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Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics
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Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.
Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.
Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.
Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.
Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.
procedures, including the increasing prevalence of pediatric IR procedures, and the increasing repertoire of antibacterial agents. As was the case for the original guidelines (1), the availability of randomized controlled data regarding antibiotic prophylaxis is lacking in the IR literature. Much data are derived from retrospective reviews From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology (M.A.C.), Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan; Department of Radiology (A.S.T (...) to oropharyngeal ?ora, which can potentially seed the skin entry site. This procedure carries a peristomal infection rate of approximately 30% (156). Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is therefore recommended for all patients undergoing this procedure with antimicrobial agents targeting skin and oropharyngeal bacteria, eg, cefazolin followed by oral/enteric cephalexin (156). (New data reviewed, recommendations updated.) Liver Tumor Ablation In 2015, Bhatia et al (157) described a very low incidence of hepatic ab
C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections. EUnetHTA-Report . HTA-Projektbericht 116. C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections. EUnetHTA-Report - Repository of AIHTA GmbH English | Browse - - - C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing (...) in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections. EUnetHTA-Report Harrington, P. and Lucey, D. and O’Brien, K. and Jordan, K. and Moran, P. and Marshall, L. and Wilbacher, I. and Gloeckner, L. (2019): C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections. EUnetHTA-Report . HTA-Projektbericht 116. Preview - Sie müssen einen PDF-Viewer auf Ihrem PC installiert haben wie z. B. , oder 3MB Abstract
Community and primary care nursing: Increased risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection among older adults taking antibiotics and acid reducing medications Increased risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection among older adults taking antibiotics and acid reducing medications | Evidence-Based Nursing Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search (...) for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Increased risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection among older adults taking antibiotics and acid reducing medications Article Text Commentary Community and primary care nursing Increased risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection among older adults taking antibiotics and acid reducing medications Terri Kean
Primary care: Single-dose fosfomycin is less effective than 5-day nitrofurantoin in women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection: closing the evidence gap for a new recommendation of an old antibiotic Single-dose fosfomycin is less effective than 5-day nitrofurantoin in women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection: closing the evidence gap for a new recommendation of an old antibiotic | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers (...) of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Single-dose fosfomycin is less effective than 5-day nitrofurantoin in women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection: closing the evidence gap for a new recommendation of an old antibiotic Article Text Commentary
of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Overdiagnosis paradigm: not suitable for decreasing the overuse of antibiotics Article Text EBM analysis Primary care Overdiagnosis paradigm: not suitable for decreasing the overuse of antibiotics Gloria Cordoba , Carl Llor . Statistics from Altmetric.com Introduction Unnecessary and excessive use of antibiotics is the main driver of antimicrobial resistance. The prospect of patients dying from common infections caused (...) prescribing antibiotics than antibiotic resistance. GPs are generally aware of and concerned about the threat that antimicrobial resistance poses and agree that this is a growing problem. However, antimicrobial resistance is considered more of a public health issue, whereas the GPs’ priority is to be responsive to the needs of the individual patient. This example shows the multidimensional factors that play a role in the decision whether to prescribe antibiotics. There is a patient expecting a solution
of bacterial endocarditis: Recommendations by the American Heart Association. JAMA 1997;227(22):1794-801. 11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/ Antimicrobial resistance. About antimicrobial resistance: A brief overview. Available at: “https://www.cdc.gov/drug resistance/about.html”. Accessed March 26, 2019. Archived by WebCite ® at: “http://www.webcitation.org/ 779R5H5EJ”) 12. Glenny AM, Oliver R, Roberts GJ, Hooper L, Worthington HV. Antibiotics for the prophylaxis of bacterial (...) Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dental Patients at Risk for Infection 416 THE REFERENCE MANUAL OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY BEST PRACTICES: ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS Purpose The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ( AAPD) recog- nizes that numerous medical conditions predispose patients to bacteremia-induced infections. Because it is not possible to predict when a susceptible patient will develop an infection, prophylactic antibiotics are recommended when these patients undergo procedures
