Latest & greatest articles for babies

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Top results for babies

2481. An evaluation of the efficiency of face masks in the resuscitation of newborn infants. (Abstract)

An evaluation of the efficiency of face masks in the resuscitation of newborn infants. Five widely used neonatal face masks were tested on 44 babies for their efficiency in terms of degree of leakage and ease of cleaning. Leakage was measured indirectly. The mean peak pressure of ten breaths when babies were ventilated from a respirator via a mask was recorded; a low pressure was taken to indicate leakage. A triangular moulded rubber mask ('Rendell-Baker') leaked most and a circular silicone

1985 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2482. Hepatitis B immunisation with a reduced number of doses in newborn babies and children. (Abstract)

Hepatitis B immunisation with a reduced number of doses in newborn babies and children. 74 healthy babies born to mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were randomly divided at birth to receive either HB immunoglobulin and 2 doses of HB vaccine 2 months apart, or HB immunoglobulin and 3 doses of HB vaccine 1 month apart. 80 healthy babies born to HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HB core (c) negative mothers were randomly divided at birth to receive either 2 doses of vaccine 2 months (...) apart or 3 doses 1 month apart. The seroconversion rates and the geometric means of anti-HBs titres were lower in both groups of babies given 2 doses of vaccine than in the groups given 3 doses. 60 pairs of children at risk, aged 1 to 12 years and HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc negative, were randomly divided to receive either the 2-dose regimen or the 3-dose regimen. The seroconversion rates and the geometric means of anti-HBs titres were satisfactory in both groups.

1985 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2483. Reduction in intraventricular hemorrhage by elimination of fluctuating cerebral blood-flow velocity in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. (Abstract)

Reduction in intraventricular hemorrhage by elimination of fluctuating cerebral blood-flow velocity in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In a previous study of preterm infants requiring mechanical ventilation for the respiratory distress syndrome, we demonstrated a striking association of fluctuating cerebral blood-flow velocity in the first day of life with the subsequent occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Because this fluctuating pattern could be eliminated by muscle (...) paralysis, we conducted a prospective study of preterm infants receiving mechanical ventilation for the respiratory distress syndrome in which we evaluated the effect of paralysis and this flow-velocity pattern on the incidence and severity of intraventricular hemorrhage. Twenty-four infants with the fluctuating pattern in the first hours of life were identified and randomly selected to serve as controls (10) or to be subjected to muscle paralysis (14). Intraventricular hemorrhage developed in all 10

1985 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2484. Two controlled trials of dry artificial surfactant: early effects and later outcome in babies with surfactant deficiency. (Abstract)

Two controlled trials of dry artificial surfactant: early effects and later outcome in babies with surfactant deficiency. Dry powdered surfactant was used in two randomised, controlled trials to study its immediate effects, influence on mortality, and safety in babies born after less than 32 weeks' gestation. The lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio was measured in pharyngeal aspirate taken before surfactant therapy to establish surfactant deficiency. 32 babies intubated during resuscitation (...) (trial I) and a group of 24 other babies, all with immature L/S ratios, in whom severe hyaline membrane disease developed (trial II), were stratified for sex. In half 25 mg surfactant was insufflated through the endotracheal tube; it could be detected in tracheal secretions for at least the next 24 h. There was no significant difference in ventilator pressures or oxygen therapy used nor in neonatal mortality and morbidity in the first 2 years of life between the surfactant-treated and control groups

1985 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2485. Pancuronium prevents pneumothoraces in ventilated premature babies who actively expire against positive pressure inflation. (Abstract)

Pancuronium prevents pneumothoraces in ventilated premature babies who actively expire against positive pressure inflation. Preterm infants who were making expiratory efforts against ventilator inflation were randomised to be paralysed with pancuronium or to receive no paralysing agent during ventilation. Pneumothoraces developed in all 11 unparalysed babies but in only 1 of 11 (p less than 0.0004) of those managed with pancuronium, which had no serious side-effects. In 34 infants excluded from

