Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1441. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia

Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Richerson M A, Ambrose P G, Quintiliani R, Bui K Q, Nightingale C H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Intravenous antibiotic monotherapy for hospitalised patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hypothetical patients requiring treatment

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1442. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis

Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Omidvari K, de Boisblanc B P, Karam G, Nelson S, Haponik E, Summer W Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Using an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by switch to oral antibiotics (cefaclor)) for the treatment of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1443. A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group

A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute (...) of the antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB). The dose recommended was 500-mg bid, but dose and duration were left to the physician's discretion as was the decision to prescribe ciprofloxacin for subsequent AECBs within the follow-up period in the event of treatment failure. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Study population Adult outpatient men and women aged 18 and over, presenting

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1444. Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes

Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Macy E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) . Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Elective penicillin skin testing (PenSTs) in advance of acute antibiotic need and (optional) amoxicillin challenge (AC) in patients with negative skin test responses. Patients were previously entered in a study of new penicillin reagents and received at least 1 prescription drug over a 2-year period

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1445. Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review

MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the following keywords: 'antibiotic prophylaxis'; 'antimicrobial prophylaxis' plus 'surgical prophylaxis'; and 'single-dose', 'multiple-dose'. Current Contents was also searched and The references from other publications, especially reviews, were back-searched for additional material. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antimicrobial surgical prophylaxis, with comparable (...) Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review Single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review McDonald M, Grabsch E, Marshall C, Forbes A Authors' objectives To determine the overall efficacy of single- versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery and across surgical disciplines. Searching

1998 DARE.

1446. Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Parenteral vs oral antibiotics in the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Rothrock S G, Green S M (...) , Harper M B, Clark M C, McIlmail D P, Bachur R Authors' objectives To determine whether parenteral antibiotics are superior to oral antibiotics in preventing serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteraemia. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 through 1996 for articles published in the English language. Bibliographies of articles retrieved were reviewed. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Articles containing a series

1998 DARE.

1447. Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes

', 'antimicrobial therapy' or 'treatment'. The original published report had to be written in English. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Two studies used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and three were randomised and non-blinded. The length of treatment (administration of antibiotics) varied in each study, ranging from: every 6 hours, every 6 hours for 24 hours, every 8 hours until delivery, to every 6 hours for 72 hours (...) Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes Concomitant use of glucocorticoids: a comparison of two metaanalyses on antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes Leitich H, Egarter C, Reisenberger K, Kaider A, Berghammer P Authors' objectives

1998 DARE.

1448. Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis

Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis Da Costa A, Kirkorian G, Cucherat M, Delahaye F, Chevalier P, Cerisier A, Isaaz K, Touboul P Authors' objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce infection rates after pacemaker implantation. Searching MEDLINE from January (...) 1967 to June 1996, EMBASE from January 1974 to June 1996, and Current Contents from January 1967 to June 1996, were searched for published trials of the use of antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of permanent pacemaker implantation, to prevent secondary infection. Additional published and unpublished studies were identified by searching meeting abstracts (from 1980 to 1997) and the reference lists in reviews and trials, and by contacting colleagues, investigators and the manufacturers of pacemakers

1998 DARE.

1449. Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis

and, if so, whether newer and more expensive antibiotics with broad spectra of antimicrobial activity are more effective than amoxycillin or folate inhibitors. Searching MEDLINE was searched up to May 1998 (start date unclear) using the terms of specific antibiotic classes and 'sinusitis'. The authors also scanned Excerpta Medicus, and recent abstracts from the American Society for Microbiology's programme of meetings and Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (...) Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis Are amoxycillin and folate inhibitors as effective as other antibiotics for acute sinusitis: a meta-analysis de Ferranti S D, Ioannidis J P, Lau J, Anninger W V, Barza M Authors' objectives To examine whether antibiotics are indicated in treating uncomplicated acute sinusitis

1998 DARE.

1450. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

. The methodological quality of the included trials improved over time, but problems concerning randomisation, blinding and insufficient sample size remained. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the rate of SWI in comparison with no antibiotic (4 trials, n=293). The OR was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.43). The overall rate of SWI with various regimens of prophylactic antimicrobial agents in colorectal surgery across all the included studies was 11.1% (2,540 out of 22,927). It was 10.6% for the 120 trials (...) was as effective but less expensive than combination therapy. The authors stated that guidelines for cost-effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery should be developed locally. Authors' conclusions Antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in preventing SWI in colorectal surgery. There was no significant difference between many regimens, although some were inadequate. Multiple-dose regimens may be unnecessary. The evidence did not support the idea that new cephalosporins are more effective

