Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

161. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. Surgery has been used as part of breast cancer treatment for centuries; however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are documented at between 3% and 15%, higher than average for a clean surgical procedure. Pre- and perioperative antibiotics have been found to be useful in lowering infection rates in other surgical groups, yet (...) there is no consensus on the use of prophylactic antibiotics for breast cancer surgery. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2014.To determine the effects of prophylactic (pre- or perioperative) antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after breast cancer surgery.For this fourth update, in August 2018 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process

2019 Cochrane

162. Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. The clinical presentation of acute chest syndrome is similar whether due to infectious or non-infectious causes, thus antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat all episodes. Many different pathogens, including bacteria, have been implicated as causative agents of acute chest syndrome. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus (...) , there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from acute chest syndrome. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007, and most recently updated in 2015.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (used alone or in combination):1. is effective for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard treatment;2. is safe for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard

2019 Cochrane

163. Blood Culture Results Before and After Antimicrobial Administration in Patients With Severe Manifestations of Sepsis: A Diagnostic Study. (Abstract)

Blood Culture Results Before and After Antimicrobial Administration in Patients With Severe Manifestations of Sepsis: A Diagnostic Study. Administering antimicrobial agents before obtaining blood cultures could potentially decrease time to treatment and improve outcomes, but it is unclear how this strategy affects diagnostic sensitivity.To determine the sensitivity of blood cultures obtained shortly after initiation of antimicrobial therapy in patients with severe manifestations (...) of sepsis.Patient-level, single-group, diagnostic study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01867905).7 emergency departments in North America.Adults with severe manifestations of sepsis, including systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg or a serum lactate level of 4 mmol/L or more.Blood cultures were obtained before and within 120 minutes after initiation of antimicrobial treatment.Sensitivity of blood cultures obtained after initiation of antimicrobial therapy.Of 3164 participants screened, 325 were included

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

164. Antibiotic or silver versus standard ventriculoperitoneal shunts (BASICS): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised trial and economic evaluation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic or silver versus standard ventriculoperitoneal shunts (BASICS): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised trial and economic evaluation. Insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus is one of the commonest neurosurgical procedures worldwide. Infection of the implanted shunt affects up to 15% of these patients, resulting in prolonged hospital treatment, multiple surgeries, and reduced cognition and quality of life. Our aim was to determine the clinical and cost (...) -effectiveness of antibiotic (rifampicin and clindamycin) or silver shunts compared with standard shunts at reducing infection.In this parallel, multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial, we included patients with hydrocephalus of any aetiology undergoing insertion of their first ventriculoperitoneal shunt irrespective of age at 21 regional adult and paediatric neurosurgery centres in the UK and Ireland. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1 in random permuted blocks of three or six) to receive

2019 Lancet

165. The Barriers in the implementation of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: A systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

is limited. We searched for the relevant articles from 2007 till the end of 2017 using the keyword “Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs" in PubMed database. Results There are many barriers in the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs. To improve the rational use of antibiotics it is important to overcome these barriers. Conclusion According to the included studies into current review or manuscript, there are 9 major barriers for ASPs. Lack of training and knowledge, inter-professional (...) that help to stop the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Methods The published literature on the barriers of implementing stewardship programs is limited. We searched for the relevant articles from 2007 till the end of 2017 using the keyword “Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs" in PubMed database. Results There are many barriers in the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs. To improve the rational use of antibiotics it is important to overcome these barriers. Conclusion According

2019 Research Square

166. Mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation versus no bowel preparation for elective colectomy (MOBILE): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, single-blinded trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation versus no bowel preparation for elective colectomy (MOBILE): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, single-blinded trial. Decreased surgical site infections (SSIs) and morbidity have been reported with mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation (MOABP) compared with no bowel preparation (NBP) in colonic surgery. Several societies have recommended routine use of MOABP in patients undergoing colon resection on the basis of these data. Our aim

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

167. Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Progressive lung damage from recurrent exacerbations is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. Life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. One of the major reasons for this increase is the mounting use of antibiotics to treat chest exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. The optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is not clearly (...) defined. Individuals usually receive intravenous antibiotics for 14 days, but treatment may range from 10 to 21 days. A shorter duration of antibiotic treatment risks inadequate clearance of infection which could lead to further lung damage. Prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics are expensive and inconvenient. The risk of systemic side effects such as allergic reactions to antibiotics also increases with prolonged courses and the use of aminoglycosides requires frequent monitoring to minimise

2019 Cochrane

168. Long-term follow-up of the AVOD randomized trial of antibiotic avoidance in uncomplicated diverticulitis (Abstract)

Long-term follow-up of the AVOD randomized trial of antibiotic avoidance in uncomplicated diverticulitis The aim of this study was to assess the long-term results in patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis who had participated in the Antibiotics in Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis (AVOD) RCT, which randomized patients with CT-verified left-sided acute uncomplicated diverticulitis to management without or with antibiotics.The medical records of patients who had participated in the AVOD (...) trial were reviewed for long-term results such as recurrences, complications and surgery. Quality-of-life questionnaires (EQ-5D™) were sent to patients, who were also contacted by telephone. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of clinical outcomes.A total of 556 of the 623 patients (89·2 per cent) were followed up for a median of 11 years. There were no differences between the no-antibiotic and antibiotic group in recurrences (both 31·3 per cent; P = 0·986), complications (4·4 versus 5

