Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1481. A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy

A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy Hueston W J, Lenhart J G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions (...) followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Treating infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women initially with any of 4 antibiotic options (amoxicillin, 500mg 3 times a day for 7 days; erythromycin, 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days; clindamycin hydrochloride, 450mg 4 times a day for 7 days; and azithromycin, a single 1g dose), followed, for non-responders, by 1 of 3 antibiotics not chosen for initial therapy. Type

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1482. Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Inadomi J, Sonnenberg A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical (...) assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Prophylactic antibiotics (norfloxacin 400 mg daily and trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole 160mg/800mg 5 days per week). Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hypothetical cohort of 100 patients with ascites and cirrhosis. Three cases were separately investigated, with patients having: (1) a previous history of SBP; (2) no previous history of SBP

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1483. Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones

Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones Cost-effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones Jensen K M, Paladino J A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Administration of oral antibacterials (ciprofloxacin or enoxacin), as early switch therapy to abbreviate intravenous (IV) antibacterial therapy. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hospitalized adult patients with serious bacterial infections, caused

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1484. Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence

Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Shann F Authors' objectives To assess whether prophylactic antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high (more than 1%) fatality rate. Searching MEDLINE (...) was searched from 1966 to 1995 using the terms 'measles' plus either 'antibiotic', 'penicillin', 'sulphonamide', 'prospective studies' or 'RCT'. Additional studies were obtained by examining results of previous handsearches of studies of pneumonia in children, in all the journals in the University library from 1935 to 1946. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no antibiotic or with selective

1997 DARE.

1485. Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery

Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Wieck J A, Jackson J K, O'Brien T J, Lurate R B, Russell J M, Dorchak J D Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical (...) assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness study. Study population Male and female patients undergoing arthroscopy. The average age was 31, with a range of 13 to 70 years. Patients with penicillin or cefazolin allergy were excluded, as were patients requiring metal implants. Setting Hospital. The economic study

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1486. Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media

Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Wandstrat T L, Kaplan B Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS (...) EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Treatment of otitis media with antibiotics. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness study. Study population Children of both sexes aged between 2 months and 7 years old with acute otitis media. Setting Primary care. The economic study was conducted in West

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1487. Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis

Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis Antimicrobial treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis: a meta-analysis de Bock G H, Dekker F W, Stolk J, Springer M P, Kievit J, van Houwelingen J C Authors' objectives To assess which antibiotic is most effective in the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis in otherwise healthy adults and adolescents, and which has the fewest side effects. Searching (...) , 95% CI: 1.36, 3.40); macrolids vs penicillins (OR=2.06, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.24); broad-spectrum vs narrow-spectrum antimicrobials (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.69); bactericidal vs bacteriostatic antimicrobials (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.72). Stratification by study: These analyses yielded clinically significant (<0.67 or >1.50) for five contingency tables: beta-lactamase inhibition regarding clinical cure; type of antibiotic (penicillins, macrolids) regarding clinical success; spectrum regarding clinical

1997 DARE.

1488. The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Bulloch B, Craig W R, Klassen T P Authors' objectives To determine whether antibiotics prevent serious bacterial infections in children at risk for occult bacteremia (...) Antibiotic versus no antibiotic, or oral antibiotic versus IM antibiotic. Specific antibiotics studied included penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Participants included in the review Children between 3 months and 36 months of age who had a fever of greater or equal to 39C, no identified focus of infection and a blood culture obtained on initial visit. Patients were excluded if they had a focus of infection, a known or suspected hypersensitivity to the antibiotics being

1997 DARE.

1489. Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis

Antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine before treatment: a meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1997 DARE.

