Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

162. General medicine: Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections

General medicine: Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using (...) your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections Article Text Commentary General

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine

163. Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Following clean (class I, not contaminated) surgical procedures, the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) should be less than approximately 2%. However, an infection rate of 12.2% has been reported following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee.To evaluate (...) the effect of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of SSIs following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee.Multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial including 500 patients aged 18 to 75 years with previous surgical treatment for fractures below the knee who were undergoing removal of orthopedic implants from 19 hospitals (17 teaching and 2 academic) in the Netherlands (November 2014-September 2016), with a follow-up of 6

2017 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

164. Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment.To compare (...) the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children.A retrospective cohort study assessing clinical outcomes and a prospective cohort study assessing patient-centered outcomes of children between the ages of 6 months and 12 years diagnosed with an acute respiratory tract infection and prescribed an oral antibiotic between January 2015 and April 2016 in a network of 31 pediatric primary care practices in Pennsylvania and New Jersey

2017 JAMA

165. The rumen microbiome: an underexplored resource for novel antimicrobial discovery Full Text available with Trip Pro

The rumen microbiome: an underexplored resource for novel antimicrobial discovery Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drug candidates to target multi-drug resistant bacteria. The rumen microbiome presents an underexplored resource for the discovery of novel microbial enzymes and metabolites, including AMPs. Using functional screening and computational approaches, we identified 181 potentially novel AMPs from a rumen bacterial metagenome. Here, we show that three of the selected AMPs (...) in bacterial counts, which was comparable to treatment with 2% mupirocin ointment. Our findings indicate that the rumen microbiome may provide viable alternative antimicrobials for future therapeutic application.

2017 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

166. Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial We investigated the efficacy of oral antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery for Crohn disease.Although oral antibiotic prophylaxis with mechanical bowel preparation has been recommended for colorectal surgery, the use of this approach remains somewhat controversial. Moreover, the efficacy of this approach (...) A (12/163; 7.4%) than in group B (27/162; 16.6%) (P = 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, the absence of oral antibiotic prophylaxis was an independent risk factor for incisional SSI (odds ratio: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-8.3; P = 0.01).Combined oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with Crohn disease contributed to the prevention of SSI.

2017 EvidenceUpdates

167. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis (Abstract)

Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis Uncomplicated appendicitis may resolve spontaneously or require treatment with antibiotics or appendicectomy. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the outcome of a non-antibiotic management strategy with that of antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated appendicitis.Patients presenting to a university teaching hospital with CT-verified uncomplicated simple appendicitis (appendiceal diameter no larger than 11 mm (...) and without any signs of perforation) were randomized to management with a no-antibiotic regimen with supportive care (intravenous fluids, analgesia and antipyretics as necessary) or a 4-day course of antibiotics with supportive care. The primary endpoint was rate of total treatment failure, defined as initial treatment failure within 1 month and recurrence of appendicitis during the follow-up period.Some 245 patients were randomized within the trial, and followed up for a median of 19 months

2017 EvidenceUpdates

168. [KOKUSAI]Third tripartite meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents posted

the text. Tripartite Meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents In response to the discussions at the G7 summits (in Schloss Elmau and Ise-Shima) on the countermeasures taken against antimicrobial resistant infections, EMA, FDA and PMDA held a tripartite face-to-face meeting. Date Location SUMMARY 1 1-2 September 2016, London At this meeting, in addition to sharing information on current situation regarding the data requirements for the approval of new (...) [KOKUSAI]Third tripartite meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents posted Tripartite Meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents | Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency Please make JavaScript on and see this site. Navigation of each product type Our recommended contents Navigation of each product type Our recommended contents Tripartite Meeting (for Antibacterial Agents) Here begins

2017 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

169. Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security 29255786 2018 11 13 2352-7714 5 2018 Jun One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands) One Health Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security. 6-8 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.11.004 George Anna A eng Editorial 2017 11 28 Netherlands One Health 101660501 2352-7714 2017 11 26 2017 11 27 2017 12 20 6 0 2017 12 20 6 0 2017 12 20 6 1 epublish 29255786 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.11.004 S2352-7714(17)30059-9 PMC5725214 Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;16(2

2017 One health

170. Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? 29296882 2018 11 13 2473-9529 1 25 2017 Nov 28 Blood advances Blood Adv Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? 2325-2328 10.1182/bloodadvances.2017005108 Shono Yusuke Y 0000-0002-0459-1659 Department of Immunology, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. van den Brink Marcel R M

2017 Blood advances

171. Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic (...) administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits. We tested the effects of antibiotics on mortality after a pathogen challenge in the Poecilia sphenops black molly and subsequently tested if probiotic inoculations could reverse any antibiotic-induced losses of disease resistance. We found that antibiotic treatment significantly increased fish mortality. We further found that our two candidate probiotic bacterial

2017 mSystems

172. Antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy repair following vaginal birth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(e.g. endometritis) were reported in either the antibiotic or control group.The trial did not report on any of the secondary outcomes of interest for this review, including severe maternal infectious morbidity, discomfort or pain at the episiotomy wound site, sexual function postpartum, adverse effects of antibiotics, costs of care, women's satisfaction with care, and individual antimicrobial resistance.There was insufficient evidence to assess the clinical benefits or harms of routine antibiotic (...) Antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy repair following vaginal birth. Bacterial infections occurring during labour, childbirth, and the puerperium may be associated with considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic prophylaxis might reduce wound infection incidence after an episiotomy, particularly in situations associated with a higher risk of postpartum perineal infection, such as midline episiotomy, extension of the incision, or in settings where the baseline risk

