Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1361. Pre- and peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for colorectal surgery

Pre- and peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for colorectal surgery Pre- and peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for colorectal surgery Pre- and peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for colorectal surgery Fischbacher C M Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Fischbacher C M. Pre- and peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for colorectal surgery (...) . Bazian Ltd, Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development (WIHRD). STEER: Succint and Timely Evaluated Evidence Reviews 1(14). 2001 Authors' objectives This study aims to assess the effects of pre- and peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis compared with no antibiotic on infection rates and mortality in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Authors' conclusions We found no controlled studies published since Song and Glennys systematic review.5 The conclusions of the review about the efficacy

2001 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1362. Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoea. Traveller's diarrhoea is a syndrome frequently encountered in persons crossing an international boundary. Diarrhoea can lead to significant discomfort and interference with travel plans. Bacterial pathogens are a frequent cause of this syndrome. Several antibiotics have been tested for efficacy in reducing the duration and severity of the illness.The aims of this review were to assess the effects of antibiotics on traveller's diarrhoea in relation (...) to duration of illness, severity of illness, and adverse effects of medications.The Cochrane Collaboration Trials Register, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched. Additional trials were identified by hand searching. Content experts were contacted.All trials in any language in which travellers older than 5 years were randomly allocated to treatment for acute non-bloody diarrhoea with antibiotics and where the causative organism is not known at allocation.Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted

2000 Cochrane

1363. Prophylactic antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Patients with cystic fibrosis are sometimes prescribed antibiotics to take continuously on a prophylactic (preventative) basis. This approach is most commonly used in infants where the objective is to reduce pulmonary infection with Staphylococcus aureus and prevent lung damage. This approach may also be used in older patients. This review evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness of this approach and considers potential adverse effects.To (...) compare continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis with no prophylaxis (short courses of oral antibiotics given as clinically indicated) in patients with cystic fibrosis. This review considers both the effectiveness of prophylaxis (bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract, requirement for additional antibiotic treatment, lung function, survival) and the adverse effects.The Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group clinical trials register was used. This comprises references identified from

2000 Cochrane

1364. Antibiotics for treating leptospirosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a parasitic disease transmitted by animals. Severe leptospirosis may result in hospitalisation and about five per cent of the patients die. In clinical practice, penicillin is widely used for treating leptospirosis.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antibiotics versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in treating leptospirosis. We addressed the following clinical questions: a) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics more (...) efficient than placebo for leptospirosis? b) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics safe when compared to placebo for leptospirosis? c) Which antibiotic regimen is the most efficient and safest in treating leptospirosis?Electronic searches and searches of the identified articles were combined.Randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as treatment for leptospirosis. Language, date, or other restrictions were not applied.Patients with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis.Any

2000 Cochrane

1365. Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. Concern about the risk of upper genital tract infection (pelvic inflammatory disease) often limits use of the IUD, a highly effective contraceptive. Prophylactic antibiotic administration around the time of induced abortion significantly reduces the risk of postoperative endometritis.(Sawaya, 1996) Since the risk of IUD-related infection is limited to the first few weeks to months after insertion,(Lee, 1983; Farley, 1992 (...) ) contamination of the endometrial cavity at the time of insertion(Mishell, 1966) appears to be the mechanism, rather than the IUD or string itself. Thus, antibiotic administration before IUD insertion might reduce the risk of upper genital tract infection from passive introduction of bacteria at insertion.To assess the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic administration before IUD insertion in reducing IUD-related complications and discontinuations within three months of insertion. The primary outcome

2000 Cochrane

1366. Antibiotics for acute bacterial conjunctivitis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for acute bacterial conjunctivitis. There are concerns regarding whether antibiotic therapy confers significant benefit in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.The aim of this review is to assess the benefit and harm of antibiotic therapy in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group specialised register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register - Central, MEDLINE and the reference lists of identified trial reports. We (...) used the Science Citation Index to look for articles that cited the relevant studies, and we contacted investigators and pharmaceutical companies for information about additional trials. The most recent searches were carried out in September 1998.We included double masked randomised controlled trials in which any form of antibiotic treatment had been compared with placebo in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. This included topical, systemic and combination (for example, antibiotics

