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Latest & greatest articles for babies
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on babies or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative forms of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or LBW infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of greater amounts of nutrients (...) differences (MDs) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and explored potential causes of heterogeneity in subgroup analyses. We assessed the certainty of evidence for the main comparison at the outcome level using GRADE methods.Twelve trials with a total of 1879 infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four trials compared standard term formula versus donor breast milk and eight compared nutrient-enriched preterm formula versus
Nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula for preterm infants. Preterm infants may accumulate nutrient deficits leading to extrauterine growth restriction. Feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched rather than standard formula might increase nutrient accretion and growth rates and might improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.To compare the effects of feeding with nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula on growth and development of preterm infants.We used the Cochrane (...) Neonatal standard search strategy. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 11), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (until November 2018), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and clinical trials databases.Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched formula (protein and energy plus minerals, vitamins
Exposure to the smell and taste of milk to accelerate feeding in preterm infants. Preterm infants are often unable to co-ordinate sucking, swallowing and breathing for oral feeding because of their immaturity; in such cases, initial nutrition is provided by orogastric or nasogastric tube feeding. Feed intolerance is common and can delay attainment of full enteral feeds and sucking feeds, which prolongs the need for intravenous nutrition and hospital stay. Smell and taste play an important role (...) in the activation of physiological pre-absorptive processes that contribute to food digestion and absorption. However, during tube feedings, milk bypasses the nasal and oral cavities, which limits exposure to the smell and taste of milk. Provision of the smell and taste of milk with tube feedings is non-invasive and inexpensive; and if it does accelerate the transition to enteral feeds, and then to sucking feeds, it would be of considerable potential benefit to infants, their families, and the healthcare
Routine monitoring of gastric residual for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. Routine monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants on gavage feeds is a common practice that is used to guide initiation and advancement of feeds. Some literature suggests that an increase in/or an altered gastric residual may be predictive of necrotising enterocolitis. Withholding monitoring of gastric residual may take away the early indicator and thus may increase the risk (...) the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual versus no monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants• To assess the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual based on two different criteria for interrupting feeds or decreasing feed volume in preterm infantsWe planned to undertake subgroup analysis based on gestational age (≤ 27 weeks, 28 weeks to 31 weeks, ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g, 1000 g to 1499 g, ≥ 1500 g), small for gestational age versus
, and trophic substances that aid in digestion and promote gastrointestinal motility and maturation, re-feeding abnormal residuals may result in emesis, necrotising enterocolitis, or sepsis.To assess the efficacy and safety of re-feeding compared to discarding gastric residuals in preterm infants. The allocation should have been started in the first week of life and should have been continued at least until the baby reached full enteral feeds. The investigator could have chosen to discard the gastric (...) Re-feeding versus discarding gastric residuals to improve growth in preterm infants. Routine monitoring of gastric residuals in preterm infants on gavage feeds is a common practice in many neonatal intensive care units and is used to guide the initiation and advancement of feeds. No guidelines or consensus is available on whether to re-feed or discard the aspirated gastric residuals. Although re-feeding gastric residuals may replace partially digested milk, gastrointestinal enzymes, hormones
Inositol in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome. Inositol is an essential nutrient required by human cells in culture for growth and survival. Inositol promotes maturation of several components of surfactant and may play a critical role in fetal and early neonatal life. A drop in inositol levels in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) can be a sign that their illness will be severe.To assess the effectiveness and safety of supplementary inositol (...) in preterm infants with or without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in reducing adverse neonatal outcomes including: death (neonatal and infant deaths), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis.We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 11), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966
Impact of Early Exposure to Cefuroxime on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Infants Following Cesarean Delivery To assess in mothers giving birth by cesarean delivery if prophylactic antibiotics administered either before skin incision or immediately after cutting the umbilical cord influences gut microbiota colonization and antibiotic susceptibility of the gut bacteria in the newborn.Forty-two pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were recruited at Odense University (...) Hospital, Denmark, and randomly assigned to receive cefuroxime either before skin incision or immediately after the umbilical cord was cut. Fecal samples were collected from all infants at age 10 days and 9 months. Composition of the gut microbiota was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing. Gram-positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae were isolated and identified before antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disk diffusion.No clear difference
