Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1381. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been established policy for major surgical operations for many years. In fracture fixation, the effectiveness, and the duration of administration, have been a matter of debate.To assess the effects of the prophylactic administration of antibiotics in patients undergoing surgical management of hip or other long bone fractures.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents (...) , Dissertation Abstracts, and Index to UK Theses, and bibliographies of identified articles. Trials were also obtained from the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group trials register. Date of the most recent search: end of 1997.Any patients with a hip or other closed long bone fracture undergoing surgery for internal fixation or replacement arthroplasty.Any regimen of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis administered at the time of surgery.Wound infection (deep and superficial), urinary tract infection

2000 Cochrane

1382. Antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections in adults receiving intensive care. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections in adults receiving intensive care. Pneumonia is an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections and overall mortality in adults receiving intensive care.We searched MEDLINE, proceedings of scientific meetings and reference lists of articles from January 1984 to September 1997. We also contacted investigators (...) in the field.Randomised trials of antibiotic prophylaxis for respiratory tract infections and deaths among adult intensive care unit patients.Trials were assessed for quality and investigators contacted for additional information.Overall 33 trials involving 5727 people were included. There was variation in the antibiotics used, patient characteristics and the risk of respiratory tract infections and mortality in the control groups. In 16 trials (involving 3493 patients) of a topical and systemic antibiotic

2000 Cochrane

1383. Antibiotics for sore throat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for sore throat. Sore throat is a very common reason for people to attend for medical care. Sore throat is a disease that remits spontaneously, that is, 'cure' is not dependant on treatment. Nonetheless primary care doctors commonly prescribe antibiotics for sore throat and other upper respiratory tract infections.To assess the benefits of antibiotics in the management of sore throat.Systematic search of the literature from 1945 to 1999, using electronic searches of MEDLINE (using (...) the keywords, "pharyngitis", "sore throat" and "tonsillitis") after 1966, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane collection of hand-searched trials, and the reference sections of the articles identified. Abstracts of identified articles were used to determine which studies were trials.Trials of antibiotic against control with either measures of the typical symptoms (throat soreness, headache or fever), or complications (suppurative and non-suppurative) of sore throat.RevMan 4.0.3A total number of 10,484 cases

2000 Cochrane

1384. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Acute otitis media is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for acute otitis media varies from 31% in the Netherlands to 98% in the USA and Australia.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for children with acute otitis media.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, Index Medicus, Current Contents and reference lists of articles from 1958 to January 1999 (...) .Randomised trials comparing antimicrobial drugs with placebo in children with acute otitis media.Three reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.Nine trials were eligible but only six trials, with a total of 1,962 children, included patient-relevant outcomes. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally high. All trials were from developed countries. The trials showed no reduction in pain at 24 hours, but a 34% relative reduction (95% confidence interval 16

2000 Cochrane

1385. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis. For adults seeking care in ambulatory practices, sinusitis is the most common diagnosis treated with antibiotics. We examined whether antibiotics are indicated for acute sinusitis, and if so, which antibiotic classes are most effective.Relevant studies were identified from searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE in October 1998, contacts with pharmaceutical companies and bibliographies of included studies.Randomized trials were eligible that compared antibiotic (...) to control or antibiotics from different classes for acute maxillary sinusitis. Additional criteria were diagnostic confirmation by radiograph or sinus aspiration, outcomes that included clinical cure or improvement and a sample size of 30 or more adults. Of 1784 potentially relevant studies, two or more reviewers identified 32 studies meeting selection criteria.Data were abstracted independently by 2 persons and synthesized descriptively. Some data were analyzed quantitatively using a random effects

2000 Cochrane

1386. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis, which is one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care, is controversial. Most clinicians prescribe antibiotics in spite of expert recommendations against this practice.People with acute bronchitis may show little evidence of bacterial infection. If effective, antibiotics could shorten the course of the disease. However if they are not effective, the risk of antibiotic resistance may be increased. The objective (...) of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotic treatment for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis.We searched Medline, Embase, reference lists of articles and the authors' personal collections up to 1996, and Scisearch from 1989 to 1996.Randomised trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo in acute bronchitis.At least two reviewers extracted data and assessed trial quality.Eight trials involving 750 patients aged eight to over 65 and including smokers and non-smokers were

