Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1421. Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study

Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective (...) or hypersensitivity to cephalosporins, or had received systemic antibiotics in the past 72 hours. Setting The setting was secondary care. The study was carried out in New York, USA. Dates to which data relate The effectiveness data were collected between December 1995 and June 1997. The cost data were collected from studies published in 1993 and 1997, and from hospital data from the Centers for Disease Control (1992). The price year was not reported. Source of effectiveness data The source of the effectiveness

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1422. Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital

Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital Sevinc F, Prins J M, Koopmans R P, Langendijk P N, Bossuyt P M, Dankert J, Speelman P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Short intravenous antibiotic therapy followed by oral antibiotic treatment as an alternative to intravenous administration for the entire treatment course for patients suffering from serious infections. This switch strategy (also known as sequential antibiotic therapy

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1423. Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year

. Bibliographic details Torrance G, Walker V, Grossman R, Mukherjee J, Vaughan D, La Forge J, Lampron N. Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year. PharmacoEconomics 1999; 16(5 Part 1): 499-520 PubMedID Other publications of related interest Grossman R, Mukherjee J, Vaughan D et al. A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs. usual antibiotic treatment (...) Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1424. Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test

it is recommended for routine testing for resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics. Bibliographic details Fukazawa K, Seki M, Satoh K, Sugano K. Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 1999; 57(1): 76-80 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Clarithromycin /pharmacology; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Helicobacter pylori /drug effects; Metronidazole /pharmacology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests /economics (...) Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test Fukazawa K, Seki M, Satoh K, Sugano K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1425. Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery

Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery Marroni M, Cao P, Fiorio M, Maghini M, Lenti M, Repetto A, Menichetti F Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent wound and graft infections in patients following prosthetic vascular surgery. Type of intervention Secondary Prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1426. A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team

A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team Gums J G, Yancey R W, Hamilton C A, Kubilis P S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation (...) that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A timely consult with a multidisciplinary antimicrobial therapy team composed of pharmacists, a clinical microbiologist, and an infectious disease specialist, for hospitalised patients receiving intravenous antimicrobials. A number of methods were used

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1427. Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis

Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis Laurier C, Lachaine J, Ducharme M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment (...) on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Oral antibacterial regimens for the treatment of ambulatory patients with acute sinusitis. No single regimen was identified as the intervention. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Adults treated for acute sinusitis. Setting Primary care. The economic study was carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. Dates to which data relate Effectiveness data and resource use data

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1428. Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission

Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission Glerant J C, Hellmuth D, Schmit J L, Ducroix J P, Jounieaux V Record Status (...) for the diagnosis of patients hospitalised for moderate CAP, and who had received an antibiotic prior to admission. Type of intervention Diagnosis. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population comprised patients aged over 15, with moderate CAP, hospitalised in the respiratory unit of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sud from 1 March 1994 to 28 February 1995. Setting The setting was secondary care. The economic study was carried out in the Centre Hospitalier

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1429. Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics

Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance (...) organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics Mohle-Boetani J C, Lieu T A, Ray G T, Escobar G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Guidelines for the prevention

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1430. Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment

Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment Minotti V, Gentile G (...) of the participating centres. Study exclusion criteria were: severe chemotherapy-induced neutropenia; severe comorbidity requiring hospitalisation; acute leukaemia and bone marrow transplant within the last two years; antibiotic treatment within the previous 5 days; use of haematopoietic growth factors; positive history of intolerance to quinolone derivatives or beta lactams; renal failure, under 18 years of age; and pregnant or nursing a baby. Setting The setting was primary and secondary care. The economic study

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1431. A prospective, randomised comparison of single-vs. multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in penetrating trauma

A prospective, randomised comparison of single-vs. multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in penetrating trauma Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1432. Meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1999 DARE.