1984 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2486. Protection of infants against rotavirus diarrhoea by RIT 4237 attenuated bovine rotavirus strain vaccine. (Abstract)

Protection of infants against rotavirus diarrhoea by RIT 4237 attenuated bovine rotavirus strain vaccine. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the ability of RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus (subgroup 1) vaccine strain to protect against natural rotavirus infection in children. 178 infants aged 8 to 11 months received a single oral dose of RIT 4237 vaccine or placebo and were followed up serologically and clinically during a subgroup 2

1984 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

2487. Prevention of the HBsAg carrier state in newborn infants of mothers who are chronic carriers of HBsAg and HBeAg by administration of hepatitis-B vaccine and hepatitis-B immunoglobulin. Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

. This indicates that even high doses of HBIg do not interfere with the anti-HBs response to the vaccine. Probable intra-uterine HB infections were observed in 3 infants. No serious side-effects were observed from the interventions, even in the babies with intra-uterine infections who had received HBIg and HB-vaccine at birth. To prevent development of the persistent HBsAg carrier state, and thereby the consequent chronic liver disease and/or primary carcinoma of the liver, HB vaccine and HBIg should (...) Prevention of the HBsAg carrier state in newborn infants of mothers who are chronic carriers of HBsAg and HBeAg by administration of hepatitis-B vaccine and hepatitis-B immunoglobulin. Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study. Newborn infants of Chinese HBeAg-carrier mothers in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Group I was treated with 3 micrograms heat-inactivated hepatitis B (HB) vaccine at birth and at 1, 2, and 6 months thereafter, in conjunction

1984 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2488. Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. A randomized double-blind study. (Abstract)

Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. A randomized double-blind study. We evaluated a new antiviral agent, ribavirin, in the treatment of infants hospitalized with lower-respiratory-tract disease from respiratory syncytial virus. Ribavirin or placebo was administered to 33 infants in a double-blind manner by continuous aerosol for three to six days. Seventeen infants were treated with placebo, and 16 with ribavirin. By the end of treatment (...) , infants receiving ribavirin had significantly greater improvement in their overall score for severity of illness, in lower-respiratory-tract signs, and in arterial oxygen saturation. Viral shedding was also diminished in the treated groups as compared with the placebo group. No side effects or toxicity were associated with the aerosol therapy. Isolates of respiratory syncytial virus obtained from the infants over the course of therapy showed no change in sensitivity to ribavirin.

1983 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2489. Controlled trial of dexamethasone therapy in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (Abstract)

Controlled trial of dexamethasone therapy in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Dexamethasone was compared with placebo in a double-blind, crossover, randomised study of infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia who had required mechanical ventilation for at least four weeks, despite treatment with diuretics, methylxanthines, bronchodilators, fluid restriction, nutritional supplementation, and ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus when indicated. Gestational age ranged from 27

1983 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2490. Do infant formula samples shorten the duration of breast-feeding? (Abstract)

Do infant formula samples shorten the duration of breast-feeding? To determine whether advertising by infant formula companies shortens the duration of breast-feeding, we randomly assigned 448 breast-feeding new mothers to either receive or not receive a formula sample packet upon discharge from a maternity ward. These mother, unaware of the study, were then telephoned 3 months post partum by a research assistant blind to the randomisation status. "Sample" mothers were less likely to still (...) be breast-feeding at 1 month (78% vs 84%, p = 0.07) and more likely to have introduced solid foods by 2 months (18% vs 10%, p = 0.01). These trends became more significant in three vulnerable subgroups: less educated mothers, primiparas, and mothers who had been ill post partum. Our results suggest that infant formula samples may shorten the duration of breast-feeding and hasten the age at which solids are introduced.

