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Latest & greatest articles for azithromycin
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Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death. Although several macrolide antibiotics are proarrhythmic and associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, azithromycin is thought to have minimal cardiotoxicity. However, published reports of arrhythmias suggest that azithromycin may increase the risk of cardiovascular death.We studied a Tennessee Medicaid cohort designed to detect an increased risk of death related to short-term cardiac effects of medication, excluding patients (...) with serious noncardiovascular illness and person-time during and shortly after hospitalization. The cohort included patients who took azithromycin (347,795 prescriptions), propensity-score-matched persons who took no antibiotics (1,391,180 control periods), and patients who took amoxicillin (1,348,672 prescriptions), ciprofloxacin (264,626 prescriptions), or levofloxacin (193,906 prescriptions).During 5 days of therapy, patients taking azithromycin, as compared with those who took no antibiotics, had
Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (EMBRACE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin would decrease the frequency of exacerbations, increase lung function, and improve health-related quality of life in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.We undertook a randomised, double-blind (...) , placebo-controlled trial at three centres in New Zealand. Between Feb 12, 2008, and Oct 15, 2009, we enrolled patients who were 18 years or older, had had at least one pulmonary exacerbation requiring antibiotic treatment in the past year, and had a diagnosis of bronchiectasis defined by high-resolution CT scan. We randomly assigned patients to receive 500 mg azithromycin or placebo three times a week for 6 months in a 1:1 ratio, with a permuted block size of six and sequential assignment stratified
2012LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Comparison of annual versus twice-yearly mass azithromycin treatment for hyperendemic trachoma in Ethiopia: a cluster-randomised trial. In trachoma control programmes, azithromycin is distributed to treat the strains of chlamydia that cause ocular disease. We aimed to compare the effect of annual versus twice-yearly distribution of azithromycin on infection with these strains.We did a cluster-randomised trial in 24 subdistricts in northern Ethiopia, which we randomly assigned to receive annual (...) or twice-yearly treatment for all residents of all ages. Random assignment was done with the RANDOM and SORT functions of Microsoft Excel. All individuals were offered their assigned treatment of a single, directly observed, oral dose of azithromycin. A 6 week course of topical 1% tetracycline ointment, applied twice daily to both eyes but not directly observed, was offered as an alternative to azithromycin in patients younger than 12 months, and in patients with self-reported pregnancy, with allergy
2012LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Single-dose azithromycin versus benzathine benzylpenicillin for treatment of yaws in children in Papua New Guinea: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Yaws--an endemic treponematosis and, as such, a neglected tropical disease--is re-emerging in children in rural, tropical areas. Oral azithromycin is effective for syphilis. We assessed the efficacy of azithromycin compared with intramuscular long-acting penicillin to treat patients with yaws.We did an open-label, non-inferiority (...) , randomised trial at Lihir Medical Centre, Papua New Guinea, between Sept 1, 2010, and Feb 1, 2011. Children aged 6 months to 15 years with a serologically confirmed diagnosis of yaws were randomly allocated, by a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to receive either one 30 mg/kg oral dose of azithromycin or an intramuscular injection of 50,000 units per kg benzathine benzylpenicillin. Investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was treatment efficacy, with cure rate defined
2012LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
WITHDRAWN: Azithromycin for treating uncomplicated typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever). Review status: Current question - no update intended. Azithromycin treatments are included in the review: Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever). (Thaver D, Zaidi AKM, Critchley JA, Azmatullah A, Madni SA, Bhutta ZA. Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art (...) . No.: CD004530. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004530.pub3.) This latter review is being updated, and will be published in late 2011.Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid fever) is potentially fatal. Infection with drug-resistant strains of the causative organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi increases morbidity and mortality. Azithromycin may have better outcomes in people with uncomplicated forms of the disease.To compare azithromycin with other antibiotics for treating uncomplicated enteric