2000 Cochrane

1387. Antibiotics for preventing leptospirosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease transmitted by animals. Death occurs in about five per cent of the patients. In clinical practice, doxycycline is widely used for prevention.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any antibiotic regimen versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in the prophylaxis of leptospirosis.The sources used were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary (...) Group Controlled Trials Register, bibliographies of published papers, and personal communication with authors. There were no language or date restrictions in any of the searches.All randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as prophylactic regimen for leptospirosis.People potentially exposed to leptospirosis, such as people in endemic areas during the rainy season, health professionals and other professionals with high risk of infection.Any antibiotic regimen compared with a control

2000 Cochrane

1388. Home intravenous antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Home intravenous antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Recurrent endobronchial infection in cystic fibrosis requires treatment with intravenous antibiotics for several weeks, which is usually administered in hospital, affecting health costs and quality of life for patients and their families. It is not known whether patients receiving intravenous treatment at home have better or equivalent health outcomes, if costs are reduced or if it is preferred than in-hospital treatment. Home treatment requires (...) training to patients and carers and usually needs a few previous days in hospital.To determine whether home intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis is as effective as in-patient intravenous antibiotic therapy and if it is preferred by patients and/or families.References to trials were obtained from the specialist cystic fibrosis trials register held by the editorial base of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group. Handsearching of the abstracts books of all Spanish

2000 Cochrane

1389. Evaluating the benefits of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections in children: a systematic review

Evaluating the benefits of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections in children: a systematic review Evaluating the benefits of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections in children: a systematic review Evaluating the benefits of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections in children: a systematic review Le Saux N, Pham B, Moher D Authors' objectives To systematically examine the available evidence for the effectiveness of low-dose (...) antibiotics as prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. Searching Three electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE from January 1966 to April 1999; EMBASE from January 1980 to April 1999; and the Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 1999). A full search strategy was published in an appendix to the article. Articles written in any language were considered. The bibliographies of relevant articles, reviews and standard textbooks, as well as conference proceedings on the management of UTI

2000 DARE.

1390. How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?

How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat? How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat? How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat? Thomas M, Del Mar C, Glasziou P Authors' objectives To carry out a systematic review to estimate the benefits of treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat; in particular, the differences between the patients' perception of sore throat-related pain for non (...) -antibiotic interventions and controls. Searching The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and MEDLINE were searched from 1966 onwards using the keywords 'tonsillitis', 'pharyngitis' or 'sore throat'. MEDLINE was also searched using 'randomised controlled trial', 'drug therapy', 'therapeutic use' or 'random'. No language restriction was imposed. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. The included studies were double

2000 DARE.

1391. [A pharmacoeconomic study of the antibiotic treatment of the acute manifestations of chronic bronchitis in primary care]

[A pharmacoeconomic study of the antibiotic treatment of the acute manifestations of chronic bronchitis in primary care] Estudio farmacoeconomico del tratamiento antibiotico de las agudizaciones de la bronquitis cronica en atencion primaria [A pharmacoeconomic study of the antibiotic treatment of the acute manifestations of chronic bronchitis in primary care] Estudio farmacoeconomico del tratamiento antibiotico de las agudizaciones de la bronquitis cronica en atencion primaria (...) [A pharmacoeconomic study of the antibiotic treatment of the acute manifestations of chronic bronchitis in primary care] The DAFNE Group Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of several antibiotic treatments for crises

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1392. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia

Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia Klaassen R J, Allen U, Doyle J J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of oral antibiotics upon discharge for the treatment of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer. The antibiotic treatment consisted of cloxacillin syrup or capsules (75 to 100 mg/kg per day, four times daily) plus cefixime syrup (8 mg/kg per day). Type

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1393. Outcomes of an antimicrobial control program in a teaching hospital

Outcomes of an antimicrobial control program in a teaching hospital Outcomes of an antimicrobial control program in a teaching hospital Outcomes of an antimicrobial control program in a teaching hospital Gentry C A, Greenfield R A, Slater L N, Wack M, Huycke M M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical (...) assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology An anti-microbial control programme (ACP) introduced into a teaching hospital in the USA. The programme was organised by an anti-microbial advisory group (AAG), which consisted of infectious disease physicians, the microbiology laboratory director and the pharmacist specialising in infectious diseases. The latter was given primary responsibility to approve the use of restricted and non-formulary antibiotics. The AAG

