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Latest & greatest articles for aspirin
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Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) more commonly known as aspirin is a painkiller that has a wide range of uses. It is frequently used to treat fever, mild pain, tooth aches, headaches and muscle aches. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and can be used in the management of conditions such as heart attack, arthritis, blood clots and stroke. Aspirin, has been used for thousands of years, initially extracted from the leaves of willow trees.
Aspirin works in much the same way as other NSAIDs but has additional properties, such as antiplatelet activity which can make it additionally useful. More recently aspirin has been linked with cancer prevention. But the potential benefits of aspirin need to be weighed against the potential side effects, which includes gastrointestinal bleeding and Reye’s syndrome. It should be noted that aspirin should not be used in people who are allergic to drugs such as ibuprofen or a more generalized intolerance to NSAIDs. It should also be used cautiously in asthmatics and/or those with bronchospasm associated with NSAID use.
Research evidence, clinical trials and guidelines on Aspirin
Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by aspirin: a cost-effectiveness analysis Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by aspirin: a cost-effectiveness analysis Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by aspirin: a cost-effectiveness analysis Suleiman S, Rex D K, Sonnenberg A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed (...) critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Three strategies for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) were examined: colonoscopy (COL) once every 10 years or, in case of adenomatous polyps, every 3 years until polyps were no longer found; chemoprevention (CHE) with 325 mg/day aspirin; and a combination of the first and second strategies (i.e. COL every 10 or 3 years plus 325 mg/day aspirin). Type of intervention Diagnosis and primary prevention
Role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review Role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review Role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review Gisbert J P, Gomollon F, Mate J, Pajares J M Authors' objectives To perform a systematic review of the efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds (oral and topical) in the treatment (...) disease', and any of the following terms: 'mesalamine', 'mesalazine', '5-ASA', '5-aminosalicylic acid'. The references from reviews and meta-analyses on the treatment of IBD with 5-ASA, and from the articles selected for the study, were also examined. Articles published in any language were considered. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion. Specific interventions included in the review Studies which
of acetylsalicylicacid in the prevention of coronary heart disease] Metaanalisis de la evidencia cientifica sobre la utilidad de la toma esporadica de acido acetilsalicilico en la prevencion de enfermedad coronaria [Meta-analysis of the scientific evidence on the usefulness of sporadic intake of acetylsalicylicacid in the prevention of coronary heart disease] Pueyo G, Elosua R, Marrugat J Authors' objectives To determine whether sporadic intake of aspirin protects against coronary heart disease. Searching (...) . Bibliographic details Pueyo G, Elosua R, Marrugat J. Metaanalisis de la evidencia cientifica sobre la utilidad de la toma esporadica de acido acetilsalicilico en la prevencion de enfermedad coronaria [Meta-analysis of the scientific evidence on the usefulness of sporadic intake of acetylsalicylicacid in the prevention of coronary heart disease] Medicina Clinica 2002; 18(5): 166-169 Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Aspirin /administration & Coronary Disease /prevention & Platelet
Cost effectiveness of aspirin, clopidogrel, or both for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
Acetaminophen, aspirin, and chronic renal failure. Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between heavy consumption of nonnarcotic analgesics and the occurrence of chronic renal failure, but it is unclear which is the cause and which is the effectIn a nationwide, population-based, case-control study of early-stage chronic renal failure in Sweden, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 926 patients with newly diagnosed renal failure and 998 control subjects, of whom (...) of 2.5 in the risk of chronic renal failure from any cause. The relative risks rose with increasing cumulative lifetime doses, rose more consistently with acetaminophen use than with aspirin use, and were increased for most disease-specific types of chronic renal failure. When we disregarded the recent use of analgesics, which could have occurred in response to antecedents of renal disease, the associations were only slightly attenuatedOur results are consistent with the existence of exacerbating
Aspirin as an adjunct to screening for prevention of sporadic colorectal cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis. Aspirin may decrease colorectal cancer incidence, but its role as an adjunct to or substitute for screening has not been evaluated.To examine the potential cost-effectiveness of aspirin chemoprophylaxis in relation to screening.Markov model.Literature on colorectal cancer epidemiology, screening, costs, and aspirin chemoprevention (1980-1999).General U.S. population.50 to 80 years (...) of age.Third-party payer.Aspirin therapy in patients screened with sigmoidoscopy every 5 years and fecal occult blood testing every year (FS/FOBT) or colonoscopy every 10 years (COLO).Discounted cost per life-year gained.When a 30% reduction in colorectal cancer risk was assumed, aspirin increased costs and decreased life-years because of related complications as an adjunct to FS/FOBT and cost $149 161 per life-year gained as an adjunct to COLO. In patients already taking aspirin, screening with FS/FOBT
Aspirin use and all-cause mortality among patients being evaluated for known or suspected coronary artery disease: A propensity analysis. Although aspirin has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and short-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction, the association between its use and long-term all-cause mortality has not been well defined.To determine whether aspirin is associated with a mortality benefit in stable patients with known or suspected coronary disease (...) and to identify patient characteristics that predict the maximum absolute mortality benefit from aspirin.Prospective, nonrandomized, observational cohort study conducted between 1990 and 1998 at an academic medical institution, with a median follow-up of 3.1 years.Of 6174 consecutive adults undergoing stress echocardiography for evaluation of known or suspected coronary disease, 2310 (37%) were taking aspirin. Patients with significant valvular disease or documented contraindication to aspirin use, including