/MEDLINE database using the terms: antibiotic therapy, antibacterial agents, antimicrobial agents, dental trauma, oral wound management, orofacial infections, periodontal disease, viral disease, and oral contraception; fields: all; limits: within the last 10 years, humans, English, clinical trials, birth through age 18. Three hundred forty-three articles matched these criteria. Papers for review were chosen from this search and from hand searching. When data did not appear sufficient or were (...) derivatives remain the empirical choice for odontogenic infections; however, consideration of additional adjunctive antimicrobial therapy (i.e., metronidazole) can be given where there is anaerobic bacterial involvement. 13,16 Cephalosporins could be considered as an alternative choice for odontogenic infections. 16 Dental trauma Systemic antibiotics have been recommended as adjunctive therapy for avulsed permanent incisors with an open or closed apex. 17,18 Tetracycline (doxycycline twice daily for seven
Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated: Metronidazole Metronidazole | Prescribing information | Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Metronidazole Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated: Metronidazole Last revised in March 2019 Metronidazole What are the cautions and contraindications with metronidazole? Do not prescribe metronidazole in people with: Known metronidazole or nitroimidazole hypersensitivity. Prescribe metronidazole with caution in people with: Cockayne syndrome
in a NICE evidence summary on the risk of C. difficile with broad-spectrum antibiotics [ ], Public Health England diagnostic guidance [ ], and North American practice parameters [ ]. The most frequently implicated antibiotics include broad-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins, clindamycin, and flouroquinolones, but most antibiotics have been associated with C. difficile infection [ ; ; ; ]. The risk of C. difficile infection is increased with greater number of antimicrobials used, higher doses (...) leading to toxic megacolon and intestinal perforation and necrosis [ ; ; ]. Antibiotics for treating mild to moderate Clostridium difficile infection The recommendations regarding the choice of antibiotic to treat C. difficile infection is based on guidance published by Public Health England: Updated guidance on the management and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection [ ], Managing suspected infectious diarrhoea [ ] and Summary of antimicrobial prescribing guidance - managing common infections
Acne vulgaris: Topical antibiotics Topical antibiotics | Prescribing information | Acne vulgaris | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Topical antibiotics Acne vulgaris: Topical antibiotics Last revised in December 2019 Topical antibiotics Topical antibiotics Prescribing issues Topical antibiotics licenced in the UK for treatment of acne vulgaris include clindamycin and erythromycin. Application is usually once or twice a day and varies between agents — for information on specific products see (...) the (BNF) and the . Topical monotherapy with antibiotics is not recommended because of the risk of antibiotic resistance. Topical antibiotics should be prescribed in combination with benzoyl peroxide. Cautions and contraindications Hypersensitivity to the active ingredient or any of the excipients. History of inflammatory bowel disease or a history of antibiotic-associated colitis. If diarrhoea occurs, the product should be discontinued immediately. Caution is advised when prescribing to people
Acne vulgaris: Oral antibiotics Oral antibiotics | Prescribing information | Acne vulgaris | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Oral antibiotics Acne vulgaris: Oral antibiotics Last revised in December 2019 Oral antibiotics Oral antibiotics Prescribing issues If acne fails to respond adequately to topical preparations alone an oral antibiotic such as lymecycline or doxycycline (for a maximum of 3 months) can be added. Minocycline is not recommended for use in acne as it is associated (...) with an increased risk of adverse effects such as drug-induced lupus, skin pigmentation and hepatitis. Macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin) should generally be avoided due to high levels of P. acnes resistance but can be used if tetracyclines are contraindicated (for example in pregnancy). A topical retinoid (if not contraindicated) or benzoyl peroxide should always be co-prescribed with oral antibiotics to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance developing. Do not use topical and oral antibiotics
no clinical benefit and more adverse effects than narrow-spectrum antibiotics in treating acute respiratory tract infections in US children Morten Lindbaek Statistics from Altmetric.com Commentary on : Gerber JS, Ross RK, Bryan M, et al . Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. JAMA. 2017 Dec 19;318:2325–2336. Context Antimicrobial prescribing is associated with higher levels (...) of resistance; a linear trend by nation has been presented. 1 Large variations in antimicrobial prescribing between countries have been demonstrated, the USA is in line with top EU countries like Greece and France, using three times more per inhabitant than the Nordic countries. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care are frequently viral, and a large proportion of bacterial infections such as otitis media, sinusitis and sore throat have little benefit from antibiotic treatment. Another
Tailored Helicobacter pylori eradication based on prior intake of macrolide antibiotics allows the use of triple therapy with optimal results in an area with high clarithromycin resistance. the previous intake of macrolide antibiotics is associated with a failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with clarithromycin-containing regimens. However, the standard triple therapy achieves eradication rates of over 90% in patients without a previous use of macrolides in our health area
