Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

121. Symptomatic treatment (using NSAIDS) versus antibiotics in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Symptomatic treatment (using NSAIDS) versus antibiotics in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials Symptomatic treatment (using NSAIDS) versus antibiotics in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This preprint is under consideration at BMC Infectious Diseases . A preprint is a preliminary (...) version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Research article Symptomatic treatment (using NSAIDS) versus antibiotics in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis and systematic review

2020 Research Square

122. Clinicians prescribe antibiotics for childhood respiratory tract infection based on assessment, rather than parental expectation. (Abstract)

Clinicians prescribe antibiotics for childhood respiratory tract infection based on assessment, rather than parental expectation. The studyCabral C, Horwood J, Symonds J, et al. Understanding the influence of parent-clinician communication on antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a qualitative observational study using a conversation analysis approach. BMC Fam Pract 2019;20:102.This project was funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research (...) Programme (project number SPCR204).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000829/gps-assessment-not-parental-expectation-drives-antibiotic-prescribing.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2020 BMJ

123. Antibiotics versus topical antiseptics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics versus topical antiseptics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and infection of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Antibiotics and antiseptics kill or inhibit the micro-organisms that may be responsible (...) for the infection. Antibiotics can be applied topically or administered systemically via the oral or injection route. Antiseptics are always directly applied to the ear (topically).To assess the effectiveness of antibiotics versus antiseptics for people with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM).The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 4, via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web

2020 Cochrane

124. Topical antibiotics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Topical antibiotics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and often polymicrobial infection (involving more than one micro-organism) of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Topical antibiotics, the most common treatment for CSOM (...) , act to kill or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms that may be responsible for the infection. Antibiotics can be used alone or in addition to other treatments for CSOM, such as antiseptics or ear cleaning (aural toileting).To assess the effects of topical antibiotics (without steroids) for people with CSOM.The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase

2020 Cochrane

125. Covid-19: Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk

copper oxide–infused textiles. Clinical Literature We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and selected web-based resources for documents relevant to this topic and published between January 1, 2006, and February 5, 2019. Our search strategies included the following keywords: copper; fabric; textiles; bedding; clothing; antimicrobial; antibacterial; infection control. Please see the Selected References and Resources section for detailed search strategies. We included any (...) , labor, and laundry, expenses during period B.” “The use of biocidal copper oxide impregnated textiles in a long-term care ward may significantly reduce HAI, fever, antibiotic consumption, and related treatment costs.” CLINICAL EVIDENCE ASSESSMENT Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk © February 2019 ECRI | 6 Selected References and Resources References Reviewed (PubMed and EMBASE search dates were January 1, 2006, through February 5, 2019) 1

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

126. COVID-19: Antibiotic Management in Ambulatory Patients

April 3 The CDC offers no guidance specific to the use of antibiotics in COVID+ patients in the outpatient setting. Professional society guidance on antibiotic indications in COVID+ patients or patients under investigation (PUI) Source Recommendations IDSA April 13 The IDSA offers no guidance specific to the use of antibiotics in COVID+ patients in the outpatient setting. ASP April 2 For patients in an ambulatory setting, antibacterial therapy (including azithromycin) is not routinely recommended (...) COVID-19: Antibiotic Management in Ambulatory Patients COVID-19: ANTIBIOTIC MANAGEMENT IN AMBULATORY PATIENTS A Rapid Guidance Summary from the Penn Medicine Center for Evidence-based Practice Last updated April 21, 2020 1:00 pm. Sources rechecked April 19 unless otherwise noted. Key questions answered in this summary • What are indications for antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients being cared for in the ambulatory setting? • What are best practices related to antibiotic management

2020 Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Penn Medicine

127. What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19?

that has complicated COVID-19, we recognise that clinicians may wish to prescribe macrolide antibiotics, in line with their local/national antimicrobial guidelines. End. Disclaimer : This article has not been peer-reviewed; it should not replace individual clinical judgement and the sources cited should be checked. The views expressed in this commentary represent the views of the authors and not necessarily those of the host institution, the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health and Social Care (...) What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? April 28, 2020 Kome Gbinigie and Kerstin Frie On behalf of the Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service Team Centre