Azithromycin ophthalmic solution (Azidrop®) for purulent bacterial or trachomal conjunctivitis 2010. DAR No 7. Azithromycin ophthalmic solution (Azidrop®) for purulent bacterial or trachomal conjunctivitis - navarra.es Castellano | Euskara | Français | English Use the search tool! Search engine : : : : : : DAR No 7. Azithromycin ophthalmic solution (Azidrop®) for purulent bacterial or trachomal conjunctivitis DAR No 7. Azithromycin ophthalmic solution (Azidrop®) for purulent bacterial (...) or trachomal conjunctivitis Content tools Share it Similar efficacy at a higher cost Azithromycin in topical ophthalmic form is indicated in the treatment of susceptible strains of bacterial conjunctivitis and trachoma related conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The majority of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis cure spontaneously, and azithromycin has shown a similar efficacy and safety profile to tobramycin. There are no trials comparing other antibiotics. Although its posology is much more
Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations of COPD. Acute exacerbations adversely affect patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrolide antibiotics benefit patients with a variety of inflammatory airway diseases.We performed a randomized trial to determine whether azithromycin decreased the frequency of exacerbations in participants with COPD who had an increased risk of exacerbations but no hearing impairment, resting tachycardia, or apparent risk of prolongation (...) of the corrected QT interval.A total of 1577 subjects were screened; 1142 (72%) were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, at a dose of 250 mg daily (570 participants), or placebo (572 participants) for 1 year in addition to their usual care. The rate of 1-year follow-up was 89% in the azithromycin group and 90% in the placebo group. The median time to the first exacerbation was 266 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 227 to 313) among participants receiving azithromycin, as compared with 174 days (95% CI
Azithromycin combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bangladesh: an open-label randomized, controlled clinical trial In recent studies, the combination of azithromycin and artesunate has proven to be a promising alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial assessing the efficacy of azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy. The study was conducted involving 228 patients aged 8-65 (...) years. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 cohorts at a ratio of 2:1, receiving either azithromycin-artesunate once daily for 3 days (30 mg/kg per day of azithromycin plus 4 mg/kg per day of artesunate) or an adult dose of 80 mg of artemether plus 960 mg of lumefantrine (4 tablets Coartem or the equivalent for children weighing <35 kg) twice daily for 3 days.The 42-day cure rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.38%-97.44%) in the azithromycin-artesunate arm
Effect of azithromycin on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis uninfected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a randomized controlled trial. Azithromycin is recommended as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but there has not been sufficient evidence to support the benefit of azithromycin in other patients with CF.To determine if azithromycin treatment improves lung function and reduces pulmonary exacerbations in pediatric CF patients (...) . Randomization was stratified by age of 6 to 12 years vs 13 to 18 years and by CF center.The active group (n = 131) received 250 mg (weight 18-35.9 kg) or 500 mg (weight > or = 36 kg) of azithromycin 3 days per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) for 168 days. The placebo group (n = 129) received identically packaged placebo tablets on the same schedule.The primary outcome was change in FEV(1). Exploratory outcomes included additional pulmonary function end points, pulmonary exacerbations, changes in weight
The effect of azithromycin and Chlamydophilia pneumonia infection on expansion of small abdominal aortic aneurysms--a prospective randomized double-blind trial The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on the expansion rate of small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), and to determine whether or not a correlation exists between serological markers for Chlamydophilia pneumonia (Cpn) infection and AAA expansion.Nine vascular centers were included and 259 patients were invited (...) to participate. Ten patients declined and 2 patients had chronic kidney failure, leaving a total of 247 patients. Inclusion criteria were: AAA 35-49 mm and age <80 years. Patients were randomized to receive either azithromycin (Azithromax, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY) 600 mg once daily for 3 days and then 600 mg once weekly for 15 weeks, or placebo in identical tablets. The ultrasound scans were performed in a standardized way within a month before inclusion and every 6 months for a minimum follow-up time of 18
Effect of mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control on overall mortality in Ethiopian children: a randomized trial. Mass oral azithromycin distribution to affected communities is a cornerstone of the World Health Organization's trachoma elimination program. Antibiotics are provided to target the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, but may also be efficacious against respiratory disease, diarrhea, and malaria--frequent causes of childhood mortality in trachoma-endemic (...) areas.To compare mortality rates of participants aged 1 to 9 years in treated communities with those in untreated communities.We conducted a cluster-randomized clinical trial of mass azithromycin administration for trachoma control. Forty-eight communities (known as subkebeles) were randomized into 1 of 3 treatment schedules (annual treatment of all residents [15,902 participants], biannual treatment of all residents [17,288 participants], or quarterly treatment of children only [14,716 participants