2000 Cochrane

1367. Antibiotics for incomplete abortion. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for incomplete abortion. The value of routine antibiotics before surgical evacuation of the uterus in women incomplete abortion is controversial. In some health centres antibiotic prophylaxis is advised in others antibiotics are only prescribed when there is signs of infection. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of routine antibiotic prophylaxis to women with incomplete abortion.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE and Popline. Date (...) of last search: January 1999.Randomised trials comparing a policy of routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no routine prophylaxis were eligible for inclusion.Data extraction was conducted by two reviewers independently. Trial quality was assessed.One study involving 140 women was included. A second well-conducted trial was excluded because of high losses to follow-up. No differences were detected in postabortal infection rates with routine prophylaxis or control. However, compliance with antibiotic

2000 Cochrane

1368. Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. Necrotising enterocolitis continues to be a problem, particularly in preterm neonates. There have been reports published suggesting that the use of enteral antibiotics may be effective as prophylaxis. This systematic review was undertaken to clarify the issue.To evaluate the benefits and harms of enteral antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotising enterocolitis in low birth weight and preterm (...) infants.Searches were made of the Oxford Database of Perinatal trials, MEDLINE (search terms: necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotics;newborn infant), previous reviews with cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the fields of Neonatal Pediatrics and Microbiology.All randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials where enteral antibiotics were used as prophylaxis against NEC in LBW (<2500g) and/or preterm (<37 weeks gestation

2000 Cochrane

1369. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis if asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may have a role in preterm birth, or it may be a marker for low socioeconomic status and thus, low birth weight.The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery and the development (...) of pyelonephritis after delivery.I searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register.Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening.Trial quality was assessed.Thirteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was not strong. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.05

2000 Cochrane

1370. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is Cesarean delivery.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on infectious complications in women undergoing Cesarean delivery.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register.Randomised trials comparing antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment for both elective (...) and non-elective Cesarean section.Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted data.Sixty-six trials were included. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing Cesarean section substantially reduced the incidence of episodes of fever, endometritis, wound infection, urinary tract infection and serious infection after Cesarean section. The reduction in the risk of endometritis with antibiotics was similar across different patient groups. The relative risk for elective Cesarean section

2000 Cochrane

1371. Antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. The aim of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness and the immediate and long-term safety of the effects of administering antibiotics to women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes on maternal infectious morbidity, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer term childhood development.All randomized trials identified using the search strategy described by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group.All trials which (...) term.There are insufficient data to recommend routine prescription of antibiotics in this clinical situation. Research into this area should continue.

2000 Cochrane

1372. Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. (Abstract)

Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. Post-partum endometritis, which is more common after cesarean section, occurs when vaginal organisms invade the endometrial cavity during labour and delivery. Antibiotic treatment is warranted.The effect of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of postpartum endometritis on failure of therapy and complications was systematically reviewed.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's trials register and the Cochrane (...) Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: August 1999.Randomised trials of different antibiotic regimens for postpartum endometritis, after cesarean section or vaginal delivery, where outcomes of treatment failure or complications were reported were selected.Data were abstracted independently by the reviewers. Comparisons were made between different types of antibiotic regimen, based on type of antibiotic and duration and route of administration. Summary relative risks were calculated.Forty-one

2000 Cochrane

1373. Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. Prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section have been shown to reduce the incidence of maternal postoperative infectious morbidity. Many different antibiotic regimens have been reported to be effective.The objective of this review was to determine which antibiotic regimen is most effective in reducing the incidence of infectious morbidity in women undergoing cesarean section.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (...) trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The date of the most recent search was October 1998.Randomized trials that included women undergoing cesarean section were included. Trials were required to compare at least two different antibiotic regimens. Trials that compared placebo with a single antibiotic regimen were not included as these are studies which have been analyzed in another Cochrane review.Data were extracted from each publication independently by the reviewers