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

128. Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia

for Antimicrobial Utilisation and Resistance (ESPAUR) Report 2018 to 2019 states that monitoring the use of new antibiotics and detecting emerging resistance to these medicines is a crucial component of antimicrobial usage surveillance to inform antimicrobial stewardship activities and preserve treatment effectiveness. Although susceptibility testing for ceftolozane with tazobactam is currently uncommon and selective (following resistance to first- and second-line antibiotics), resistance has nonetheless been (...) ) is Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (ES22) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 6£402.18 (BNF, November 2019). The acquisition costs (excluding VAT) of many other IV antibiotics that are used for HAP and VAP (caused or suspected to be caused by Gram-negative pathogens) are lower than that of ceftolozane

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

129. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Antibiotics

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Antibiotics Antibiotics | Prescribing information | Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Antibiotics Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Antibiotics Last revised in November 2019 Antibiotics Azithromycin Contraindications and cautions Do not prescribe azithromycin in people: With severe hepatic impairment. Prescribe azithromycin with caution in people: Who may be predisposed to prolongation of the QT interval. For example (...) any muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Typhoid vaccine — antibacterials might reduce the immune response. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the antibacterial is stopped from 3 days before to 3 days after receiving live oral typhoid vaccine. Warfarin — concurrent use may increase the international normalized ratio (INR). Consider increasing INR monitoring as this interaction appears to develop over the first 7 days. Drugs that prolong the QT interval (such as amiodarone

2020 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

130. Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated

Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated | Topics A to Z | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated Last revised in March 2019 Diarrhoea is a common consequence of treatment with antibiotics, occurring in 2–25% of people taking antibiotics Management Prescribing information Background information Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated: Summary Diarrhoea is a common consequence of treatment with antibiotics, occurring (...) in 2–25% of people taking antibiotics, depending on the antibiotic prescribed. Around 20% to 30% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea are due to Clostridium difficile . Antibiotics frequently associated with C. difficile infection include clindamycin, cephalosporins (especially third and fourth generation), fluoroquinolones, and broad-spectrum penicillins. Factors that increase the risk of C. difficile infection include increased age, history of C. difficile infection, exposure to other

2020 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

131. C reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for flare-ups of COPD. (Abstract)

C reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for flare-ups of COPD. The studyButler CC, Gillespie D, White P, et al. C-reactive protein testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for COPD exacerbations. N Engl J Med 2019;381:111-20.This research was funded by the NIHR Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/33/12). The testing machines used in the study were loaned to researchers by the manufacturer, who also provided training on their use (...) . The manufacturer had no other role in any part of the trial.To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000820/crp-testing-safely-reduces-antibiotic-use-for-copd-flare-ups.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

132. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Epidemiology of Antibiotic-resistant Yersinia Species in Food and Clinical Specimens in Iran Full Text available with Trip Pro

-Analysis Software to evaluate antibiotic resistance rates, heterogeneity of studies and publication bias. Results : Twelve studies reported antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion method. The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Yersinia species in food and clinical specimens in Iran was as follows: 22.4% to amoxicillin, 41.9% to ampicillin, 6% to gentamicin, 17% to trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, 19% to tetracycline, 10.3% to ciprofloxacin, 10.5% to streptomycin, 3.8 (...) A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Epidemiology of Antibiotic-resistant Yersinia Species in Food and Clinical Specimens in Iran A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Epidemiology of Antibiotic-resistant Yersinia Species in Food and Clinical Specimens in Iran '); document.write(' '); } ISSN : eISSN : Submitted: 17 Jan 2019 Revised: 25 Aug 2019 Accepted: 05 Oct 2019 First published online: 21 Dec 2019 (Enw Format - Win & Mac) (Bib Format - Win & Mac) (Ris Format - Mac only) (Ris