1983 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2491. Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. (Abstract)

Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. We studied the effect of penicillin on early-onset Group B streptococcal disease over a 52-month period in neonates who were at high risk of infection. Shortly after birth, 1187 neonates weighing 2000 g or less had blood samples taken for cultures and were randomized into an early-treatment group (given intramuscular penicillin G within 60 minutes of birth) or a control group. The incidence (...) of early-onset disease was 20 per 1000 live births (24 of 1187); the number of infants in the early-treatment group who had disease (10 of 589) was similar to that in the control group (14 of 598). The fatality rates were similar in both groups (6 of 10 vs. 8 of 14). Cultures from blood obtained with one hour of birth were positive in 21 of the 24 infants with disease; 22 of the 24 were symptomatic within four hours of birth. Thus, infection was well established before the first hour of postnatal life

1983 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2492. Furosemide promotes patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants with the respiratory-distress syndrome. (Abstract)

Furosemide promotes patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants with the respiratory-distress syndrome. Furosemide stimulates the renal synthesis of prostaglandin E2, a potent dilator of the ductus arteriosus. We administered this drug to 33 premature infants with the respiratory-distress syndrome, to determine whether it increased the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus. Chlorothiazide, a diuretic that does not stimulate prostaglandin E synthesis, was used as the control drug in 33 other (...) infants. During the study, the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus was significantly higher (P less than 0.02) in the furosemide group (18 of 33 infants) than in the chlorothiazide group (8 of 33). Eleven infants in the furosemide group and seven in the chlorothiazide group required ductal ligation (P greater than 0.2). An additional six infants (all from the furosemide group) who did not have evidence of a patent ductus during the study were later found to have one. Overall survival was 76 and 61

1983 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2493. Growth and biochemical response of preterm infants fed human milk or modified infant formula. (Abstract)

Growth and biochemical response of preterm infants fed human milk or modified infant formula. My colleagues and I compared the biochemical status and rates of growth of three groups of preterm infants: one group was fed milk obtained early from mothers of preterm infants; one group received milk produced during the mature stage of lactation by mothers of term infants; and one group received a whey-based infant formula. Sixty healthy preterm infants with birth weights of 1600 g or less were (...) randomly assigned to one of the three feedings groups. The 20 infants in each group were followed until they reached a weight of 1800 g. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) number of days required to regain birth weight was similar for infants receiving the formula (10.3 +/- 0.8) and those receiving milk from mothers of preterm infants (11.4 +/- 0.8); both were significantly less than the number (18.8 +/- 1.7) for infants receiving milk from mothers of term infants (P less than 0.001). Subsequent rates of weight

1983 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2494. Diet and antibody response to vaccinations in healthy infants. (Abstract)

Diet and antibody response to vaccinations in healthy infants. Antibody responses to poliovirus, diphtheria, pertussis, or tetanus vaccine were compared in five groups of infants. The 62 infants had been brought up on breast milk or on one of four types of artificial feed in the first five months of life. The types of artificial feed varied in quality and quantity of protein; they were high or low protein cow's milk, an adapted formula (with a casein/albumin ratio of 40/60), and a formula based (...) on soy flour. After the age of 5 months, all infants were put on the same diet. The general pattern of antibody responses as determined by antibody levels when the infants were 5 and 8 months old was that those fed on breast milk or high-protein cow's milk had adequate and sustained antibody responses; those fed on the adapted formula had a high but temporary response; and those fed on low-protein cow's milk or the soy-based formula had poor responses.

1983 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2495. A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. (Abstract)

A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. We studied the effect of dietary sodium on BP in a double-blind randomized trial with 245 newborn infants assigned to a normal-sodium diet and 231 to a low-sodium diet during the first six months of life. The sodium intake of the normal-sodium group was almost three times that of the low-sodium group. Systolic BP was measured every month from the first week until the 25th week. At 25 weeks, systolic pressure was 2.1 mm

1983 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2496. Diet and sleep patterns in newborn infants. (Abstract)