1998 DARE.

1451. Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis

Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Kozyrskyj A L, Hildes-Ripstein G E, Longstaffe S E, Wincott J L, Sitar D S, Klassen T P, Moffatt M E Authors' objectives To conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM (...) ) in children to determine whether outcomes are comparable in children treated with antibiotics for less than 7 days or at least 7 days or more. Searching MEDLINE (JANUARY 1966 TO July 1997), EMBASE (January 1974 to July 1997), Current Contents (January to July 1997), and Science Citation Index were searched. There were no language restrictions. In MEDLINE, search terms employed were "otitis media" in medical subject headings, modified by "acute" in the title or abstract. These terms were combined

1998 DARE.

1452. Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults

Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Fahey T, Stocks N, Thomas T Authors' objectives To assess whether antibiotic treatment for acute cough is effective and to measure (...) the side-effects of such treatment. Searching MEDLINE (from 1966 onwards) and EMBASE (from 1982 onwards) were searched with the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy and MeSH terms 'cough', 'bronchitis', 'sputum', 'respiratory tract infections'. The Science Citation Index and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched using the search terms 'bronchitis' and 'common cold'. Authors of trials were contacted for details of unpublished studies and UK antibiotic manufacturers were contacted

1998 DARE.

1453. Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based?

Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Damoiseaux R A, van Balen F A, Hoes A W, De Melker R A Authors' objectives To assess whether the current high prescription rates of antibiotics for acute otitis media (AOM) in children under two years of age (being (...) Publications of Related Interest). Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Articles with random allocation to the different treatment groups were included. Studies had to compare antibiotic treatment with non-antibiotic treatment in AOM (not comparison of different antibiotics or different durations of treatment). Specific interventions included in the review The following antibiotic treatments were included: ampicillin/penicillin-sulfa (+ myringotomy-A), penicillin, erytromycin

1998 DARE.

1454. Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Golub R, Siddiqi F, Pohl D Authors' objectives To determine the role of antibiotics in preventing infectious complications in acute pancreatitis. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to June 1997, with search terms including 'pancreatitis', 'antibiotics' and 'randomised studies'. The bibliographies of identified (...) trials, and other recent publications on the treatment of pancreatitis, were reviewed. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised prospective trials. Specific interventions included in the review Systemic and oral antibiotics were compared with standard care (pain medication, nasogastric suction, intravenous hydration, and nutritional support, and some studies used atropine or antiprotease drugs). The antibiotics studied included: ampicillin (500 mg to 1 g every 6

1998 DARE.

1455. A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis

A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis Das A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. The treatment strategies were as follows: (1) antibiotic prophylaxis administered to all patients; (2) patients were stratified into a low and high risk group on the basis of serum bilirubin and ascitic fluid protein levels; only patients in the high risk group

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1456. A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents Evans R S, Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Clemmer T P, Weaver L K, Orme J F, Lloyd J F, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains (...) design The study was a nonrandomised trial with historical controls carried out in a single centre. The duration of follow-up was not clearly reported. Analysis of effectiveness The analysis was based on intention-to-treat and the primary health outcomes used in the analysis being thenumber of adverse events caused by antiinfective agents, number of days of excessive antibiotic dosage, and mortality. A regression model was used to investigate the differences in costs and outcomes between strategies

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1457. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection

Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Bold R J, Mansfield P F, Berger D H, Pollock R E, Singletary S E, Ames F C, Balch C M, Hohn D C, Ross M I Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation (...) that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Administering cefonicid (a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods) in a single dose of 1g intravenously 60 minutes prior to the initiation of the surgical procedure

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1458. Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs

results A total cost of $13,533 across the 39 stepdown treatment courses was avoided. Synthesis of costs and benefits The antibacterial cost avoidance was $347 per treatment course realised. Authors' conclusions Cefixime has a potential role as a stepdown agent for ceftriaxone. The study has shown that costs can be avoided without apparent negative impact on patient care. CRD COMMENTARY - Selection of comparators The reason for the choice of comparator is clear. Cefixime possesses an antimicrobial (...) Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Elbe D, Frighetto L, Nickoloff D, Jewesson P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1459. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery

different regimens, though certain regimens appear to be inadequate. Single dose regimen may be as effective as multiple dose regimen and have related cost benefits. Guidelines based on existing evidence should take into account local prevalence of pathogens and resistance profiles in order to achieve more cost-effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. Appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery may help to reduce the development of antibiotic resistant (...) bacteria. Despite adverse publicity concerning the use of antibiotics, GP's should advise patients being referred for colorectal surgery that the appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis can reduce the risk of surgical wound infections. Project page URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Colon /surgery; Costs and Cost Analysis; Rectum /surgery; Surgical Wound Infection /prevention & control Language Published English Country

1998 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1460. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Song F, Glenny AM Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made (...) for the HTA database. Citation Song F, Glenny AM. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Health Technology Assessment 1998; 2(7): 1-110 Authors' objectives This review evaluates the relative efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing colorectal surgery where there is a high risk of surgical wound infection (SWI). Authors' conclusions The use of antimicrobial prophylaxis is efficacious in the prevention of SWI in colorectal

1998 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.