1433. Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview

Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview Trials evaluating antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview Chene G, Lequen L, Schaeverbeke T Authors' objectives To review clinical trials of antibiotics in rheumatoid arthritis. Searching An algorithm developed by Stewart et al (see Other Publications of Related Interest)was used to search MEDLINE from 1983 to 1997. Bibliographies of retrieved articles (...) were searched to find further articles and rheumatology experts were consulted. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in adults that had at least one antibiotic therapy arm and included an intention-to-treat analysis. Specific interventions included in the review Cycline plus standard treatment compared to placebo plus standard treatment. Participants included in the review Adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (both long-standing

1999 DARE.

1434. A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates

in antibiotic resistance emphasises the need for additional surveillance of H. pylori. It is also important that resistance-testing methods are standardised and validated to allow comparisons to be made between different studies and to monitor the clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance. The authors also state that routine pre-treatment testing seems currently not necessary. Research: The authors state that, for future therapies, the effectiveness needs to be determined for different regimens separately (...) A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates Houben M H, Van de Beek D, Hensen E F, De Craen A J, Rauws E A, Tytgat G N Authors' objectives To review the eradication rates

1999 DARE.

1435. Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis

Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis Bent S, Saint S, Vittinghoff E, Grady D Authors' objectives To assess the effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of acute bronchitis. Searching The authors searched the MEDLINE electronic database (January 1966 to April 1998) using the search terms: 'bronchitis, drug therapy' and 'xs acute disease'. The reference lists of retrieved articles (...) were also scanned and experts were consulted to identify additional relevant studies. The search was limited to English language publications. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that provided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes. Studies were excluded if they were non-experimental in design or if they compared one antibiotic with another without a placebo arm. Specific interventions included in the review Antibiotics

1999 DARE.

1436. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis

Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1999 DARE.

1437. Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era

Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis: the beginning of an era Kramer K M, Levy H Authors' objectives To determine the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing the infectious complications of acute pancreatitis. Searching MEDLINE was searched for studies published in the English language from 1966 (...) to present using the keywords 'pancreatitis' and 'antibiotics'. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Studies of the following designs that assessed the effect of systemic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis were included: prospective randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), retrospective cohort studies; prospective case series with historical control; case control; and retrospective review with historical control. Specific interventions included in the review

1999 DARE.

1438. Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis

Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis Systematic review of antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis McCaffery K, Olver RE, Franklin M, Mukhopadhyay S Authors' objectives To determine the efficacy of antistaphylococcal therapy, as assessed by clinical outcomes, in patients with cystic fibrosis. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1995 using a Cochrane (...) in cystic fibrosis were included. Duration of RCTs ranged from 2 months to 2 years. Specific interventions included in the review The following antibiotics were used either alone or in combination: trimethoprim; sulphamethoxazole; cefadroxil; dicloxacillin; cephalexin; flucloxacillin; cloxacillin; ampicillin; amoxycillin (with and without clavulanic acid); penicillin V; erythromycin; cotrimoxazole; cephalosporin; ciprofloxacin; fusidic acid; lincomycin; chloramphenicol; novobiocin; carbenicillin

1999 DARE.

1439. Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence

Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence Prabhu V C, Kaufman H H, Voelker J L, Aronoff S C, Niewiadomska-Bugaj M, Mascaro S, Hobbs G R Authors' objectives To evaluate the role (...) of prophylactic antibiotics (PABs) in preventing infections associated with intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors and external ventricular drains (EVD). Searching A review of articles in English in MEDLINE was performed for the period 1966-1996 using the following search terms: ventriculostomy, ICP monitors, prophylactic antibiotics, and infection. The reference lists of the articles selected were reviewed, as well as abstracts presented at the two main annual American neurosurgical meetings, the American

1999 DARE.

1440. Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children

antimicrobial costs were related to the drug acquisition costs and the hidden costs of consumables, staff time and waste disposal. The costs were estimated from actual prices and hospital records. The resource use data were gathered between December 1994 and February 1996. The resource quantity data were given only for the length of stay and the duration of antibiotic treatment. The price year was not reported, but prices were collected between 1995 and 1996. Statistical analysis of costs The differences (...) Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children Al-Eidan F A, McElnay J C, Scott M G, Kearney M P, Troughton K E, Jenkins J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.