Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1361. Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media

Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Wandstrat T L, Kaplan B Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS (...) EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Treatment of otitis media with antibiotics. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness study. Study population Children of both sexes aged between 2 months and 7 years old with acute otitis media. Setting Primary care. The economic study was conducted in West

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1362. Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis

Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1997 DARE.

1363. Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Rothrock S G, Harper M B, Green S M, Clark M C (...) , Bachur R, McIlmail D P, Giordano P A, Falk J L Authors' objectives To determine whether oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteraemia. Searching MEDLINE was searched for all English language publications concerning bacteraemia, fever or streptococcus pneumoniae from 1966 to April 1996. Bibliographies of all articles retrieved were also examined. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review

1997 DARE.

1364. Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures

Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Heit J M, Stevens M R, Jeffords K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Ceftriaxone and penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fracture. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Male and female patients with compound mandible fractures. Setting Hospital. The economic study was carried out in Miami, Florida, USA. Dates to which

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1365. Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis

Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1366. Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes

Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Fraser G L, Stogsdill P, Dickens J D, Wennberg D E, Smith R P, Prato B S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Patient-specific, antibiotic-related suggestions given to the attending physician by a team consisting of an infectious disease fellow and a clinical pharmacist for adult patients receiving parenteral antibiotics. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Adult inpatients receiving 1 or more of the following 10

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1367. Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy

of a restrictive antibiotic policy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1997; 40(5): 707-711 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents /administration & Clostridium Infections /drug therapy /microbiology; Clostridium difficile; Cross Infection /drug therapy /microbiology; Diarrhea /drug therapy /microbiology; Health Services for the Aged; Hospital Mortality; Hospital Units; Humans; Length of Stay; Medication Systems, Hospital /organization & administration (...) Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy McNulty C, Logan M, Donald I P, Ennis D, Taylor D, Baldwin R N, Bannerjee M, Cartwright K A Record Status This is a critical

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1368. A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy

A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy Hueston W J, Lenhart J G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions (...) followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Treating infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women initially with any of 4 antibiotic options (amoxicillin, 500mg 3 times a day for 7 days; erythromycin, 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days; clindamycin hydrochloride, 450mg 4 times a day for 7 days; and azithromycin, a single 1g dose), followed, for non-responders, by 1 of 3 antibiotics not chosen for initial therapy. Type

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1369. Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Inadomi J, Sonnenberg A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical (...) assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Prophylactic antibiotics (norfloxacin 400 mg daily and trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole 160mg/800mg 5 days per week). Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hypothetical cohort of 100 patients with ascites and cirrhosis. Three cases were separately investigated, with patients having: (1) a previous history of SBP; (2) no previous history of SBP

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1370. Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones

Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones Jensen K M, Paladino J A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Administration of oral antibacterials (ciprofloxacin or enoxacin), as early switch therapy to abbreviate intravenous (IV) antibacterial therapy. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hospitalized adult patients with serious bacterial infections, caused

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1371. Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia

Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia Gleason P P, Kapoor W N, Stone R A, Lave J R, Obrosky D (...) of a Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) which was applied to a subset of patients primarily defined as having short-term 'low-risk' mortality and enrolled in the first 20 months. Odds ratios (OR) were reported as the ratio of intervention to the comparator values. For the 'young adult without comorbidity' patient sub-population, the groups were not comparable in terms of age and treatment with antimicrobials during the 7-day period before presentation with CAP. For the older and/or comorbid

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1372. Randomised controlled trial of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical treatment of closed fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial. (Abstract)

Randomised controlled trial of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical treatment of closed fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial. The efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in fracture surgery remains controversial for lack of well-documented prospective studies. We report here the findings of the Dutch Trauma Trial, a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of antibiotic prophylaxis in the primary operative treatment of limb fractures. Ceftriaxone was chosen because (...) prophylaxis with a long-acting broad-spectrum antibiotic substantially reduces the incidence of wound infection and early nosocomial infection after surgery for closed fractures.

1996 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1373. Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions. (Abstract)

Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions. Upper-respiratory-tract infection is one of the main causes of overuse of antibiotics. We have found previously that bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae can be isolated from the nasopharyngeal secretions of a substantial proportion of adults with upper-respiratory-tract infections. We have assessed the efficacy of co (...) among co-amoxiclav-treated (n=30) than placebo-treated (n=28) patients (cured 27 vs 4%; persistent symptoms 70 vs 60%; worse symptoms 3 vs 36%; p=0.001). Patients on co-amoxiclav also scored their symptoms significantly lower than patients on placebo (p=0.008). Among culture-negative patients (n=230), the outcome distribution did not differ between the treatment groups (p=0.392).The majority of patients with upper-respiratory-tract infection do not benefit from antibiotics and side-effects

1996 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1374. A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery

A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery Anderson G, Boldiston C, Woods S, O'Brien P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) , metronidazole or cephalosporin, any antibiotic administered within 48 hours of the study, pregnant, immunosuppressed, possibility of pre-existing infection or unlikely to comply with the study protocol (i.e. four week follow-up post surgery). Study design The study was a multi-centred Randomized controlled trial. The duration of follow-up was 4 to 5 weeks. Of the elective or emergency abdominal surgery sample, there were seven groups by operation (appendectomy, colorectal (elective or emergency

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1375. Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes

in 1994. Simultaneously the proportion of cases in which prescribing physicians changed the therapy on the basis of information increased from 30% to 99.9%. Adverse effects fell from 26.9% in 1989 to 18.8% in 1994. Mortality fell from 3.65% in 1988 to 2.65% in 1994 (p <0.001). Antimicrobial resistance patterns remained stable. Clinical conclusions Computer-assisted decision support programs that use clinician-derived practice guidelines can improve antibiotic use and stabilize the emergence (...) Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Evans R S, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1376. A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis

A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic (...) drawn. Health technology Oral fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin) in penile prosthesis implantation. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients undergoing penile prosthesis placement or replacement. The exclusion criteria included the use of any antibiotics within 7 days of surgery or a known hypersensitivity to the medication. Setting Hospital, the economic study was carried out in Seattle, USA. Dates to which data relate The dates

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1377. A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy

A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy Siegel R E, Halpern N A, Almenoff P L, Lee A, Cashin R, Greene J G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Shortened course of inpatient IV antibiotic therapy prior to switching to oral antibiotic in the patient with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1378. Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis

Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1996 DARE.

1379. Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis

Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Sawaya G F, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Grimes D A Authors' objectives To determine the efficacy of periabortal antibiotics in preventing postabortal upper genital tract infection using (...) data from published trials. Searching MEDLINE was searched for articles published between January 1966 and September 1994. Keywords used included: 'abortion', 'infection', 'prophylaxis', 'antibiotics', 'pelvic inflammatory disease' (PID) and 'suction curettage'. Bibliographies of review articles were also searched to identify further trials. The search was not restricted to articles published in English. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled

1996 DARE.

1380. Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks

Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Mukhopadhyay S, Singh M, Cater J I, Ogston S, Franklin M, Olver R E Authors' objectives To evaluate the benefits and risks of nebulised antipseudomonal therapy in cystic fibrosis. Searching (...) MEDLINE was searched using the Cochrane Collaboration strategy. Additional studies were located by searching Current Contents, by examining bibliographies of textbooks, reviews, editorials and international cystic fibrosis conference proceedings, and through personal communications. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Specific interventions included in the review Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics

1996 DARE.