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1394. Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment

contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of antimicrobial central venous catheters (CVC) in critical care patients. The CVCs were either impregnated with the antiseptic combination chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CSS catheters), or bonded with the antibiotic agents minocycline and rifampin (MR catheters). Type of intervention Treatment (...) Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment Oinonen M J, Ratko T A, Cummings J P, Matuszewski K A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1395. Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters

Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Marin M G, Lee J C, Skurnick J H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters in the prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1396. Cost-effectiveness of sparfloxacin compared with other oral antimicrobials in outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

patients, the adoption of sparfloxacin as first-line therapy would realise substantial cost-savings compared to the other antibiotics. Source of funding Supported by a grant from Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, Pennsylvania. Bibliographic details Najib M M, Stein G E, Goss T F. Cost-effectiveness of sparfloxacin compared with other oral antimicrobials in outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20(4): 461-469 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned (...) Cost-effectiveness of sparfloxacin compared with other oral antimicrobials in outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Cost-effectiveness of sparfloxacin compared with other oral antimicrobials in outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Cost-effectiveness of sparfloxacin compared with other oral antimicrobials in outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Najib M M, Stein G E, Goss T F Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1397. Influence of an infectious disease service on antibiotic prescription behavior and selection of multiresistant pathogens

as 3.5 before the intervention and 2.1 after the intervention (p<0.05). The mean antibiotic cost was 31.6 Euros before the intervention and 17.0 Euros after the intervention (p<0.05). The infectious disease service was not costed. Synthesis of costs and benefits No synthesis of costs and benefits was conducted. Authors' conclusions The authors concluded that the infectious disease service studied contributed to a reduction in antimicrobial administration, antimicrobial costs and multiresistant (...) Influence of an infectious disease service on antibiotic prescription behavior and selection of multiresistant pathogens Influence of an infectious disease service on antibiotic prescription behavior and selection of multiresistant pathogens Influence of an infectious disease service on antibiotic prescription behavior and selection of multiresistant pathogens Lemmen S W, Hafner H, Kotterik S, Lutticken R, Topper R Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1398. Helicobacter pylori eradication: proton pump inhibitor versus ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for 1 week. A meta-analysis of efficacy

Helicobacter pylori eradication: proton pump inhibitor versus ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for 1 week. A meta-analysis of efficacy Helicobacter pylori eradication: proton pump inhibitor versus ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for 1 week. A meta-analysis of efficacy Helicobacter pylori eradication: proton pump inhibitor versus ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for 1 week. A meta-analysis of efficacy Gisbert J P, Gonzalez L, Calvet X, Roque M (...) , Gabriel R, Pajares J M Authors' objectives To compare the efficacy of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) versus ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) with two antibiotics for 1 week in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Searching Searches were performed in the PubMed database up to October 1999. The search strategies are reported in the paper. A manual search of abstracts from 1995 to 1999 was also undertaken from the following congresses: International Workshop on Gastroduodenal Pathology

2000 DARE.

1399. Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters

in catheter-related bloodstream infection with antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters was 2.32% (95% CI: 1.04, 3.61). No evidence of heterogeneity was found (p=0.18). There was no evidence to suggest that the experimental catheters were associated with the development of more virulent pathogenic organisms. The antibiotic-resistance patterns of the isolated microorganisms were not published. Cost information The additional cost of the experimental catheter was estimated (...) Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Marin M G, Lee J C, Skurnick J H Authors' objectives To examine the effectiveness

2000 DARE.

1400. Ceftriaxone versus beta-lactams with antipseudomonal activity for empirical, combined antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia: a meta-analysis

Ceftriaxone versus beta-lactams with antipseudomonal activity for empirical, combined antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia: a meta-analysis Ceftriaxone versus beta-lactams with antipseudomonal activity for empirical, combined antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia: a meta-analysis Ceftriaxone versus beta-lactams with antipseudomonal activity for empirical, combined antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia: a meta-analysis Furno P, Dionisi M S, Bucaneve G, Menichetti F, Del Favero (...) A Authors' objectives To compare the efficacy of antibiotic combinations including ceftriaxone (CRO) with that of combinations including an antipseudomonal beta-lactam, for the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the following principal keywords and subject headings: 'ceftriaxone', 'ceftriaxon', 'granulocytopenia', 'neutropenia', 'fever', 'controlled', 'randomised', 'clinical trial', 'antipseudomonal', 'beta-lactam

2000 DARE.