Antibiotic allergy. Antibiotics are the commonest cause of life-threatening immune-mediated drug reactions that are considered off-target, including anaphylaxis, and organ-specific and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. However, many antibiotic reactions documented as allergies were unknown or not remembered by the patient, cutaneous reactions unrelated to drug hypersensitivity, drug-infection interactions, or drug intolerances. Although such reactions pose negligible risk to patients (...) , they currently represent a global threat to public health. Antibiotic allergy labels result in displacement of first-line therapies for antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment. A penicillin allergy label, in particular, is associated with increased use of broad-spectrum and non-β-lactam antibiotics, which results in increased adverse events and antibiotic resistance. Most patients labelled as allergic to penicillins are not allergic when appropriately stratified for risk, tested, and re-challenged. Given
instrumentation and/or irrigation, are effective in canal disinfection. The intracanal antimicrobial efficacy of triple antibiotic formulation is shown to be superior to calcium hydroxide alone, or at least comparable to calcium hydroxide combined with 2% chlorhexidine when assessing antibacterial efficacy and clinical outcomes. Perspective: Randomized clinical trials are currently the highest available evidence comparing use of triple antibiotic paste against other canal medicaments in primary teeth (...) Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament UTCAT3361, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament Clinical Question In patients undergoing non-surgical therapy in a tooth
to either remain in hospital for IV antibiotic therapy or forgo IV antimicrobial treatment [42–45]. Methodology Panel Composition The last version of the IDSA OPAT Guideline was published in 2004 . For the current update, 1 of the chairs assembled 11 ID physicians from both academic and private practice settings, including 3 pediatric ID physicians who are members of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. Also included were an experienced ID pharmacist, a member of the Infusion Nursing Society (...) to SNFs, sending patients home without a VAD but bringing them to an outpatient facility for each antimicrobial administration, or keeping them in hospital for the duration of their parenteral antibiotic treatment course. It should be noted that there are no data to suggest that the risk of device misuse is any lower in SNFs, where patients have ample opportunity for illicit drug administration. Confirmation about whether PWID are at higher risk of vascular access complications during OPAT and, if so
Advances in optimizing the prescription of antibiotics in outpatient settings. The inappropriate use of antibiotics can increase the likelihood of antibiotic resistance and adverse events. In the United States, nearly a third of antibiotic prescriptions in outpatient settings are unnecessary, and the selection of antibiotics and duration of treatment are also often inappropriate. Evidence shows that antibiotic prescribing is influenced by psychosocial factors, including lack of accountability (...) , perceived patient expectations, clinician workload, and habit. A varied and growing body of evidence, including meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials, has evaluated interventions to optimize the use of antibiotics. Interventions informed by behavioral science-such as communication skills training, audit and feedback with peer comparison, public commitment posters, and accountable justification-have been associated with improved antibiotic prescribing. In addition, delayed prescribing, active
The endogenous antimicrobial cathelicidin LL37 induces platelet activation and augments thrombus formation Platelet-associated complications including thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage are commonly observed during various inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Despite the reported evidence on numerous mechanisms/molecules that may contribute to the dysfunction of platelets, the primary mechanisms that underpin platelet-associated (...) complications during inflammatory diseases are not fully established. Here, we report the discovery of formyl peptide receptor 2, FPR2/ALX, in platelets and its primary role in the development of platelet-associated complications via ligation with its ligand, LL37. LL37 acts as a powerful endogenous antimicrobial peptide, but it also regulates innate immune responses. We demonstrate the impact of LL37 in the modulation of platelet reactivity, hemostasis, and thrombosis. LL37 activates a range of platelet
A review of antibiotic prophylaxis for travelerâ€™s diarrhea: past to present As there is rapid increase in international travel to tropical and subtropical countries, there will likely be more people exposed to diarrheal pathogens in these moderate to high risk areas and subsequent increased concern for traveler's diarrhea. The disease may appear as a mild clinical syndrome, yet a more debilitating presentation can lead to itinerary changes and hospitalization. As bacterial etiologies (...) are the most common causative agents of TD, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent TD has been reported among travelers for several years. The most common type of antibiotic used for TD has changed over 50 years, depending on many influencing factors. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis for TD prevention in travelers is still controversial, mainly because of difficulties balancing the risks and benefits. Many factors, such as emerging drug resistance, side effects, cost and risk behavior need