2019 EvidenceUpdates

169. Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting) – reducing antibiotic prescribing

in the event of a significant clinical deterioration. Sore throat/pharyngitis/tonsillitis has been excluded from the contextualised guideline for two reasons: (i) in contrast to the UK, New Zealand has a relatively high incidence of rheumatic fever and therefore the risks of not prescribing an antibiotic treatment for many patients with sore throat are very much greater; and (ii) in New Zealand there are widely used guidelines that recommend antimicrobial treatment for patients with sore throat who (...) Otitis Media. Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Pediatrics, 2004 113(5), 1451-65. 2. McGregor A, Dovey S, Tilyard M. Antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections in New Zealand. Family Practice 1995;12:166-70. 3. Thomas MG, Smith AJ, Tilyard M. Rising antimicrobial resistance: a strong reason to reduce antimicrobial consumption in New Zealand. NZ Med J 2014;127:1394:72-84. 4. Heart Foundation of New Zealand: Guidelines for Group A Streptococcal Sore Throat Management Guideline

2019 Best Practice Advocacy Centre New Zealand

170. Evaluation of Antibiotic-Impregnated Shunt Catheters in Prevention of Shunt Infections: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of Antibiotic-Impregnated Shunt Catheters in Prevention of Shunt Infections: A Systematic Review Evaluation of Antibiotic-Impregnated Shunt Catheters in Prevention of Shunt Infections: A Systematic Review | | | | Journal Archive | | | | Journal Management System. Designed by .

2019 Egyptian Journal of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation

171. Self-medication with antibiotics in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Self-medication with antibiotics in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Self-medication with antibiotics in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should (...) not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Research article Self-medication with antibiotics in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Shah Jahan Shayan, Reza Negarandeh, Rajab Nazari, Frank Kiwanuka, Sanaz Akhavan Rad Shah Jahan Shayan Kabul university of medical science, nursing and midwifery faculty, department of fundamental of nursing Corresponding Author ORCiD: https

2019 Research Square

172. F1000Prime recommendation of Prophylactic use of macrolide antibiotics for the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: a meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the most relevant new articles for you. chevron_left chevron_right Relevant Sections Pharmacology & Drug Discovery Antimicrobial Agents Respiratory Pharmacology Toxicology Respiratory Disorders COPD & Allied Disorders close Make sure you never miss a key paper Discover the articles of most relevance to your research Evaluate expert opinion on the most impactful research Understand the key points and context of the article close Prophylactic use of macrolide antibiotics for the prevention of chronic (...) F1000Prime recommendation of Prophylactic use of macrolide antibiotics for the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: a meta-analysis. Prophylactic use of macrolide antibiotics for the... | Faculty Opinions On April 12th, 2020, F1000Prime became Faculty Opinions. See our to learn more. Welcome Guest 1 Recommendations info_outline Systematic Review / Meta-analysis New Finding close Classified As New Finding 1 Article Type Systematic Review / Meta-analysis More

2019 Faculty Opinions – Post-Publication Peer Review of the Biomedical Literature

173. Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study. (Abstract)

Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study. Randomized trials demonstrate no benefit from antibiotic treatment exceeding the shortest effective duration.To examine predictors and outcomes associated with excess duration of antibiotic treatment.Retrospective cohort study.43 hospitals in the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium.6481 general care medical patients with pneumonia.The primary outcome (...) was the rate of excess antibiotic treatment duration (excess days per 30-day period). Excess days were calculated by subtracting each patient's shortest effective (expected) treatment duration (based on time to clinical stability, pathogen, and pneumonia classification [community-acquired vs. health care-associated]) from the actual duration. Negative binomial generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to calculate rate ratios to assess predictors of 30-day rates of excess duration. Patient outcomes

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

174. The Effects of Intravenous Antibiotic Administration during the Surgical Removal of Third Molar: Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effects of Intravenous Antibiotic Administration during the Surgical Removal of Third Molar: Systematic Review The Effects of Intravenous Antibiotic Administration during the Surgical Removal of Third Molar: Systematic Review | Journal of Young Pharmacists | Authors: Ramasamy Chidambaram* Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, AIMST University, Jalan Bedong- Semeling, Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman, MALAYSIA. Abstract: Intravenous antibiotics a subset of parenteral route help (...) be collected pertinent to antibiotic therapy in third molar surgery including the protocols laid by American Association of Oral maxillofacial Surgeons and American Academic of Pediatric Dentistry. In the final stage, a couple of articles on in vitro studies, three short discussions, one evidence-based report and a letter to editor met the required desired criteria. The results revealed that it is highly preferable to administrate intravenous antibiotics in high-risk individuals to reduce surgical site