2019 International Journal of Enteric Pathogens

133. A Protocol on Antimicrobial effectiveness of adjunctive disinfection techniques during root canal therapy in patients with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. A Systematic Review & Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Protocol on Antimicrobial effectiveness of adjunctive disinfection techniques during root canal therapy in patients with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. A Systematic Review & Meta-analysis A Protocol on Antimicrobial effectiveness of adjunctive disinfection techniques during root canal therapy in patients with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. A Systematic Review & Meta-analysis | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This preprint is under consideration (...) at Systematic Reviews . A preprint is a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Protocol A Protocol on Antimicrobial effectiveness of adjunctive disinfection techniques during root canal therapy

2019 Research Square

134. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma: duration of use and antibiotic choice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma: duration of use and antibiotic choice. Penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) is a common type of trauma leading to admission to hospital, which often progresses to septic complications. Antibiotics are commonly administered as prophylaxis prior to laparotomy for PAT. However, an earlier Cochrane Review intending to compare antibiotics with placebo identified no relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Despite this, many RCTs have been (...) carried out that compare different agents and durations of antibiotic therapy. To date, no systematic review of these trials has been performed.To assess the effects of antibiotics in penetrating abdominal trauma, with respect to the type of agent administered and the duration of therapy.We searched the following electronic databases for relevant randomised controlled trials, from database inception to 23 July 2019; Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, MEDLINE Ovid

2019 Cochrane

135. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications (...) following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient

2019 Cochrane

136. Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study. To identify the frequency with which antibiotics are prescribed in the absence of a documented indication in the ambulatory care setting, to quantify the potential effect on assessments of appropriateness of antibiotics, and to understand patient, provider, and visit level characteristics associated with antibiotic prescribing without a documented indication.Cross sectional study (...) .2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.28 332 sample visits representing 990.9 million ambulatory care visits nationwide.Overall antibiotic prescribing and whether each antibiotic prescription was accompanied by appropriate, inappropriate, or no documented indication as identified through ICD-9-CM (international classification of diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification) codes. Survey weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate potential risk factors for receipt

2019 BMJ

137. Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam

/50) of people receiving Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam (ES21) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 7meropenem with vaborbactam, and 44.0% (11/25) of people receiving best available antibiotic treatment. Adverse events leading to study treatment discontinuation occurred in 10.0% (5/50) and 12.0% (3/25) of people respectively. Statistical analyses were not reported for safety (...) for injection (Drug T ariff, October 2019). The cost of 1 day's treatment with 2 g (2 vials) every 8 hours is £106.68. The manufacturer of meropenem with vaborbactam (Menarini) anticipates that usage will be low, following the principles of good antimicrobial stewardship, and will be under the guidance of a microbiologist. A wide range of antibiotics, alone or in combination, are used for treating cUTI, acute pyelonephritis, cIAI, HAP and VAP , and regimens may be changed based on response to treatment

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

138. Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for bloodstream infection (BSI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is more effective than antibiotics in treating recurrent CDI, but its efficacy in preventing CDI-related BSI is uncertain.To assess incidence (...) of primary BSI in patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT versus antibiotics.Prospective cohort study. Patients treated with FMT and those treated with antibiotics were matched on propensity score.Single academic medical center.290 inpatients with recurrent CDI (57 patients per treatment in matched cohort).FMT or antibiotics.The primary outcome was primary BSI within 90 days. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization and overall survival (OS) at 90 days.Of the 290 patients, 109 were treated

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

139. Antimicrobial central venous catheters do not reduce infections in pre-term babies. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial central venous catheters do not reduce infections in pre-term babies. The studyGilbert R, Brown M, Rainford N et al. Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of neonatal bloodstream infection (PREVAIL): an open-label, parallel-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019;3:381-90.The study was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme (project number 12/167/02).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https (...) ://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000782/antimicrobial-central-venous-catheters-for-pre-term-babies-do-not-reduce-infections.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