylactic antibiotic administration reduces sepsis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Sharma V K, Howden C W Authors' objectives To evaluate the role of prophylactic antibiotics that can achieve minimum inhibitory concentration (...) in necrotic pancreatic tissue in patients with acute necrotising pancreatitis (ANP). Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to January 2000 using the keywords 'pancreatitis', 'pancreatitis, acute necrotizing' and the textword 'acute pancreatitis' combined with 'antibiotics' (keyword and textword). Official proceedings of all major North American and European meetings were searched. Dual publications were excluded. If more than one version of the same trial had been retrieved, only the most recent data

2001 DARE.

1345. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections

-Ioannidis D G, Chew P, Lau J. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2001; 48(5): 677-689 PubMedID Original Paper URL Other publications of related interest DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986;7:177-88. Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Acute Disease; Anti-Bacterial Agents (...) Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections

2001 DARE.

1346. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections

azithromycin should be a first-line antibiotic for lower respiratory infections. Research: The authors state that careful meta-analyses and well-designed (preferably double-blinded and adequately powered) large trials should be encouraged in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy in general. Funding Pfizer Inc. Bibliographic details Contopoulos-Ioannidis D G, Ioannidis J P, Chew P, Lau J. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other (...) antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2001; 48(5): 691-703 PubMedID Original Paper URL Other publications of related interest 1. Mantel N, Haenszel W. Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 1959;22:719-48. 2. DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986;7:177-88. 3. Ioannidis JP, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Chew P, Lau J. Meta-analysis of randomised

2001 DARE.

1347. Prophylactic use of antibiotics for nonlaboring patients undergoing Cesarean delivery with intact membranes: a meta-analysis

Prophylactic use of antibiotics for nonlaboring patients undergoing Cesarean delivery with intact membranes: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2001 DARE.

1348. Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease: a cost effectiveness analysis

Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease: a cost effectiveness analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease: a cost effectiveness analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease: a cost effectiveness analysis Krijnen P, Kaandorp C J E, Steyerberg E W, van Schaardenburg D, Moens H J B, Habbema J D F Record Status This is a critical (...) abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population A 60-year-old man

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1349. Risk-based versus alternative algorithms for antibiotic prophylaxis among women seeking early suction abortion: a cost-effectiveness simulation

Risk-based versus alternative algorithms for antibiotic prophylaxis among women seeking early suction abortion: a cost-effectiveness simulation Risk-based versus alternative algorithms for antibiotic prophylaxis among women seeking early suction abortion: a cost-effectiveness simulation Risk-based versus alternative algorithms for antibiotic prophylaxis among women seeking early suction abortion: a cost-effectiveness simulation Friedman H B, Gift T L, Susanti I, Wasserheit J N Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of algorithms for antibiotic prophylaxis in women seeking early suction abortion. The alternatives examined were: World Health Organization (WHO) risk assessment (risk assessment alone); WHO examination

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1350. Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes Full Text available with Trip Pro

that, if their results were confirmed, the AMT system should be "implemented in other hospitals where antibiotics are used injudiciously". Source of funding None stated. Bibliographic details Gross R, Morgan A S, Kinky D E, Weiner M, Gibson G A, Fishman N O. Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001; 33(3): 289-295 PubMedID DOI Other publications of related interest Quintiliani R, Cooper BW, Briceland LL, Nightingale CH. Economic (...) Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes Gross R, Morgan A S, Kinky D E, Weiner M, Gibson G A, Fishman N O Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1351. Impact of first-line vs second-line antibiotics for the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis

of antibiotics". Source of funding Supported by Express Scripts Inc., St. Louis (MO), USA. Bibliographic details Piccirillo J F, Mager D E, Frisse M E, Bophy R H, Goggin A. Impact of first-line vs second-line antibiotics for the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis. JAMA 2001; 286(15): 1849-1855 PubMedID Other publications of related interest McCaig LF, Hughes JM. Trends in antimicrobial drug prescribing among office-based physicians in the United States. JAMA 1995;273:214-9. Poole MD. A focus on acute (...) Impact of first-line vs second-line antibiotics for the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis Impact of first-line vs second-line antibiotics for the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis Impact of first-line vs second-line antibiotics for the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis Piccirillo J F, Mager D E, Frisse M E, Bophy R H, Goggin A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1352. Empirical therapy for uncomplicated urinary tract infections in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance: a decision and cost analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empirical therapy for uncomplicated urinary tract infections in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance: a decision and cost analysis Empirical therapy for uncomplicated urinary tract infections in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance: a decision and cost analysis Empirical therapy for uncomplicated urinary tract infections in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance: a decision and cost analysis Le T P, Miller L G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) assessed in the review: FQ resistance; hospitalisation; pyelonephritis; yeast infection after 3 and more than 3 days of antibiotic therapy; medical visit due to yeast infection; changing the therapy (rather than extending the treatment) due to a lack of clinical response to TMP-SMZ or FQ; and clinical cure. The probabilities of a clinical cure were assessed for: a FQ-resistant infection treated with a FQ (ciprofloxacin); a TMP-SMZ-resistant infection treated with TMP-SMZ; a FQ-susceptible infection