2019 Journal of Young Pharmacists

175. Use of Antibiotics Without a Prescription in the U.S. Population: A Scoping Review. (Abstract)

Use of Antibiotics Without a Prescription in the U.S. Population: A Scoping Review. Use of antibiotics without a prescription may increase unnecessary and inappropriate drug use or doses as well as global risk for antimicrobial resistance.To perform a scoping review of research on the prevalence of nonprescription antibiotic use in the United States and to examine the factors that influence it.Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, and relevant Web sites without language restrictions from (...) January 2000 to March 2019.Studies reporting nonprescription use of antibiotics, storage of antibiotics, intention to use antibiotics without a prescription, and factors influencing nonprescription use.Two reviewers independently screened citations and full texts and performed data abstraction.Of 17 422 screened articles, 31 met inclusion criteria. Depending on population characteristics, prevalence of nonprescription antibiotic use varied from 1% to 66%, storage of antibiotics for future use varied

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

176. C-Reactive Protein Testing to Guide Antibiotic Prescribing for COPD Exacerbations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

C-Reactive Protein Testing to Guide Antibiotic Prescribing for COPD Exacerbations. Point-of-care testing of C-reactive protein (CRP) may be a way to reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics without harming patients who have acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).We performed a multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with a diagnosis of COPD in their primary care clinical record who consulted a clinician at 1 of 86 general medical (...) practices in England and Wales for an acute exacerbation of COPD. The patients were assigned to receive usual care guided by CRP point-of-care testing (CRP-guided group) or usual care alone (usual-care group). The primary outcomes were patient-reported use of antibiotics for acute exacerbations of COPD within 4 weeks after randomization (to show superiority) and COPD-related health status at 2 weeks after randomization, as measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, a 10-item scale with scores ranging

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

177. A Meta-Analysis on Antibiotic Residues in Meat of Broiler Chickens in Developing Countries Full Text available with Trip Pro

and Akakpo AJ (2004). Search for residues of antibacterial substance in chicken meat consumed in the Dakar region (Senegal). Bulletin of the Veterinary Academy of France, 157(2): 67-70. Available at:www.academie-veterinaire-france.fr accessed on 19 May 2019. Ben Mohand and Chabha (2008). Master's thesis in veterinary sciences. Contribution to the study of antimicrobial residues in broiler chicken muscle.magistral thesis in vetrinary science, Option: Hygiene and food safety, National Veterinary School El (...) Prevalence of Antibiotic Residues among Broiler Chickens in Gaza Strip, 6 (4): 93-98. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12358/25303. Accessed on 18 May 2019. Er B, Onurdag FK., Demirhan B, Özgacar SÖ, Öktem AB and Abbasoglu U (2013). Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey. Poultry science, 92(8): 2212-2215. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03072. Ezenduka EV, Ike OS and Anaelom NJ (2014). Rapid detection of antimicrobial residues

2019 Journal of World's Poultry Research

178. Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Risk factors for maternal infection are clearly recognised, including caesarean section and operative vaginal birth. Antibiotic prophylaxis at caesarean section is widely recommended because there is clear systematic review evidence that it reduces incidence of maternal infection. Current WHO guidelines do not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis (...) for women undergoing operative vaginal birth because of insufficient evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to investigate whether antibiotic prophylaxis prevented maternal infection after operative vaginal birth.In a blinded, randomised controlled trial done at 27 UK obstetric units, women (aged ≥16 years) were allocated to receive a single dose of intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid or placebo (saline) following operative vaginal birth at 36 weeks gestation or later. The primary outcome

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

179. Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis (CF) a life-limiting inherited disease affecting a number of organs, but classically associated with chronic lung infection and progressive loss of lung function. Chronic infection by Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and therefore represents a significant challenge to clinicians treating people with CF. This review (...) examines the current evidence for long-term antibiotic therapy in people with CF and chronic BCC infection.The objective of this review is to assess the effects of long-term oral and inhaled antibiotic therapy targeted against chronic BCC lung infections in people with CF. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of treatments in terms of improvements in lung function and reductions in exacerbation rate. Secondary objectives include quantifying adverse events, mortality and changes in quality

2019 Cochrane

180. CRP-guided antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD in hospital admissions Full Text available with Trip Pro

CRP-guided antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD in hospital admissions The role of antibiotics in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial and a biomarker identifying patients who benefit from antibiotics is mandatory. We performed a randomised, controlled trial in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD, comparing C-reactive protein (CRP)-guided antibiotic treatment to patient reported symptoms in accordance with the Global (...) Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy, in order to show a reduction in antibiotic prescription.Patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of COPD were randomised to receive antibiotics based either on the GOLD strategy or according to the CRP strategy (CRP ≥50 mg·L-1).In total, 101 patients were randomised to the CRP group and 119 to the GOLD group. Fewer patients in the CRP group were treated with antibiotics compared to the GOLD group (31.7% versus 46.2%, p=0.028; adjusted

2019 EvidenceUpdates