Diet and sleep patterns in newborn infants. Sleep behavior is modulated by serotonergic neurons within the brain, and the synthesis and release of serotonin by such neurons is thought to be influenced by the availability of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin. We investigated the effects on the sleep patterns of newborn infants of variations in diet designed to affect tryptophan availability. Twenty healthy newborns (two to three days of age) were randomly assigned to receive (...) a feeding consisting either of tryptophan in 10 per cent glucose or valine in 5 per cent glucose (valine competes with tryptophan for entry into the brain). Sleep patterns during the three hours after this feeding were compared with those after a feeding of routine formula (Similac). The infants fed tryptophan entered active sleep 14.1 minutes sooner than they did after Similac, and entered quiet sleep 20 minutes sooner. Those fed valine entered active sleep 15.8 minutes later than they did after

1983 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2497. Phenobarbitone for prevention of periventricular haemorrhage in very low birth-weight infants. A randomised double-blind trial. (Abstract)

Phenobarbitone for prevention of periventricular haemorrhage in very low birth-weight infants. A randomised double-blind trial. A double-blind randomised trial was carried out in 60 infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500 g or a gestational age below 31 weeks. 30 infants received phenobarbitone (20 mg/kg) within 4 h of birth and 30 infants received a placebo. The two groups of infants were similar in birth-weight, gestational age, frequency of vaginal delivery, sex, Apgar scores (...) , ventilator dependence before the injection, pneumothorax, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Cranial ultrasound scans were carried out daily for 14 days. 12 out of 30 phenobarbitone-treated infants and 11 out of 30 placebo-treated infants had PVH, with parenchymal haemorrhages in 2 of the placebo group. Plasma phenobarbitone was over 15 micrograms/ml in 28 out of 30 of the phenobarbitone-treated infants during the first 72 h. 7 out of 17 spontaneously breathing infants became ventilator-dependent within 12 h

1983 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

2498. Weight gain and movement patterns of very low birthweight babies nursed on lambswool. (Abstract)

Weight gain and movement patterns of very low birthweight babies nursed on lambswool. 34 very low birthweight babies (mean 1143 g) in incubators were randomly assigned to be continuously nursed on lambswool (n = 17) or ordinary cotton sheets (n = 17). The weight gain for the periods when babies were well was significantly larger for the wool group, 22.7 g/day vs 18.6 g/day for cotton control (p less than 0.02). The overall weight gain (which included weight change during periods of illness (...) ) revealed a similar picture in favour of the wool group, 21.5 g/day vs 18.2 g/day (p less than 0.05). Movement patterns for the two groups showed no differences, but for all babies a strong correlation was noted between moving and lying suspine (p less than 0.001), having eyes open (p less than 0.001), a cooler incubator (p less than 0.01), and faster weight gain (p less than 0.01). Lambswool seems to have advantages over cotton sheets as a bedding material for very low birth weight babies.

1983 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2499. Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants Full Text available with Trip Pro

limited data. 2)There wereno health omissions 3)The sensitivity analysis was adequate. 4)Costing was extensive, excluding production gains. Source of funding Ontario Ministry of Health Bibliographic details Boyle M H, Torrance G W, Sinclair J C, Horwood S P. Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants. New England Journal of Medicine 1983; 308(22): 1330-1337 PubMedID DOI Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Cost (...) Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants Boyle M H, Torrance G W, Sinclair J C, Horwood S P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions

1983 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

2500. Use or abuse of phototherapy for physiological jaundice of newborn infants. (Abstract)

Use or abuse of phototherapy for physiological jaundice of newborn infants. To investigate the need for and effects of phototherapy in full-term otherwise healthy babies with physiological jaundice, 40 consecutive babies with serum bilirubin levels of 250 mumol/l or more were assigned at random to two treatment groups. Phototherapy was started in the early group (n = 20) when serum bilirubin was 250 mumol/l and in the late group (n = 20) when serum bilirubin reached 320 mumol/l; however, only 3 (...) therefore curtailed the rise and duration of hyperbilirubinaemia, but the effect was small. Jaundice subsided spontaneously in most of these mature infants, especially girls. Phototherapy can separate mother from baby, and it is physiologically stressful. Treatment may be safely withheld until serum bilirubin exceeds 320 mumol/l.

1982 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain