Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1381. Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis

Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Ananth C V, Guise J M, Thorp J M Authors' objectives To examine the efficacy and effectiveness of antibiotic therapy on maternal outcomes in pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in pregnancy. Searching The following (...) . Specific interventions included in the review Antibiotics administered included penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, synthetic penicillins, and triple antibiotic therapy. Duration of therapy ranged from 3 days to the end of pregnancy. Parenteral, oral and combination administration of antibiotics were included. Participants included in the review Women experiencing pre-term PROM were included. Infant gestational age across all the included trials ranged from 19 to 34 weeks. Babies were also included

1996 DARE.

1382. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease

prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2010; 65(6): 1137-1144 Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Amoxicillin /therapeutic use; Animals; Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Bites and Stings; Humans; Ixodes; Lyme Disease /epidemiology /prevention & Penicillins /therapeutic use; Risk Factors; Tetracycline /therapeutic use; control /transmission AccessionNumber 11996001130 Date bibliographic record published (...) Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Warshafsky S, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Kamer RS, Peterson SJ, Wormser GP Authors' objectives To determine if antibiotic prophylaxis following a deer tick bite is effective in reducing the risk of developing Lyme disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi ). Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1983 to 1995

1996 DARE.

1383. Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis

Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Egarter C, Leitich H, Karas H, Wieser F, Husslein P, Kaider A, Schemper M Authors' objectives To assess the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on neonatal mortality, clinical sepsis (...) of the neonate, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in mothers with pre-term premature rupture of membranes. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to January 1995, and EMBASE from 1974 to January 1995, for all literature included under the following terms: 'preterm' or 'premature rupture', 'amniotic' or 'fetal' or 'fetal membrane', 'amnion' or 'amniotic sac', and 'antibiotics'. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included

1996 DARE.

1384. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection

Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1385. Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital

Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital Gyssens I C, Geerligs I E, Dony J M, van der Vliet J A, van Kampen A, van den Broek P J, Hekster Y A, van der Meer J W Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antimicrobial drug use in surgery. Type of intervention Primary prevention; Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Male and female consecutive surgical patients before and after a period of intervention. Setting University hospital

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1386. Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes

Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Fried G W, Goetz G, Potts-Nulty S, Solomon G, Cioschi H M, Staas W E Record Status This is a critical (...) abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies. Type of intervention Treatment;primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population A cohort of male and female

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1387. A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children

A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children Oh P, Maerov P, Pritchard D, Knowles S, Einarson T, Shear N Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Second-line antibiotic treatment used to treat acute otitis media in children. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population Male and female children with acute otitis media. Ages ranged from 2 months to 18 years, but the majority of patients were between 6 months and 12

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1388. A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion

A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion Pearson C R, Thomas M R, Cox H J, Garth R J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief (...) summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Use of antibiotic ear drops (Sofradex) following grommet insertion in the prophylaxis of otorrhoea. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients undergoing bilateral grommet insertion for eustachian dysfunction or otitis media with effusion. Setting Hospital

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1389. Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin

. Bibliographic details Carbon C, Hotton J M, Pepin L F, Wohlhuter C, Souetre E, Hardens M, Lozet H, Riviera M. Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996; 37(Supplement C): 151-161 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Acute Disease; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents /adverse effects /economics /therapeutic use; Azithromycin /adverse (...) Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Carbon C, Hotton J M, Pepin L F, Wohlhuter C, Souetre E, Hardens M, Lozet H, Riviera

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1390. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infection in a general hospital: open, randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infection in a general hospital: open, randomised controlled trial. To see whether there is a difference in outcome between patients treated with oral and intravenous antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection.Open controlled trial in patients admitted consecutively and randomised to treatment with either oral co-amoxiclav, intravenous followed by oral co-amoxiclav, or intravenous followed by oral (...) cephalosporins.Large general hospital in Dublin.541 patients admitted for lower respiratory tract infection during one year. Patients represented 87% of admissions with the diagnosis and excluded those who were immunocompromised and patients with severe life threatening infection.Cure, partial cure, extended antibiotic treatment, change of antibiotic, death, and cost and duration of hospital stay.There were no significant differences between the groups in clinical outcome or mortality (6%). However, patients

1995 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1391. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. (Abstract)

Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. Despite improvements in surgical treatment and intensive care, mortality from severe acute pancreatitis remains high. We have carried out a randomised study of 60 consecutive patients with alcohol-induced necrotising pancreatitis to find out whether early antibiotic treatment can improve outcome. 30 patients were assigned cefuroxime (4.5 g/day intravenously) from admission. In the second group, no antibiotic treatment was given until (...) clinical or microbiologically verified infection or after a secondary rise in C-reactive protein. The inclusion criteria were C-reactive protein concentration above 120 mg/L within 48 h of admission and low enhancement (< 30 Hounsfield units) on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. There were more infectious complications in the non-antibiotic than in the antibiotic group (mean per patient 1.8 vs 1.0, p = 0.01). The most common cause of sepsis was Staphylococcus epidermidis; positive cultures were

1995 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1392. Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women. (Abstract)

Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women. To determine the efficacy, safety, and costs associated with four different 3-day regimens for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.A prospective randomized trial with a cost analysis.Women with acute cystitis attending a student health center.Treatment with 3-day oral regimens of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 160 mg/800 mg twice daily, macrocrystalline (...) ($155).A 3-day regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is more effective and less expensive than 3-day regimens of nitrofurantoin, cefadroxil, or amoxicillin for treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in women. The increased efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is likely related to its antimicrobial effects against E coli in the rectum, urethra, and vagina.