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1353. Cost-effectiveness of various antibacterial therapies in hospitalised patients with lower respiratory tract infections

Cost-effectiveness of various antibacterial therapies in hospitalised patients with lower respiratory tract infections Cost-effectiveness of various antibacterial therapies in hospitalised patients with lower respiratory tract infections Cost-effectiveness of various antibacterial therapies in hospitalised patients with lower respiratory tract infections Lucioni C, Ravasio R, Concia E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion (...) on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Different antibiotics (ceftriaxotone, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazimine) for the treatment of patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1354. Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic therapy for bone and joint infections

Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic therapy for bone and joint infections Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2001 DARE.

1355. Evidence assessment of management of acute otitis media - I. The role of antibiotics in treatment of uncomplicated acute otitis media

Evidence assessment of management of acute otitis media - I. The role of antibiotics in treatment of uncomplicated acute otitis media Evidence assessment of management of acute otitis media - I. The role of antibiotics in treatment of uncomplicated acute otitis media Evidence assessment of management of acute otitis media - I. The role of antibiotics in treatment of uncomplicated acute otitis media Takata G S, Chan L S, Shekelle P, Morton S C, Mason W, Marcy S M Authors' objectives (...) To synthesise the literature on the natural history of acute otitis media (AOM), the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment in uncomplicated AOM, and the relative effectiveness of specific antibiotic regimens. Searching The following sources were searched: MEDLINE from 1966 to March 1999; the Cochrane Library (to March 1999); HealthSTAR from 1975 to March 1999; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1970 to March 1999; CINAHL from 1982 to March 1999; BIOSIS Previews from 1970 to March 1999; and EMBASE

2001 DARE.

1356. Short-course versus conventional length antimicrobial therapy for uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in children: a meta-analysis of 1279 patients

Short-course versus conventional length antimicrobial therapy for uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in children: a meta-analysis of 1279 patients Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2001 DARE.

1357. Antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults: clinical cure in relation to costs

Antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults: clinical cure in relation to costs Antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults: clinical cure in relation to costs Antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults: clinical cure in relation to costs de Bock G H, van Erkel A R, Springer M P, Kievit J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each (...) abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Five clinical strategies for managing an otherwise healthy patient suspected of suffering from acute sinusitis, were considered: "wait and see", where the patient was advised to take analgesics for the headache and asked to return to the practice for antibiotic treatment after 1 week if symptoms did

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1358. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) for the treatment of osteomyelitis: evaluation of efficacy, tolerance and cost

Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in the treatment of osteomyelitis. The antibiotic solutions were prepared by the nurse at the patient's home or delivered (...) Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) for the treatment of osteomyelitis: evaluation of efficacy, tolerance and cost Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) for the treatment of osteomyelitis: evaluation of efficacy, tolerance and cost Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) for the treatment of osteomyelitis: evaluation of efficacy, tolerance and cost Bernard L, El-hajj, Pron B, Lotthe A, Gleizes V, Signoret F, Denormandie P, Gaillard J L, Perronne C Record

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1359. Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits Barenfanger J, Short M A, Groesch A A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn (...) . Health technology The use of Thera Trac 2, a computer software program that electronically links antimicrobial susceptibility testing results to the pharmacy and alerts pharmacists of potential interventions. This was combined with additional education of the pharmacists. Type of intervention Other: organisation (data processing system). Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population comprised: patients infected with a bacterial isolate without an order

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1360. Transient intestinal carriage after ingestion of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium from chicken and pork. (Abstract)

Transient intestinal carriage after ingestion of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium from chicken and pork. Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are often present in retail meats, but it is unclear whether the ingestion of these contaminants leads to sustained intestinal carriage.We conducted a randomized, double-blind study in 18 healthy volunteers. Six ingested a mixture of 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of two glycopeptide-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium obtained from chicken

2001 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain