Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

What is Trip?

Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.

Trip has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search.

As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news.

For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com

Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

143. The Effect of Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Administration on the Rate of Infection in Patients Undergoing Posterior Spinal Surgery Requiring a Closed-Suction Drain: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

The Effect of Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Administration on the Rate of Infection in Patients Undergoing Posterior Spinal Surgery Requiring a Closed-Suction Drain: A Randomized Controlled Trial Closed-suction drains are frequently used following posterior spinal surgery. The optimal timing of antibiotic discontinuation in this population may influence infection risk, but there is a paucity of evidence. The aim of this study was to determine whether postoperative antibiotic administration (...) for 72 hours (24 hours after drain removal as drains were removed on the second postoperative day) decreases the incidence of surgical site infection compared with postoperative antibiotic administration for 24 hours.Patients undergoing posterior thoracolumbar spinal surgery managed with a closed-suction drain were prospectively randomized into 1 of 2 groups of postoperative antibiotic durations: (1) 24 hours, or (2) 24 hours after drain removal (72 hours). Drains were discontinued on the second

2019 EvidenceUpdates

145. Correction to: What are the effective solutions to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review protocol Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction to: What are the effective solutions to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review protocol Correction to: What are the effective solutions to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review protocol | Environmental Evidence | Full Text Search Search all BMC articles Search Correction to: What are the effective solutions to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment (...) , Patureau D, Petit F, Laouénan C, Andremont A. What are the effective solutions to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review protocol. Environ Evid. 2018;7:3. . Author information Affiliations INSERM, IAME, UMR 1137, 75018, Paris, France Anaïs Goulas, Nathalie Grall, Cédric Laouénan & Antoine Andremont IAME, UMR 1137, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75018, Paris, France Anaïs Goulas, Nathalie Grall, Cédric Laouénan & Antoine Andremont

2019 Environmental evidence

146. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial. To assess the efficacy of three months of antibiotic treatment compared with placebo in patients with chronic low back pain, previous disc herniation, and vertebral endplate changes (Modic changes).Double blind, parallel group, placebo controlled, multicentre trial.Hospital outpatient clinics at six hospitals in Norway.180 (...) not support the use of antibiotic treatment for chronic low back pain and Modic changes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02323412.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

147. Antibiotic exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis Antibiotic exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should (...) not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Research article Antibiotic exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis Yuting Li, Kaiyin He, Xiaojuan Peng, Chenxing Zhang, Lu Zhong, Shaohui Tang Yuting Li the first affiliated hospital, JiNan university Kaiyin He the first affiliated hospital, jinan university Xiaojuan Peng affiliated hospital (clinical collage

2019 Research Square

148. Molecular Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Africa: A Systematic Review of Current Reports Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Africa: A Systematic Review of Current Reports Molecular Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Africa: A Systematic Review of Current Reports | medRxiv Search for this keyword Molecular Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Africa: A Systematic (...) are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Molecular Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Africa: A Systematic Review of Current Reports John Osei Sekyere , Melese Abate Reta , Nontuthuko Excellent Maningi , Petrus Bernard Fourie medRxiv 19008052; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/19008052 Share This Article: Copy Molecular Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

2019 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

149. Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Osteomyelitis (both acute and chronic) is one of the most common infectious complications in people with sickle cell disease. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from osteomyelitis (...) . This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (monotherapy or combination therapy) is effective and safe as compared to pathogen-directed antibiotic treatment and whether this effectiveness and safety is dependent on different treatment regimens, age or setting.We searched The Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant

2019 Cochrane

150. Cellulitis and erysipelas: antimicrobial prescribing

. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations, including tables to support prescribing decisions. For managing other skin conditions, see our web page on skin conditions. NICE has also produced a guideline on antimicrobial stewardship: systems and processes for effective antimicrobial medicine use. Who is it for? Healthcare professionals People with cellulitis and erysipelas, their families and carers Cellulitis and erysipelas (...) Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status if known. 1.1.5 Give oral antibiotics first line if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. Cellulitis and erysipelas: antimicrobial prescribing (NG141) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 361.1.6 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

151. Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

37 Resource implications 37 Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing (NG138) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 37Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people, children and babies aged 72 hours and over with a confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic (...) disease or immunosuppression local antimicrobial resistance and surveillance data (such as flu and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection rates) recent antibiotic use recent microbiological results, including colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria. 1.1.2 Start antibiotic treatment as soon as possible after establishing a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, and certainly within 4 hours (within 1 hour if the person has suspected sepsis and meets any of the high risk criteria for this – see

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

152. Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated (...) : March 25, 2019 Project Number: RC1086-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for preventing and treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the pediatric population? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

153. Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness

Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review (...) of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Last updated: March 29, 2019 Project Number: RC1107-000 - RD0051-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the comparative clinical effectiveness of biologics (with or without concomitant immunomodulators

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

154. Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use

Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies which are essential for the site to work. We also use non-essential cookies to help us improve government digital services. Any data collected is anonymised. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Antibiotic awareness: important messages (...) on antibiotic use This document explains how to use antibiotics responsibly for patients, animal keepers, pet owners and prescribers. Published 23 September 2014 Last updated 7 October 2019 — From: Documents Ref: PHE publication gateway reference: GW-779 If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email . Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use. Details PHE has

2019 Public Health England

155. Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

of 23Contents Contents Overview 4 Who is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing hospital-acquired pneumonia 5 1.2 Choice of antibiotic 6 T erms used in the guideline 13 Hospital-acquired pneumonia 13 Summary of the evidence 14 Antibiotic prescribing strategies 14 Choice of antibiotics 15 Antibiotic course length, dosage and route of administration 22 Other considerations 23 Medicines adherence 23 Resource implications 23 Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing (NG139) © NICE 2019. All (...) rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 23Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people, children and babies aged 72 hours and over with a confirmed diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia. It does not cover ventilator-associated pneumonia. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

156. Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial Many of the 4.5 billion annual episodes of diarrhea are treated unnecessarily with antibiotics; prevalence of antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens is increasing. Knowledge-based antibiotic stewardship interventions typically yield little change in antibiotic use.To compare antibiotic use among adult outpatients with diarrhea given bismuth (...) assigned (1:1) to receive BSS or placebo for 48 hours or less.Use of systemic antibiotics within 5 days of enrollment. Secondary outcomes included measures of duration and severity of illness.Among eligible patients, 39 declined to participate, 440 enrolled, and 1 enrolled participant was lost to follow-up, for a total of 439 patients included in the analysis. Median (interquartile range) participant age was 32 (23-45) years and 187 (43%) were male. Two hundred twenty patients were randomized to BSS

2019 EvidenceUpdates

157. Long term macrolide antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults - individual participant data meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long term macrolide antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults - individual participant data meta-analysis Long term macrolide antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults - individual participant data meta-analysis | European Respiratory Society Main menu User menu Search Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Long term macrolide antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults - individual participant data meta-analysis Josje Altenburg , James (...) to identify RCT’s of macrolide antibiotics for at least 3 months with a primary outcome of BE exacerbations. IPD meta-analysis was performed using fixed effects models adjusting for age, sex, FEV1 and trial. Results: IPD was obtained for 341 participants in 3 RCTs. Macrolides reduced the frequency of exacerbations adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.49 95% CI 0.36-0.66,p<0.0001 and were associated with improved quality of life measured by the St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (+ 2.9 points (95% CI

2019 Respiratory infections

158. The efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

The efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis The efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis | European Respiratory Society Main menu User menu Search Search for this keyword Search for this keyword The efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults: a systematic review and meta (...) D Chalmers 1 Scottish Centre for Respiratory Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom Abstract Background: Whilst use of inhaled antibiotics is the standard of care in patients with cystic fibrosis, there is limited evidence to support use of inhaled antibiotics in patients with bronchiectasis not due to cystic fibrosis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all trials of inhaled antibiotics in adult bronchiectasis. Methods: Publications included for analysis were

2019 Respiratory infections

159. Acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) carriage after exposure to systemic antimicrobials during travel: systematic review and meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fifteen studies were included. The study population was mainly female travellers from high income countries recruited primarily from travel clinics. Participants travelled most frequently to Asia and Africa with 10% reporting antimicrobial use during travel. The combined odds ratio (OR) for ESBL-PE acquisition during travel was 2.37 for antimicrobial use overall (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69 to 3.33), but there was substantial heterogeneity between studies. Fluoroquinolones were the antibiotic (...) Acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) carriage after exposure to systemic antimicrobials during travel: systematic review and meta-analysis. Acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) carriage after exposure to systemic antimicrobials during travel: systematic review and meta-analysis | medRxiv Search for this keyword Acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE

2019 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

160. Antibiotics for trachoma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and it was difficult to judge risk of bias.There was low-certainty evidence of little or no difference in effect between oral and topical antibiotics on active trachoma at three months (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.16; 953 people; 6 RCTs; I2 = 63%) and 12 months (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.15; 886 people; 5 RCTs; I2 = 56%). There was very low-certainty evidence for ocular infection at three or 12 months. Antimicrobial resistance was not assessed. In those studies that reported adverse effects, no serious adverse (...) Antibiotics for trachoma. Trachoma is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. In 1996, WHO launched the Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by the year 2020, based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement).To assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE strategy by assessing the effects of antibiotics on both active trachoma (primary objective), Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the conjunctiva

2019 Cochrane