Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1501. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection

Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1502. A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis

A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic (...) drawn. Health technology Oral fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin) in penile prosthesis implantation. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients undergoing penile prosthesis placement or replacement. The exclusion criteria included the use of any antibiotics within 7 days of surgery or a known hypersensitivity to the medication. Setting Hospital, the economic study was carried out in Seattle, USA. Dates to which data relate The dates

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1503. Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis

Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Ananth C V, Guise J M, Thorp J M Authors' objectives To examine the efficacy and effectiveness of antibiotic therapy on maternal outcomes in pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in pregnancy. Searching The following (...) . Specific interventions included in the review Antibiotics administered included penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, synthetic penicillins, and triple antibiotic therapy. Duration of therapy ranged from 3 days to the end of pregnancy. Parenteral, oral and combination administration of antibiotics were included. Participants included in the review Women experiencing pre-term PROM were included. Infant gestational age across all the included trials ranged from 19 to 34 weeks. Babies were also included

1996 DARE.

1504. Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis

Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1996 DARE.

1505. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease

prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2010; 65(6): 1137-1144 Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Amoxicillin /therapeutic use; Animals; Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Bites and Stings; Humans; Ixodes; Lyme Disease /epidemiology /prevention & Penicillins /therapeutic use; Risk Factors; Tetracycline /therapeutic use; control /transmission AccessionNumber 11996001130 Date bibliographic record published (...) Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Warshafsky S, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Kamer RS, Peterson SJ, Wormser GP Authors' objectives To determine if antibiotic prophylaxis following a deer tick bite is effective in reducing the risk of developing Lyme disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi ). Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1983 to 1995

1996 DARE.

1506. Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis

Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Sawaya G F, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Grimes D A Authors' objectives To determine the efficacy of periabortal antibiotics in preventing postabortal upper genital tract infection using (...) data from published trials. Searching MEDLINE was searched for articles published between January 1966 and September 1994. Keywords used included: 'abortion', 'infection', 'prophylaxis', 'antibiotics', 'pelvic inflammatory disease' (PID) and 'suction curettage'. Bibliographies of review articles were also searched to identify further trials. The search was not restricted to articles published in English. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled

1996 DARE.

1507. Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks

Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Mukhopadhyay S, Singh M, Cater J I, Ogston S, Franklin M, Olver R E Authors' objectives To evaluate the benefits and risks of nebulised antipseudomonal therapy in cystic fibrosis. Searching (...) MEDLINE was searched using the Cochrane Collaboration strategy. Additional studies were located by searching Current Contents, by examining bibliographies of textbooks, reviews, editorials and international cystic fibrosis conference proceedings, and through personal communications. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Specific interventions included in the review Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics

1996 DARE.

1508. Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis

Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Egarter C, Leitich H, Karas H, Wieser F, Husslein P, Kaider A, Schemper M Authors' objectives To assess the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on neonatal mortality, clinical sepsis (...) of the neonate, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in mothers with pre-term premature rupture of membranes. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to January 1995, and EMBASE from 1974 to January 1995, for all literature included under the following terms: 'preterm' or 'premature rupture', 'amniotic' or 'fetal' or 'fetal membrane', 'amnion' or 'amniotic sac', and 'antibiotics'. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included

1996 DARE.

1509. Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes

Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Fried G W, Goetz G, Potts-Nulty S, Solomon G, Cioschi H M, Staas W E Record Status This is a critical (...) abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies. Type of intervention Treatment;primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population A cohort of male and female

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1510. Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin

. Bibliographic details Carbon C, Hotton J M, Pepin L F, Wohlhuter C, Souetre E, Hardens M, Lozet H, Riviera M. Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1996; 37(Supplement C): 151-161 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Acute Disease; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents /adverse effects /economics /therapeutic use; Azithromycin /adverse (...) Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Carbon C, Hotton J M, Pepin L F, Wohlhuter C, Souetre E, Hardens M, Lozet H, Riviera

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1511. A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery

A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery A cost-effectiveness evaluation of 3 antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of infective complications after abdominal surgery Anderson G, Boldiston C, Woods S, O'Brien P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) , metronidazole or cephalosporin, any antibiotic administered within 48 hours of the study, pregnant, immunosuppressed, possibility of pre-existing infection or unlikely to comply with the study protocol (i.e. four week follow-up post surgery). Study design The study was a multi-centred Randomized controlled trial. The duration of follow-up was 4 to 5 weeks. Of the elective or emergency abdominal surgery sample, there were seven groups by operation (appendectomy, colorectal (elective or emergency

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1512. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. (Abstract)

Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. Despite improvements in surgical treatment and intensive care, mortality from severe acute pancreatitis remains high. We have carried out a randomised study of 60 consecutive patients with alcohol-induced necrotising pancreatitis to find out whether early antibiotic treatment can improve outcome. 30 patients were assigned cefuroxime (4.5 g/day intravenously) from admission. In the second group, no antibiotic treatment was given until (...) clinical or microbiologically verified infection or after a secondary rise in C-reactive protein. The inclusion criteria were C-reactive protein concentration above 120 mg/L within 48 h of admission and low enhancement (< 30 Hounsfield units) on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. There were more infectious complications in the non-antibiotic than in the antibiotic group (mean per patient 1.8 vs 1.0, p = 0.01). The most common cause of sepsis was Staphylococcus epidermidis; positive cultures were

1995 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1513. Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women. (Abstract)

Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women. To determine the efficacy, safety, and costs associated with four different 3-day regimens for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.A prospective randomized trial with a cost analysis.Women with acute cystitis attending a student health center.Treatment with 3-day oral regimens of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 160 mg/800 mg twice daily, macrocrystalline (...) ($155).A 3-day regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is more effective and less expensive than 3-day regimens of nitrofurantoin, cefadroxil, or amoxicillin for treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in women. The increased efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is likely related to its antimicrobial effects against E coli in the rectum, urethra, and vagina.

1995 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1514. Antibacterial treatment of gastric ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori. (Abstract)

Antibacterial treatment of gastric ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori. There is a strong association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcers that are unrelated to the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications. We studied the efficacy of antibacterial therapy without medication to suppress gastric acid for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and gastric ulcers unrelated to the use of nonsteroidal agents.Patients with gastric ulcers seen (...) on endoscopy and with H. pylori infection confirmed by smear or culture were randomly assigned to receive either a one-week course of antibacterial agents (120 mg of bismuth subcitrate, 500 mg of tetracycline, and 400 mg of metronidazole, each given orally four times a day) or a four-week course of omeprazole (20 mg orally per day). Follow-up endoscopies were performed after five and nine weeks. The patients and their physicians were aware of the treatment assignments, but the endoscopists were not.A total

1995 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1515. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infection in a general hospital: open, randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infection in a general hospital: open, randomised controlled trial. To see whether there is a difference in outcome between patients treated with oral and intravenous antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection.Open controlled trial in patients admitted consecutively and randomised to treatment with either oral co-amoxiclav, intravenous followed by oral co-amoxiclav, or intravenous followed by oral (...) cephalosporins.Large general hospital in Dublin.541 patients admitted for lower respiratory tract infection during one year. Patients represented 87% of admissions with the diagnosis and excluded those who were immunocompromised and patients with severe life threatening infection.Cure, partial cure, extended antibiotic treatment, change of antibiotic, death, and cost and duration of hospital stay.There were no significant differences between the groups in clinical outcome or mortality (6%). However, patients

1995 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1516. Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics

the H pylori reinfection rate, the H pylori eradication and healing rates, active ulceration healing from treatment with antimicrobials, and therapy eradication rates using two antibiotics with either bismuth or amoxicillin plus omeprazole. Estimated benefits used in the economic analysis The following results indicate the percentages of individual's time taken up with duodenal ulcer complications according to treatment received: 0.3% (antibiotic therapy); 3.4% (maintenance therapy); 5.6% (vagotomy (...) Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Sonnenberg A, Townsend W F Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1517. Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil

Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Hendrickson J R, North D S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic step-down therapy from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil in patients with community-acquired pneumonia or a complicated urinary tract infection. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1518. Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care

Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care Grayson M L, Silvers J, Turnidge J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions (...) followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Intravenous antibiotic therapy administered at home to early-discharge patients with serious bacterial infections. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis Study population To be eligible for home intravenous therapy, patients had to satisfy the following criteria: stable clinical and psychological condition; established long-term venous access

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1519. Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women

Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women Hooton T M, Winter C, Tiu F, Stamm W E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria (...) for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Three-day oral antimicrobial drug therapies for acute uncomplicated cystitis in women: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160mg/800mg twice daily) or macrocrystalline nitrofurantoin (100mg four times daily) or cefadroxil (500mg twice daily) or amoxicillin (5 00mg three times daily

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1520. Computer-assisted antimicrobial surveillance in a community teaching hospital

Computer-assisted antimicrobial surveillance in a community teaching hospital Computer-assisted antimicrobial surveillance in a community teaching hospital Computer-assisted antimicrobial surveillance in a community teaching hospital Jozefiak E T, Lewicki J E, Kozinn W P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed (...) critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antimicrobial surveillance service combining computer-assisted information management with clinical review and intervention by pharmacists. Type of intervention Prescribing management; Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients admitted to a community teaching hospital. Setting Hospital. The study was carried out in Philadelphia, USA. Dates to which data relate

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.