Latest & greatest articles for bronchiolitis

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is mainly caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The virus travels down to the bronchioles in the lungs causing them to become inflamed making it difficult to breath.

Almost every child will be infected with RSV by the time they reach two years. Adults can also contract the virus, typically during winter months.

In mild cases bronchiolitis will clear up without treatment. The virus that causes bronchiolitis travels through tiny droplets of liquid and can be passed through the air or contracted by touching infected surfaces.

Symptoms include: Sore throat, dry cough, blocked nose and aches and pains throughout the body.

Although there is no cure for chronic bronchiolitis research and clinical studies on bronchiolitis suggest that some lifestyle changes can ease symptoms: avoid smoking, eat a healthy diet and maintain regular exercise. In extreme cases steroids can be prescribed to help minimise inflammation.

Read more on medications used to treat bronchiolitis and the causes of the virus.

Top results for bronchiolitis

101. Nebulised hypertonic saline effective for acute bronchiolitis in infants

Nebulised hypertonic saline effective for acute bronchiolitis in infants PEARLS Practical Evidence About Real Life Situations PEARLS are succinct summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners. They Nebulised hypertonic saline effective for acute bronchiolitis in infants Clinical question How effective is nebulised hypertonic saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis? Bottom line Compared to treatment with nebulised 0.9% saline, nebulised 3% saline (...) produced a 25.9% reduction (0.94 days) in the mean length of hospital stay among infants hospitalised with viral bronchiolitis. The 3% saline group also had a significantly lower post-inhalation clinical score than the 0.9% saline group in the first 3 days of treatment. The effect of nebulised hypertonic saline in improving clinical score was greater among outpatients than inpatients. No adverse events related to the 3% saline inhalations were reported. Caveat Three trials did not use analysis

2009 Cochrane PEARLS

102. Penicillins vs trimethoprim-based regimens for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Penicillins vs trimethoprim-based regimens for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Penicillins vs trimethoprim-based regimens for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Penicillins vs trimethoprim-based regimens for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Korbila I P, Manta K G, Siempos I I, Dimopoulos G, Falagas M (...) E CRD summary This review concluded that semisynthetic penicillin and trimethoprim-based regimens seemed to be equivalent for the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. The authors' conclusions are reasonable, but they were based on limited evidence and may have limited generalisability to populations with antimicrobial resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis strains. Authors' objectives To compare the effectiveness

2009 DARE.

103. Cost and clinical consequence of antibiotic non-adherence in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis

Cost and clinical consequence of antibiotic non-adherence in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Cost and clinical consequence of antibiotic non-adherence in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Cost and clinical consequence of antibiotic non-adherence in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Sorensen SV, Baker T, Fleurence R, Dixon J, Roberts C, Haider S, Hughes D CRD summary The authors concluded that non-adherence to antibiotic treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic (...) bronchitis may impair treatment effectiveness and increase treatment costs. Given the absence of any studies relating to patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, the lack of validity assessment and risk of publication bias, the reliability of the authors' conclusions is unclear. Authors' objectives To assess the impact of non-adherence to antibiotics' effectiveness in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and assess the economic impact of non-adherence for Spain, Italy

2009 DARE.

104. Epinephrine and dexamethasone in children with bronchiolitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epinephrine and dexamethasone in children with bronchiolitis. Although numerous studies have explored the benefit of using nebulized epinephrine or corticosteroids alone to treat infants with bronchiolitis, the effectiveness of combining these medications is not well established.We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 800 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) with bronchiolitis who were seen in the pediatric emergency department were randomly assigned to one (...) to the hospital. In the unadjusted analysis, only the infants in the epinephrine-dexamethasone group were significantly less likely than those in the placebo group to be admitted by day 7 (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.95, P=0.02). However, with adjustment for multiple comparisons, this result was rendered insignificant (P=0.07). There were no serious adverse events.Among infants with bronchiolitis treated in the emergency department, combined therapy with dexamethasone

2009 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

105. Descriptive epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a population-based cohort (Abstract)

Descriptive epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a population-based cohort The goal was to investigate the epidemiological features of incident bronchiolitis by using a population-based infant cohort.Outpatient and inpatient health records were used to identify incident bronchiolitis cases among 93,058 singleton infants born in the Georgia Air Basin between 1999 and 2002. Additional health-related databases were linked to provide data on sociodemographic variables, maternal (...) characteristics, and birth outcome measures.From 1999 to 2002, bronchiolitis accounted for 12,474 incident health care encounters (inpatient or outpatient contacts) during the first year of life (134.2 cases per 1000 person-years). A total of 1588 hospitalized bronchiolitis cases were identified (17.1 cases per 1000 person-years). Adjusted Cox proportional-hazard analyses for both case definitions indicated an increased risk of incident bronchiolitis in the first year of life (follow-up period: 2-12 months

2009 EvidenceUpdates

106. Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis?

Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis? BestBets: Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis? Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis? Report By: Jayachandran Panickar - Consultant Respiratory Paediatrician Search checked by Michael Eisenhut - Consultant Paediatrician Institution: Central Manchester and Manchester Children's University Hospital Original institution: Luton and Dunstable Hospital Date Submitted: 18th December 2002 Date Completed: 14th January 2009 (...) Last Modified: 14th January 2009 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis] will a [treatment with nebulised salbutamol] reduce [the length of hospitalisation and clinical severity]. Clinical Scenario A 6 month old baby is admitted to hospital with a 4 day history of coryzal symptoms, cough, wheeze and poor feeding. Your clinical diagnosis is bronchiolitis. You wonder whether treatment with nebulised salbutamol would improve the clinical condition. Search Strategy

2009 BestBETS

107. Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis.

Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis. BestBets: Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis. Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis. Report By: Jayachandran Panickar - Consultant Respiratory Paediatrician Search checked by Michael Eisenhut - Consultant Paediatrician Institution: Central Manchester and Manchester Children's University Hospital Original institution: Luton and Dunstable Hospital Date Submitted: 23rd December 2002 Date Completed: 14th January 2009 Last (...) Modified: 14th January 2009 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis] do [oral steroids] reduce [clinical severity or length of hospital stay]. Clinical Scenario A 6 month old baby is admitted to hospital with a 4 day history of coryzal symptoms, cough, wheeze and decrease in feeds. Respiratory syncytial virus is detected in nasopharyngeal secretion. She is needing oxygen and is on a nasogastric feed. You wonder whether starting oral steroids will improve her clinical

2009 BestBETS

108. A randomized, controlled trial of nasal phenylephrine in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis (Abstract)

A randomized, controlled trial of nasal phenylephrine in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis To examine the hypothesis that pharmacologic treatment of nasal obstruction, specifically alpha-adrenergic nose drops, will decrease objective signs of respiratory distress in infants with bronchiolitis.Forty-one infants aged 3 weeks to 12 months hospitalized for viral bronchiolitis were enrolled in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of topical 0.5% phenylephrine drops. The primary outcome (...) improvements in clinical status in infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis.

2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

109. Placebo found equivalent to amoxicillin for treatment of acute bronchitis in Nairobi, Kenya: a triple blind, randomised, equivalence trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Placebo found equivalent to amoxicillin for treatment of acute bronchitis in Nairobi, Kenya: a triple blind, randomised, equivalence trial Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for acute bronchitis in immunocompetent patients in industrialised countries. Whether these recommendations are relevant to the developing world and to immunocompromised patients is unknown.Randomised, triple blind, placebo controlled equivalence trial of amoxicillin compared with placebo in 660 adults presenting (...) to two outpatient clinics in Nairobi, Kenya, with acute bronchitis but without evidence of chronic lung disease.The primary study end point was clinical cure, as defined by a >or=75% reduction in a validated Acute Bronchitis Severity Score by 14 days; analysis was by intention to treat with equivalence defined as

2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

110. Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis.

Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis. BestBets: Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis. Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis. Report By: Jayachandran Panickar - Consultant Respiratory Paediatrician Search checked by Michael Eisenhut - Consultant Paediatrician Institution: Central Manchester & Manchester Children's University Hospital and Luton and Dunstable Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Date Submitted: 15th May 2008 Last Modified: 19th September 2008 (...) Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis] does [physiotherapy] reduce [duration of illness, clinical severity or length of hospital stay] Clinical Scenario A 6 month old baby is admitted to hospital with a 4 day history of coryzal symptoms, increasing cough, wheeze and decreased feeding. Respiratory syncytial virus was detected in nasopharyngeal secretions. She is needing oxygen and is on nasogastric feed. You wonder whether starting physiotherapy will improve her

2008 BestBETS

111. Increasing burden and risk factors for bronchiolitis-related medical visits in infants enrolled in a state health care insurance plan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increasing burden and risk factors for bronchiolitis-related medical visits in infants enrolled in a state health care insurance plan The goals were to estimate the year-round burden of health care visits attributable to bronchiolitis and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis in term healthy infants.We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of 103 670 term, non-low birth weight infants enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid in 1995-2003. We monitored infants through the first (...) year of life. Risk factors for bronchiolitis during infancy and rates of inpatient, emergency department, and outpatient visits during the study period were calculated by using claims data.Over the 9 study years, rates of bronchiolitis visits were 238 outpatient visits per 1000 infant-years, 77 emergency department visits per 1000 infant-years, and 71 hospitalizations per 1000 infant-years. Average annual rates of bronchiolitis visits increased 41%, from 188 visits per 1000 infant-years to 265