Effects of prolonged use of azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
Is the frequency of recurrent chest infections, in children with chronic neurological problems, reduced by prophylactic azithromycin? BestBets: Is the frequency of recurrent chest infections, in children with chronic neurological problems, reduced by prophylactic azithromycin? Is the frequency of recurrent chest infections, in children with chronic neurological problems, reduced by prophylactic azithromycin? Report By: Charlotte B Kirk - Specialist Registrar in Paediatrics Search checked by Bob (...) Phillips - Section Editor, Archimedes Institution: Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK Date Submitted: 29th April 2008 Date Completed: 30th April 2008 Last Modified: 30th April 2008 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question Do [children with chronic lung disease (not bronchopulmonary dysplasia) and/or bronchiectasis] who are [prescribed long-term azithromycin as prophylaxis] have a [reduction in frequency of respiratory exacerbations without a change in the bacterial flora found
Effect of azithromycin and clarithromycin therapy on pharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci in healthy volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Resistance to antibiotics is a major public-health problem, and studies that link antibiotic use and resistance have shown an association but not a causal effect. We used the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin to investigate the direct effect of antibiotic exposure on resistance in the oral streptococcal (...) flora of healthy volunteers.Volunteers were treated with azithromycin (n=74), clarithromycin (74), or placebo (76) in a randomised, double-blind trial. Pharyngeal swabs were obtained before and after administration of study treatment through 180 days. The proportion of streptococci that were macrolide resistant was assessed and the molecular basis of any change in resistance investigated. Analyses were done on an intent-to-treat basis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number
2007LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Azithromycin for the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
Single-dose azithromycin versus erythromycin or amoxicillin for Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
Single-dose azithromycin for the treatment of cholera in adults. Single-dose azithromycin is effective in the treatment of severe cholera in children, but its effectiveness in adults has not been evaluated.We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial comparing the equivalence of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin (each given in a single 1-g dose of two 500-mg tablets) among 195 men with severe cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Patients were hospitalized for five days. A stool culture (...) was performed daily. Primary outcome measures were clinical success (the cessation of watery stools within 48 hours after drug administration) and bacteriologic success (the inability to isolate V. cholerae after 48 hours).Therapy was clinically successful in 71 of 97 patients receiving azithromycin (73 percent) and in 26 of 98 patients receiving ciprofloxacin (27 percent) (P<0.001) and bacteriologically successful in 76 of 97 patients receiving azithromycin (78 percent) and in 10 of 98 patients receiving
Single-dose azithromycin versus penicillin G benzathine for the treatment of early syphilis. Pilot studies suggest that a single, 2-g oral dose of azithromycin may be an alternative to a 2.4-MU intramuscular dose of penicillin G benzathine in the prevention and treatment of syphilis. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with azithromycin in a developing country.A total of 328 subjects, 25 with primary and 303 with high-titer (a titer of at least 1:8 on a rapid plasmin reagin [RPR] test (...) ) latent syphilis, were recruited through screening of high-risk populations in Mbeya, Tanzania, and randomly assigned to receive 2 g of azithromycin orally (163 subjects) or 2.4 million units of penicillin G benzathine intramuscularly (165 subjects). The primary outcome was treatment efficacy, with cure defined serologically (a decline in the RPR titer of at least two dilutions by nine months after treatment) and, in primary syphilis, by epithelialization of ulcers within one or two weeks.The average
Azithromycin for the secondary prevention of coronary events. Epidemiologic, laboratory, animal, and clinical studies suggest that there is an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherogenesis. We evaluated the efficacy of one year of azithromycin treatment for the secondary prevention of coronary events.In this randomized, prospective trial, we assigned 4012 patients with documented stable coronary artery disease to receive either 600 mg of azithromycin or placebo weekly (...) for one year. The participants were followed for a mean of 3.9 years at 28 clinical centers throughout the United States.The primary end point, a composite of death due to coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina, occurred in 446 of the participants who had been randomly assigned to receive azithromycin and 449 of those who had been randomly assigned to receive placebo. There was no significant risk reduction