Preventing recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection who are taking low-dose aspirin or naproxen. Many patients who have had upper gastrointestinal bleeding continue to take low-dose aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis or other non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for musculoskeletal pain. It is uncertain whether infection with Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for bleeding in such patients.We studied patients with a history of upper (...) gastrointestinal bleeding who were infected with H. pylori and who were taking low-dose aspirin or other NSAIDs. We evaluated whether eradication of the infection or omeprazole treatment was more effective in preventing recurrent bleeding. We recruited patients who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding that was confirmed by endoscopy. Their ulcers were healed by daily treatment with 20 mg of omeprazole for eight weeks or longer. Then, those who had been taking aspirin were given 80 mg of aspirin daily
Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. In addition to the treatment of specific cardiovascular risk factors, intervention which interferes with the general mechanisms of atherosclerosis could further reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. We aimed to investigate in general practice the efficacy of antiplatelets and antioxidants in primary prevention of cardiovascular (...) events in people with one or more major cardiovascular risk factors.We did a randomised controlled open 2x2 factorial trial to investigate low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) and vitamin E (300 mg/day) in the prevention of cardiovascular events, in people with one or more of the following: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, obesity, family history of premature myocardial infarction, or individuals who were elderly.4495 people (2583 female, mean age 64.4 years) were included in the trial. After
2001LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Tinzaparin in acute ischaemic stroke (TAIST): a randomised aspirin-controlled trial. Low-molecular-weight heparins and heparinoids are superior to unfractionated heparin in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, but their safety and efficacy in acute ischaemic stroke are inadequately defined.This randomised, double-blind, aspirin-controlled trial tested the safety and efficacy of treatment with high-dose tinzaparin (175 anti-Xa IU/kg daily; 487 patients), medium-dose tinzaparin (...) (100 anti-Xa IU/kg daily; 508 patients), or aspirin (300 mg daily; 491 patients) started within 48 h of acute ischaemic stroke and given for up to 10 days. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage was excluded by computed tomography. Outcome was assessed, with treatment allocation concealed, by the modified Rankin scale at 6 months (independence [scores 0-2] vs dependence or death [scores 3-6]).Of 1486 randomised patients, two did not receive treatment and 46 were lost to follow-up. The proportions
2001LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Patients with arthritis and vascular disease may receive both low-dose aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We therefore investigated potential interactions between aspirin and commonly prescribed arthritis therapiesWe administered the following combinations of drugs for six days: aspirin (81 mg every morning) two hours before ibuprofen (400 mg every morning) and the same medications in the reverse order (...) ; aspirin two hours before acetaminophen (1000 mg every morning) and the same medications in the reverse order; aspirin two hours before the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib (25 mg every morning) and the same medications in the reverse order; enteric-coated aspirin two hours before ibuprofen (400 mg three times a day); and enteric-coated aspirin two hours before delayed-release diclofenac (75 mg twice daily)Serum thromboxane B(2) levels (an index of cyclooxygenase-1 activity in platelets
A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. Despite the use of antiplatelet agents, usually aspirin, in patients who have had an ischemic stroke, there is still a substantial rate of recurrence. Therefore, we investigated whether warfarin, which is effective and superior to aspirin in the prevention of cardiogenic embolism, would also prove superior in the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with a prior noncardioembolic ischemic (...) stroke.In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared the effect of warfarin (at a dose adjusted to produce an international normalized ratio of 1.4 to 2.8) and that of aspirin (325 mg per day) on the combined primary end point of recurrent ischemic stroke or death from any cause within two years.The two randomized study groups were similar with respect to base-line risk factors. In the intention-to-treat analysis, no significant differences were found between the treatment groups in any
Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. Despite current treatments, patients who have acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation have high rates of major vascular events. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel when given with aspirin in such patients.We randomly assigned 12,562 patients who had presented within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms to receive clopidogrel (...) (300 mg immediately, followed by 75 mg once daily) (6259 patients) or placebo (6303 patients) in addition to aspirin for 3 to 12 months.The first primary outcome--a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or stroke--occurred in 9.3 percent of the patients in the clopidogrel group and 11.4 percent of the patients in the placebo group (relative risk with clopidogrel as compared with placebo, 0.80; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.90; P<0.001
Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Despite the use of aspirin, there is still a risk of ischaemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to find out whether, in addition to aspirin, pretreatment with clopidogrel followed by long-term therapy after PCI is superior to a strategy of no pretreatment and short-term therapy for only 4 weeks after PCI (...) .2658 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI in the CURE study had been randomly assigned double-blind treatment with clopidogrel (n=1313) or placebo (n=1345). Patients were pretreated with aspirin and study drug for a median of 6 days before PCI during the initial hospital admission, and for a median of 10 days overall. After PCI, most patients (>80%) in both groups received open-label thienopyridine for about 4 weeks, after which study drug was restarted for a mean
2001LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
by an abnormal uterine artery Doppler examination in the second trimester. Searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for trials published between 1966 and November 2000. A combination of search terms were used to generate two subsets of citations: one including studies of 'aspirin' ('aspirin', 'antiplatelet', 'salicyl', 'acetylsalicyl', and 'platelet aggregation inhibitors') and the other including studies of 'Doppler ultrasonography' ('ultrasonography', 'ultraso (...) Aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia in women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler: a meta-analysis Aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia in women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler: a meta-analysis Aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia in women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler: a meta-analysis Coomarasamy A, Papaioannou S, Gee H, Khan K S Authors' objectives To assess the effect of aspirin in preventing pre-eclampsia in women identified as being at high risk
Analysis of trials evaluating combinations of acetylsalicylicacid and dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of stroke Analysis of trials evaluating combinations of acetylsalicylicacid and dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of stroke Analysis of trials evaluating combinations of acetylsalicylicacid and dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of stroke Redman A R, Ryan G J Authors' objectives To investigate whether the addition of dipyridamole to aspirin further reduces the risk (...) of stroke recurrence. Searching MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EMBASE and BIOSIS Previews were searched from 1966 to May 2001 for articles in the English language. The search terms used were 'dipyridamole', 'aspirin', 'acetylsalicylicacid', 'ischaemic stroke' and 'cerebrovascular disorders'. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review The authors aimed to identify clinical trials. Four of the identified studies were reported to be randomised double-blind trials
Association between aspirin and upper gastrointestinal complications: systematic review of epidemiologic studies Association between aspirin and upper gastrointestinal complications: systematic review of epidemiologic studies Association between aspirin and upper gastrointestinal complications: systematic review of epidemiologic studies Garcia Rodriguez L A, Hernandez-Diaz S, de Abajo F J Authors' objectives To systematically review the literature on serious upper gastrointestinal complications (...) (UGIC) associated with aspirin use, and to evaluate the influence of dose and formulation of aspirin as well as the effect of study design. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1990 to February 2001. The search terms used were 'anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal agents' (both overall and aspirin), 'adverse effects', and 'toxicity' combined with 'peptic ulcer', 'stomach ulcer', 'duodenal ulcer', or 'gastrointestinal diseases' (including haemorrhage and perforation). The references of previous reviews were
. Source of effectiveness data The effectiveness evidence was derived from a review of published studies. Modelling A Markov model was used to estimate the clinical and economic consequences of six strategies in the general US population. The strategies were natural history (no screening and no aspirin), FS-FOBT, COLO, aspirin alone (ASA), FS-FOBT with aspirin (FS-FOBT-ASA), and COLO with aspirin (COLO-ASA). Patients aged 50 years progressed through the model for 30 cycles of one year. The principal (...) persons with no intervention, 1,895 per 100,000 persons with FS-FOBT, and 1,693 per 100,000 persons with COLO. The addition of aspirin further reduced cancer incidence. There were 1,258 cases per 100,000 persons with FS-FOBT-ASA, and 1,109 cases per 100,000 persons with COLO-ASA. When 25% of the population was screened, the total number of deaths was 48,064 with FS-FOBT, 48,080 with COLO, 47,994 with FS-FOBT-ASA, and 47,951 with COLO-ASA. There were 129 aspirin-related deaths. The mean (3%) discounted
Aspirin for vascular dementia. For patients with a diagnosis of vascular dementia there is evidence that aspirin is widely prescribed - in one study, completed by geriatricians and psychiatrists in the UK, 80% of patients with cognitive impairment (with vascular risk factors) were prescribed aspirin. However, a number of queries remain unanswered: Is there convincing evidence that aspirin benefits patients with vascular dementia? Does aspirin affect cognition or improve prognosis? In addition (...) , does the risk of cerebral or gastric haemorrhage outweigh any benefit? The aim of this review is to assess the evidence of effectiveness of aspirin in those with a diagnosis of vascular dementia.To assess the evidence of effectiveness of the use of aspirin for vascular dementia.Computerised databases were searched independently by two reviewers. In addition, relevant websites were searched and some journals were handsearched. Specialists in the field were approached for unpublished material
Antihistamines versus aspirin for itching in late pregnancy. While not common, itching in pregnancy (not due to liver disease) can be distressing.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of treatment for itching in late pregnancy.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. In addition, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL/CCTR) was searched. Date of last search: April 1999.Randomised trials of treatments for itching in women in late (...) pregnancy with normal liver function.Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted independently by two reviewers.One study of 38 women was included. This was a small crossover trial, using alternate allocation. The trial compared a histamine, chlorpheniramine, with aspirin. Aspirin was more effective than chlorpheniramine in relieving itching (odds ratio 2. 39, 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 4.57). However chlorpheniramine was more effective than aspirin when a rash was present.Aspirin appears