1490. Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Rothrock S G, Harper M B, Green S M, Clark M C (...) , Bachur R, McIlmail D P, Giordano P A, Falk J L Authors' objectives To determine whether oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteraemia. Searching MEDLINE was searched for all English language publications concerning bacteraemia, fever or streptococcus pneumoniae from 1966 to April 1996. Bibliographies of all articles retrieved were also examined. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review

1997 DARE.

1491. A pharmacist-initiated program of intravenous to oral antibiotic conversion

, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A pharmacist-initiated programme of conversion from parenteral to oral antibiotics in patients with mild and moderate infections. The intervention programme targeted those antimicrobials with high use or high cost to the study institution including ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, imipenem-cilastatin, cefuroxime, cefazolin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (...) of cure rate. Authors' conclusions The intervention programme appeared to provide a cost-effective conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial administration without compromising patient care. CRD COMMENTARY - Selection of comparators A justification was implicitly provided for the choice of the comparator (not using the conversion programme and using intravenous antibiotic); in 1993, more than 90% of all antibiotics prescribed in the study institution were parenteral. You, as a database user

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1492. Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes

Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Fraser G L, Stogsdill P, Dickens J D, Wennberg D E, Smith R P, Prato B S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Patient-specific, antibiotic-related suggestions given to the attending physician by a team consisting of an infectious disease fellow and a clinical pharmacist for adult patients receiving parenteral antibiotics. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Adult inpatients receiving 1 or more of the following 10

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1493. A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions

A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions Bailey T C, Ritchie D J, McMullin S T, Kahn M, Reichley (...) R M, Casabar E, Shannon W, Dunagan W C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A labour-intensive, pharmacist intervention aimed at discontinuing intravenous antibiotics or switching patients from intravenous to oral

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1494. Randomised controlled trial of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical treatment of closed fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial. (Abstract)

Randomised controlled trial of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical treatment of closed fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial. The efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in fracture surgery remains controversial for lack of well-documented prospective studies. We report here the findings of the Dutch Trauma Trial, a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of antibiotic prophylaxis in the primary operative treatment of limb fractures. Ceftriaxone was chosen because (...) prophylaxis with a long-acting broad-spectrum antibiotic substantially reduces the incidence of wound infection and early nosocomial infection after surgery for closed fractures.

1996 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1495. Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions. (Abstract)

Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions. Upper-respiratory-tract infection is one of the main causes of overuse of antibiotics. We have found previously that bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae can be isolated from the nasopharyngeal secretions of a substantial proportion of adults with upper-respiratory-tract infections. We have assessed the efficacy of co (...) among co-amoxiclav-treated (n=30) than placebo-treated (n=28) patients (cured 27 vs 4%; persistent symptoms 70 vs 60%; worse symptoms 3 vs 36%; p=0.001). Patients on co-amoxiclav also scored their symptoms significantly lower than patients on placebo (p=0.008). Among culture-negative patients (n=230), the outcome distribution did not differ between the treatment groups (p=0.392).The majority of patients with upper-respiratory-tract infection do not benefit from antibiotics and side-effects

1996 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1496. A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy

A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy Siegel R E, Halpern N A, Almenoff P L, Lee A, Cashin R, Greene J G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Shortened course of inpatient IV antibiotic therapy prior to switching to oral antibiotic in the patient with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1497. A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children

A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children Oh P, Maerov P, Pritchard D, Knowles S, Einarson T, Shear N Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Second-line antibiotic treatment used to treat acute otitis media in children. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population Male and female children with acute otitis media. Ages ranged from 2 months to 18 years, but the majority of patients were between 6 months and 12

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1498. Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital

Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital Optimising antimicrobial drug use in surgery: an intervention study in a Dutch university hospital Gyssens I C, Geerligs I E, Dony J M, van der Vliet J A, van Kampen A, van den Broek P J, Hekster Y A, van der Meer J W Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antimicrobial drug use in surgery. Type of intervention Primary prevention; Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Male and female consecutive surgical patients before and after a period of intervention. Setting University hospital

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1499. Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes

in 1994. Simultaneously the proportion of cases in which prescribing physicians changed the therapy on the basis of information increased from 30% to 99.9%. Adverse effects fell from 26.9% in 1989 to 18.8% in 1994. Mortality fell from 3.65% in 1988 to 2.65% in 1994 (p <0.001). Antimicrobial resistance patterns remained stable. Clinical conclusions Computer-assisted decision support programs that use clinician-derived practice guidelines can improve antibiotic use and stabilize the emergence (...) Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Evans R S, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1500. A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion

A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion Pearson C R, Thomas M R, Cox H J, Garth R J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief (...) summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Use of antibiotic ear drops (Sofradex) following grommet insertion in the prophylaxis of otorrhoea. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients undergoing bilateral grommet insertion for eustachian dysfunction or otitis media with effusion. Setting Hospital

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.