1995 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1393. Antibacterial treatment of gastric ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori. (Abstract)

Antibacterial treatment of gastric ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori. There is a strong association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcers that are unrelated to the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications. We studied the efficacy of antibacterial therapy without medication to suppress gastric acid for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and gastric ulcers unrelated to the use of nonsteroidal agents.Patients with gastric ulcers seen (...) on endoscopy and with H. pylori infection confirmed by smear or culture were randomly assigned to receive either a one-week course of antibacterial agents (120 mg of bismuth subcitrate, 500 mg of tetracycline, and 400 mg of metronidazole, each given orally four times a day) or a four-week course of omeprazole (20 mg orally per day). Follow-up endoscopies were performed after five and nine weeks. The patients and their physicians were aware of the treatment assignments, but the endoscopists were not.A total

1995 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1394. Dosing adjustment of 10 antimicrobials for patients with renal impairment

Dosing adjustment of 10 antimicrobials for patients with renal impairment Dosing adjustment of 10 antimicrobials for patients with renal impairment Dosing adjustment of 10 antimicrobials for patients with renal impairment Preston S L, Briceland L L, Lomaestro B M, Lesar T S, Bailie G R, Drusano G L Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Dosage adjustment programme of 10 antimicrobials (intravenous acyclovir, ampicillin/sulbactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefuroxime, imipenem/cilastatin, piperacillin, intravenous ciprofloxacin, and intravenous fluoconazole) for patients with renal impairment. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1395. Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis

Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis Saint S, Bent S, Vittinghoff E, Grady D Authors' objectives A meta-analysis of randomised trials was performed to estimate the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary artery disease (COPD). Searching (...) MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1994 for English language articles using the search terms 'COPD', 'chronic bronchitis', 'exacerbation' and 'antibiotic(s)'. Index Medicus was handsearched for articles published before 1966. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were checked, and experts in the field were contacted for additional material. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised, placebo-controlled trials with a follow-up of at least 5 days were included

1995 DARE.

1396. Antibiotics to prevent infection of simple wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized studies

Antibiotics to prevent infection of simple wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized studies Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1995 DARE.

1397. Antimicrobial therapy in expectant management of preterm premature rupture of the membranes

was searched from 1966 to 1994 and EMBASE from 1972 to 1994; the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was also searched. The references of reviewed articles were examined. Unpublished data were also obtained. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of systemic antimicrobial therapy after pre-term premature rupture of the membranes, were included. Specific interventions included in the review Antibiotic or antimicrobial therapy using (...) Antimicrobial therapy in expectant management of preterm premature rupture of the membranes Antimicrobial therapy in expectant management of preterm premature rupture of the membranes Antimicrobial therapy in expectant management of preterm premature rupture of the membranes Mercer B M, Arheart K L Authors' objectives To assess the impact of antimicrobial treatment on maternal and foetal outcomes during expectant management of pre-term premature rupture of the membranes. Searching MEDLINE

1995 DARE.

1398. Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics

the H pylori reinfection rate, the H pylori eradication and healing rates, active ulceration healing from treatment with antimicrobials, and therapy eradication rates using two antibiotics with either bismuth or amoxicillin plus omeprazole. Estimated benefits used in the economic analysis The following results indicate the percentages of individual's time taken up with duodenal ulcer complications according to treatment received: 0.3% (antibiotic therapy); 3.4% (maintenance therapy); 5.6% (vagotomy (...) Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Sonnenberg A, Townsend W F Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1399. Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil

Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Hendrickson J R, North D S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic step-down therapy from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil in patients with community-acquired pneumonia or a complicated urinary tract infection. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1400. The cost effectiveness of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as antibacterial prophylaxis in abdominal and gynaecological surgery

The cost effectiveness of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as antibacterial prophylaxis in abdominal and gynaecological surgery The cost effectiveness of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as antibacterial prophylaxis in abdominal and gynaecological surgery The cost effectiveness of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as antibacterial prophylaxis in abdominal and gynaecological surgery Davey P G, Parker S E, Crombie I K, Jaderberg M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (ACA) as antibacterial prophylaxis in abdominal and gynaecological surgery. Type of intervention Prophylaxis. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients undergoing abdominal and gynaecological surgery

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.