2017 Cochrane

173. Sinusitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

Background 5 Recommendations 6 1.1 Managing acute sinusitis 6 1.2 Choice of antibiotic 8 1.3 Self-care 10 Symptoms and signs 12 Common symptoms and signs 12 Factors that might make a bacterial cause more likely 12 Summary of the evidence 13 Self-care 13 Nasal corticosteroids 14 No antibiotic 15 Back-up antibiotics 17 Choice of antibiotic 18 Antibiotic course length 21 Other considerations 23 Medicines adherence 23 Resource implications 23 Sinusitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG79) © NICE 2019 (...) . All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 24Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute sinusitis. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute sinusitis is usually caused by a virus, lasts for about 2 to 3 weeks, and most people get better without antibiotics. Withholding antibiotics rarely leads to complications. See a 2-page visual

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

174. Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam

in combination with an antibacterial agent active against gram-positive pathogens when these are known or suspected to be contributing to the infectious process. d The total duration shown may include intravenous ceftazidime/avibactam followed by appropriate oral therapy. e There is very limited experience with the use of ceftazidime/avibactam for more than 14 days. Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam (ES16) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk (...) Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/ Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/ a avibactam vibactam Evidence summary Published: 13 November 2017 nice.org.uk/guidance/es16 pathways Ov Overview erview This evidence summary outlines the best available evidence for a new intravenous antimicrobial, ceftazidime/avibactam (Zavicefta). It is indicated for treating: complicated intra-abdominal infections complicated urinary tract infections, including

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

175. Antimicrobial resistance and universal health coverage Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial resistance and universal health coverage The WHO launched a Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 2015. World leaders in the G7, G20 and the UN General Assembly have declared AMR to be a global crisis. World leaders have also adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a key target under the sustainable development goals. This paper argues that neither initiative is likely to succeed in isolation from the other and that the policy goals should be to both provide (...) access to appropriate antimicrobial treatment and reduce the risk of the emergence and spread of resistance by taking a systems approach. It focuses on outpatient treatment of human infections and identifies a number of interventions that would be needed to achieve these policy goals. It then shows how a strategy for achieving key attributes of a health system for UHC can take into account the need to address AMR as part of a UHC strategy in any country. It concludes with a list of recommended

2017 BMJ global health

176. Explaining family physicians’ beliefs about antibiotic prescription Full Text available with Trip Pro

Explaining family physicians’ beliefs about antibiotic prescription Antibiotics are among those drugs prescribed abundantly in hospitals due to their high efficiency. However, excessive, non-logical and unnecessary use of antibiotics regardless of physicians' recommendations is considered as a challenge.The aim of this study was to explain family physicians' beliefs about antibiotic prescription in Ahvaz.This study is part of a content-analysis qualitative research conducted in Ahvaz in 2016 (...) composed of 20 subcategories. They were 1) expected outcomes of antibiotics (perceived pros and cons); 2) perceived pressure to follow others' opinions; 3) the level of access to antibiotics; and 4) individual's perception for prescription.Findings of this study showed that various factors affect physicians' decisions to prescribe antibiotics and it is emphasized to consider these factors.

2017 Electronic physician

177. Topical antimicrobial agents for pediatric burns Full Text available with Trip Pro

Topical antimicrobial agents for pediatric burns While topical antimicrobial agents are indicated for most if not all burn wounds, the choice of a topical agent must consider many factors such as the wound depth, anticipated time to healing, need for surgical intervention, and the known cytotoxicity of the agent. Especially relevant to the pediatric burn patient are the antimicrobial agent's properties related to causing pain or irritation and the required frequency of application and dressings (...) . This article will discuss the general principles surrounding the use of topical antimicrobials on burn wounds and will review the most common agents currently in use.

2017 Burns & trauma

178. Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children (...) a significant burden on both patients and their families, including substantial expense, loss of routine, and decrease in quality of life. By reducing the duration of hospital treatment, healthcare burdens could potentially be reduced and treatment compliance may improve.This is an update of a review published in 2015.To evaluate the efficacy of short-course (two to three days) versus long-course (five days) intravenous therapy (alone or in combination with oral antibiotics) with the same antibiotic

2017 Cochrane

179. Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions 29049577 2017 10 25 2018 11 13 1538-3598 318 14 2017 10 10 JAMA JAMA Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions. 1391-1392 10.1001/jama.2017.11152 Linder Jeffrey A JA Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Meeker Daniella D University of Southern

2017 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

180. Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function Many essential bacterial responses present complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression. To what extent can the study of these responses substantiate the logic of their regulation? Here, we show how the input function of the genes constituting the response, i.e., the information of how their transcription rates change as function of the signals acting on the regulators, can serve (...) as a quantitative tool to deconstruct the corresponding regulatory logic. To demonstrate this approach, we consider the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) response in Escherichia coli. By characterizing the input function of its representative genes in wild-type and mutant bacteria, we recognize a dual autoregulation motif as main determinant of the response, which is further adjusted by the interplay with other regulators. We show that basic attributes, like its reaction to a wide range of stress or its

2017 NPJ systems biology and applications