2000 Cochrane

1374. Intrapartum antibiotics for group B streptococcal colonisation. (Abstract)

Intrapartum antibiotics for group B streptococcal colonisation. Group B streptococcal infection is common in pregnant women without causing harm. However it is also a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of intrapartum administration of antibiotics to women on infant colonization with group B streptococcus, early onset neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis and neonatal death from infection.The Cochrane Pregnancy (...) and Childbirth Group trials register was searched.Controlled trials of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus comparing intrapartum antibiotic administration with no treatment, and providing data on infant colonization with group B streptococcus and/or neonatal infection.Eligibility and trial quality assessment were done by one reviewer.Five trials were included. Overall quality was poor, with potential selection bias in all the identified studies. Intrapartum antibiotic treatment reduced

2000 Cochrane

1375. Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. Scrub typhus is a cause of fever in regions of Asia and the Pacific. Recently, resistance to antibiotics has been reported.To assess treatment regimens for scrub typhus through time to fever resolution and incidence of relapse.Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and contacted individual researchers for unpublished data.Randomised and pseudorandomised studies; patients diagnosed with scrub typhus defined by authors; any comparison (...) of antibiotic regimens for treating scrub typhus.Trial quality was assessed, and data abstracted by both reviewers.Three trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial compared tetracycline against chloramphenicol. The other two trials compared doxycycline with tetracycline, and showed little difference in the proportion febrile at 48 hours, with no relapses after either drug.Tetracycline and doxycycline seem to be effective in treating scrub typhus. Further research is required to identify appropriate

2000 Cochrane

1376. Antibiotics for treating salmonella gut infections. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating salmonella gut infections. Antibiotic treatment of salmonella infections aims to shorten illness and prevent serious complications. There are also concerns about increasing antibiotic drug resistance.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics in adults and children with diarrhoea who have salmonella.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Science Citation Index (...) , African Index Medicus, Lilacs, Extra Med and reference lists of relevant articles. We also contacted experts in the field.Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing antibiotic therapy with placebo or no antibiotic therapy for salmonella infections in symptomatic or asymptomatic adults or children. Typhoid and paratyphoid salmonella infections were excluded.Trial quality assessment and data were extracted independently by two reviewers.Twelve trials involving 778 participants (with at least 258

2000 Cochrane

1377. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate.We searched MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999 (...) ) and the specialized trials register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group in August 1999, and all relevant journals in the University of Melbourne medical library for the years 1935-46.Randomised or controlled trials of antibiotics for children with measles.Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality.Six trials with 1304 children were included. All but one of the trials were unblinded, and randomisation was either not described or was by alternate allocation. In four studies

2000 Cochrane

1378. Nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Lung damage associated with persistent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis. Nebulised antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of this infection.To examine the evidence that nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotic treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis reduces frequency of exacerbations of infection, improves lung function, quality of life and survival (...) . To assess adverse effects of nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotic treatment.Trials were identified from the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group clinical trials register. Companies which marketed nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics were contacted for information on unpublished trials. Date of the most recent search of the Group's specialised register: November 1999.Trials were selected if, nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics treatment was used in patients with cystic fibrosis

2000 Cochrane

1379. Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media. (Abstract)

Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media. Otitis media is a common pediatric problem, for which antibiotics are frequently prescribed.To determine the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics (less than seven days) in comparison to a longer course (seven days or greater) for the treatment of acute otitis media in children.The medical literature was searched for randomized controlled studies of the treatment of ear infections in children with antibiotics published from January 1966 (...) to July 1997. Search last updated March 1998.Studies were included if they met the following criteria: subjects one month to 18 years of age, clinical diagnosis of ear infection, no previous antimicrobial therapy and randomization to treatment with less than seven days versus seven days or more of antibiotics.Data on treatment outcomes were extracted from individual studies, and combined in the form of a summary odds ratio. A summary odds ratio (OR) equivalent to one indicated that the treatment

2000 Cochrane

1380. Antibiotics for the common cold. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for the common cold. The common cold is caused by viruses which cannot be helped by antibiotics.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for the common cold.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Family Medicine Database, and reference lists of articles, and we contacted principal investigators. The most recent search was in December 1998.Randomised trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo in acute upper (...) respiratory tract infections.Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.Main results: Seven trials involving 2056 people aged between six months and 49 years were included. The overall quality of the included trials was variable. People receiving antibiotics did not do better in terms of cure or improvement than those on placebo (odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.28 fixed effects model). One study found a significant benefit for antibiotics compared

2000 Cochrane