Safe living strategies for the immunocompromised child This practice point provides guidance for clinicians caring for immunocompromised children, with focus on preventing or managing infection risks associated with a range of activities and exposures. The consequences of these infections depend on numerous factors, including but not limited to the nature of the child’s immunocompromised state, general health, and the virulence of the organism involved. Keywords: Hygiene
Neuroprotection from acute brain injury in preterm infantsInfants born at ≤32 +6 weeks gestation are at higher risk for intracranial ischemic and hemorrhagic injuries, which often occur in the first 72 hours postbirth. Antenatal strategies to reduce the incidence of acute brain injuries include administering maternal corticosteroids and prompt antibiotic treatment for chorioamnionitis. Perinatal strategies include delivery within a tertiary centre, delayed cord clamping, and preventing (...) hypothermia. Postnatal strategies include empiric treatment with antibiotics when chorioamnionitis is suspected, the cautious use of inotropes, the avoidance of blood PCO2 fluctuation, and neutral head positioning. Clinicians should be aware of the policies and procedures that, especially when combined, can provide neuroprotection for preterm infants. Keywords: Acute brain injury; Infant; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Neuroprotection; Neuroprotective strategies; Premature
Effect of Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling versus Admission Blood Sampling on Requirement of Blood Transfusion in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial To evaluate the effect of blood sampling from the placental end of the umbilical cord compared with initial blood sampling from neonates, on the need for first packed red blood cell transfusion in extremely preterm infants. We hypothesized that cord blood sampling could delay the time to first blood transfusion.In this single
Evaluating the impact of community health volunteer home visits on child diarrhea and fever in the Volta Region, Ghana: A cluster-randomized controlled trial Although there is mounting evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of community health workers (CHWs), few studies have examined the impact of CHW programs focused on preventing infectious diseases in children through behavior changes. We assessed the preventive effects of community health volunteers (CHVs), who receive no financial (...) incentive, on child diarrhea and fever prevalence in Ghana.We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 40 communities in the Volta Region, Ghana. Twenty communities were randomly allocated to the intervention arm, and 20 to the control arm, using a computer-generated block randomization list. In the intervention arm, CHVs were deployed in their own community with the key task of conducting home visits for health education and community mobilization. The primary outcomes of the trial were
Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants. Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk.To determine the effect of banked donor preterm milk compared with banked donor term milk regarding (...) growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 grams).We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 7), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 23 October 2018), Embase (1980 to 23 October 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 23 October 2018). We also searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised
of the studies. We could combine two of the studies (88 infants) in the meta-analysis. The evidence suggests that dilute formula with double-volume (half-strength) may lead to fewer episodes of gastric residuals per day (one study; mean difference (MD) -1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.20 to -0.20; low-certainty evidence), fewer episodes of gastric residuals per baby until attaining 100 kcal/kg (one study; MD -0.80, 95% CI -1.32 to -0.28; low-certainty evidence), fewer episodes of vomiting per day (one (...) Dilute versus full-strength formula in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. Preterm infants have fewer nutrient reserves at birth than full-term infants and often receive artificial formula feeds in the absence of expressed breast milk. Although it is generally agreed that feeding must be initiated slowly and advanced with much greater deliberation than in a healthy, full-term infant, the way in which feeds are introduced and advanced in preterm infants varies widely
Ibuprofen for the prevention of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants and increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Indomethacin has been the standard treatment to close a PDA but is associated with renal, gastrointestinal, and cerebral side effects. Ibuprofen has less effect on blood flow velocity to important organs.Primary objectivesTo determine the effectiveness and safety (...) complications. We performed meta-analyses and reported treatment estimates as typical mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and, if statistically significant, number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) or to harm (NNTH), along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed between-study heterogeneity by the I-squared test (I²). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.In this updated analysis, we included nine trials (N = 1070 infants) comparing prophylactic
Preventive Inhalation of Hypertonic Saline in Infants with Cystic Fibrosis (PRESIS). A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study Rationale: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in early infancy, suggesting that preventive treatment may be most beneficial. Lung clearance index (LCI) and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have emerged as promising endpoints of early CF lung disease; however, randomized controlled trials testing the safety and efficacy of preventive therapies in infants (...) with CF are lacking. Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of preventive inhalation with hypertonic saline (HS) compared with isotonic saline (IS) in infants with CF, including LCI and MRI as outcome measures. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 42 infants with CF less than 4 months of age were randomized across five sites to twice-daily inhalation of 6% HS (n = 21) or 0.9% IS (n = 21) for 52 weeks. Measurements and Main Results: Inhalation of HS