Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1461. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

. The methodological quality of the included trials improved over time, but problems concerning randomisation, blinding and insufficient sample size remained. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the rate of SWI in comparison with no antibiotic (4 trials, n=293). The OR was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.43). The overall rate of SWI with various regimens of prophylactic antimicrobial agents in colorectal surgery across all the included studies was 11.1% (2,540 out of 22,927). It was 10.6% for the 120 trials (...) was as effective but less expensive than combination therapy. The authors stated that guidelines for cost-effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery should be developed locally. Authors' conclusions Antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in preventing SWI in colorectal surgery. There was no significant difference between many regimens, although some were inadequate. Multiple-dose regimens may be unnecessary. The evidence did not support the idea that new cephalosporins are more effective

1998 DARE.

1462. Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis

Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis Kozyrskyj A L, Hildes-Ripstein G E, Longstaffe S E, Wincott J L, Sitar D S, Klassen T P, Moffatt M E Authors' objectives To conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM (...) ) in children to determine whether outcomes are comparable in children treated with antibiotics for less than 7 days or at least 7 days or more. Searching MEDLINE (JANUARY 1966 TO July 1997), EMBASE (January 1974 to July 1997), Current Contents (January to July 1997), and Science Citation Index were searched. There were no language restrictions. In MEDLINE, search terms employed were "otitis media" in medical subject headings, modified by "acute" in the title or abstract. These terms were combined

1998 DARE.

1463. Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults

Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Fahey T, Stocks N, Thomas T Authors' objectives To assess whether antibiotic treatment for acute cough is effective and to measure (...) the side-effects of such treatment. Searching MEDLINE (from 1966 onwards) and EMBASE (from 1982 onwards) were searched with the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy and MeSH terms 'cough', 'bronchitis', 'sputum', 'respiratory tract infections'. The Science Citation Index and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched using the search terms 'bronchitis' and 'common cold'. Authors of trials were contacted for details of unpublished studies and UK antibiotic manufacturers were contacted

1998 DARE.

1464. Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based?

Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based? Damoiseaux R A, van Balen F A, Hoes A W, De Melker R A Authors' objectives To assess whether the current high prescription rates of antibiotics for acute otitis media (AOM) in children under two years of age (being (...) Publications of Related Interest). Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Articles with random allocation to the different treatment groups were included. Studies had to compare antibiotic treatment with non-antibiotic treatment in AOM (not comparison of different antibiotics or different durations of treatment). Specific interventions included in the review The following antibiotic treatments were included: ampicillin/penicillin-sulfa (+ myringotomy-A), penicillin, erytromycin

1998 DARE.

1465. Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis Golub R, Siddiqi F, Pohl D Authors' objectives To determine the role of antibiotics in preventing infectious complications in acute pancreatitis. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to June 1997, with search terms including 'pancreatitis', 'antibiotics' and 'randomised studies'. The bibliographies of identified (...) trials, and other recent publications on the treatment of pancreatitis, were reviewed. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised prospective trials. Specific interventions included in the review Systemic and oral antibiotics were compared with standard care (pain medication, nasogastric suction, intravenous hydration, and nutritional support, and some studies used atropine or antiprotease drugs). The antibiotics studied included: ampicillin (500 mg to 1 g every 6

1998 DARE.

1466. A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis

A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis A cost analysis of long term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis Das A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. The treatment strategies were as follows: (1) antibiotic prophylaxis administered to all patients; (2) patients were stratified into a low and high risk group on the basis of serum bilirubin and ascitic fluid protein levels; only patients in the high risk group

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1467. A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents Evans R S, Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Clemmer T P, Weaver L K, Orme J F, Lloyd J F, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains (...) design The study was a nonrandomised trial with historical controls carried out in a single centre. The duration of follow-up was not clearly reported. Analysis of effectiveness The analysis was based on intention-to-treat and the primary health outcomes used in the analysis being thenumber of adverse events caused by antiinfective agents, number of days of excessive antibiotic dosage, and mortality. A regression model was used to investigate the differences in costs and outcomes between strategies

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1468. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection

Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of prophylactic antibiotics in axillary lymph node dissection Bold R J, Mansfield P F, Berger D H, Pollock R E, Singletary S E, Ames F C, Balch C M, Hohn D C, Ross M I Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation (...) that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Administering cefonicid (a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods) in a single dose of 1g intravenously 60 minutes prior to the initiation of the surgical procedure

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1469. Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs

results A total cost of $13,533 across the 39 stepdown treatment courses was avoided. Synthesis of costs and benefits The antibacterial cost avoidance was $347 per treatment course realised. Authors' conclusions Cefixime has a potential role as a stepdown agent for ceftriaxone. The study has shown that costs can be avoided without apparent negative impact on patient care. CRD COMMENTARY - Selection of comparators The reason for the choice of comparator is clear. Cefixime possesses an antimicrobial (...) Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Use of cefixime in an IV to oral stepdown program to reduce antimicrobial costs Elbe D, Frighetto L, Nickoloff D, Jewesson P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1470. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery

different regimens, though certain regimens appear to be inadequate. Single dose regimen may be as effective as multiple dose regimen and have related cost benefits. Guidelines based on existing evidence should take into account local prevalence of pathogens and resistance profiles in order to achieve more cost-effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. Appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery may help to reduce the development of antibiotic resistant (...) bacteria. Despite adverse publicity concerning the use of antibiotics, GP's should advise patients being referred for colorectal surgery that the appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis can reduce the risk of surgical wound infections. Project page URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Colon /surgery; Costs and Cost Analysis; Rectum /surgery; Surgical Wound Infection /prevention & control Language Published English Country

1998 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1471. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Song F, Glenny AM Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made (...) for the HTA database. Citation Song F, Glenny AM. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Health Technology Assessment 1998; 2(7): 1-110 Authors' objectives This review evaluates the relative efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing colorectal surgery where there is a high risk of surgical wound infection (SWI). Authors' conclusions The use of antimicrobial prophylaxis is efficacious in the prevention of SWI in colorectal

1998 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1472. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Journals Library An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search

1998 NIHR HTA programme

1473. Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. (Abstract)

Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Intrauterine infection is thought to be one cause of preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). Antibiotic therapy has been shown to prolong pregnancy, but the effect on infant morbidity has been inconsistent.To determine if antibiotic treatment during (...) expectant management of PPROM will reduce infant morbidity.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.University hospitals of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network.A total of 614 of 804 eligible gravidas with PPROM between 24 weeks' and 0 days' and 32 weeks' and 0 days' gestation who were considered candidates for pregnancy prolongation and had not received corticosteroids for fetal maturation or antibiotic treatment within 1 week

1997 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1474. Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics. To assess the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics for sore throat.11 general practices in England.Randomised trial of three approaches to sore throat: a 10 day prescription of antibiotics, no antibiotics, or a delayed prescription if the sore throat had not started to settle after three days.716 patients aged 4 and over with sore throat (...) and an abnormal physical sign: 84% had tonsillitis or pharyngitis.Number and rate of patients making a first return with sore throat, pharyngitis, or tonsillitis. Early returns (within two weeks) and complications (otitis media, sinusitis, quinsy). Outcomes were documented in 675 subjects (94%).Mean follow up time was similar (antibiotic group 1.07 years, other two groups 1.03 years). More of those initially prescribed antibiotics initially returned to the surgery with sore throat (38% v 27%, adjusted hazard

1997 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1475. Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis. (Abstract)

Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis. The value of antibiotics in acute rhinosinusitis is uncertain. Although maxillary sinusitis is commonly diagnosed and treated in general practice, no effectiveness studies have been done on unselected primary-care patients. We used a randomised, placebo-controlled design to test the hypothesis that there would be an improvement associated with amoxycillin treatment for acute maxillary (...) %) during the follow-up year.Antibiotic treatment did not improve the clinical course of acute maxillary sinusitis presenting to general practice. For these patients, an initial radiographic examination is not necessary and initial management can be limited to symptomatic treatment. Whether antibiotics are necessary in more severe cases warrants further study.

1997 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1476. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection

Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Quenzer R W, Pettit K G, Arnold R J, Kaniecki D J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotics (clarithromycin, cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin and cefaclor) to treat community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbation

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1477. Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures

Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Heit J M, Stevens M R, Jeffords K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Ceftriaxone and penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fracture. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Male and female patients with compound mandible fractures. Setting Hospital. The economic study was carried out in Miami, Florida, USA. Dates to which

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1478. Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy

of a restrictive antibiotic policy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1997; 40(5): 707-711 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents /administration & Clostridium Infections /drug therapy /microbiology; Clostridium difficile; Cross Infection /drug therapy /microbiology; Diarrhea /drug therapy /microbiology; Health Services for the Aged; Hospital Mortality; Hospital Units; Humans; Length of Stay; Medication Systems, Hospital /organization & administration (...) Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy McNulty C, Logan M, Donald I P, Ennis D, Taylor D, Baldwin R N, Bannerjee M, Cartwright K A Record Status This is a critical

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1479. Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis

Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1480. Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia

Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia Medical outcomes and antimicrobial costs with the use of the American Thoracic Society guidelines for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia Gleason P P, Kapoor W N, Stone R A, Lave J R, Obrosky D (...) of a Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) which was applied to a subset of patients primarily defined as having short-term 'low-risk' mortality and enrolled in the first 20 months. Odds ratios (OR) were reported as the ratio of intervention to the comparator values. For the 'young adult without comorbidity' patient sub-population, the groups were not comparable in terms of age and treatment with antimicrobials during the 7-day period before presentation with CAP. For the older and/or comorbid

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.