2008 EvidenceUpdates

112. Management of uncomplicated acute bronchitis in adults.

Management of uncomplicated acute bronchitis in adults. Guidelines and Measures | Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality HHS.gov Search ahrq.gov Search ahrq.gov Menu Topics A - Z Healthcare Delivery Latest available findings on quality of and access to health care Searchable database of AHRQ Grants, Working Papers & HHS Recovery Act Projects AHRQ Projects funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund You are here Guidelines and Measures Funding for the National Guideline

2008 Michigan Quality Improvement Consortium

113. Nebulized hypertonic saline in the treatment of viral bronchiolitis in infants

Nebulized hypertonic saline in the treatment of viral bronchiolitis in infants PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2008 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

114. Randomised controlled trial of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) in bronchiolitis (Abstract)

Randomised controlled trial of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) in bronchiolitis To compare continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) with standard treatment (ST) in the management of bronchiolitis.Children <1 year of age with bronchiolitis and capillary PCO2 >6 kPa were recruited and randomised to CPAP or ST and then crossed over to the alternative treatment after 12 h. ST was intravenous fluids and supplemental oxygen by nasal prongs or face mask. The change in PCO2 (...) tolerated with no complications identified.This study suggests that CPAP compared with ST improves ventilation in children with bronchiolitis and hypercapnoea.

2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

115. Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis. (Abstract)

Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diagnoses made by primary-care physicians. It is traditionally treated with antibiotics (although the evidence for their effectiveness is weak and modest at best), and other even less effective treatments. Chinese medicinal herbs have also been used as a treatment.This review aimed to summarise the existing evidence on the comparative effectiveness and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for treating (...) tangjiang syrup. However, the study also lacked allocation concealment and blinding. There was a high possibility of conflict of interest as the Huoke granules were made by the trial author's hospital.There is insufficient quality data to recommend the routine use of Chinese herbs for acute bronchitis. Study-design limitations of the individual studies meant that no conclusion about the benefits of Chinese herbs could be taken. In addition, the safety of Chinese herbs is unknown due to the lack

2008 Cochrane

116. WITHDRAWN: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children. (Abstract)

WITHDRAWN: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children. Systemic glucocorticoids have been widely prescribed for use in infants and young children with acute viral bronchiolitis but the actual benefit of this intervention requires clarification.To systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of systemic glucocorticoids for the treatment of infants and young children with acute viral bronchiolitis.Multiple strategies were incorporated to maximize (...) with acute viral bronchiolitis and treated with systemic (oral, intramuscular or intravenous) corticosteroids. Three reviewers independently selected potentially relevant articles. Four reviewers evaluated these studies, determined eligibility and assessed the methodological quality of each RCT.The primary outcome of interest was length of hospital stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes were: respiratory rate, haemoglobin oxygen saturation, and hospital admission and revisit rates. Data were extracted

2008 Cochrane

117. Short- versus long-duration antimicrobial treatment for exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis

Short- versus long-duration antimicrobial treatment for exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2008 DARE.

118. Pelargonium sidoides for acute bronchitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pelargonium sidoides for acute bronchitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2008 DARE.

119. Levofloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis

Levofloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Levofloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis | Therapeutics Initiative Independent Healthcare Evidence > > Levofloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Background Information of the Condition Chronic bronchitis is a subset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease defined by a productive cough for at least 3 months in duration in each of 2 consecutive years, which may include an acute exacerbation of increased (...) sputum production and purulence, and increased dyspnea. An increased respiratory rate and wheezing, lethargy and elevated temperature are usually indicative of an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, which is usually caused by a virus. Measurement of expiratory flow volume is recommended along with oxygen saturation in moderate to severe cases, whereas sputum cultures are not routinely recommended. Drug (Product Monograph) , Category: Levofloxacin, the L-isomer of the racemate ofloxacin

2008 Therapeutics Letter

120. Moxifloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis

Moxifloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Moxifloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis | Therapeutics Initiative Independent Healthcare Evidence > > Moxifloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Background Information of the Condition Chronic bronchitis is a subset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease defined by a productive cough for at least 3 months in duration in each of 2 consecutive years, which may include an acute exacerbation of increased (...) sputum production and purulence, and increased dyspnea. An increased respiratory rate and wheezing, lethargy and elevated temperature are usually indicative of an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, which is usually caused by a virus. Measurement of expiratory flow volume is recommended along with oxygen saturation in moderate to severe cases, whereas sputum cultures are not routinely recommended. Drug (Product Monograph) Category: Moxifloxacin is a member of the fluoroquinolone class

2008 Therapeutics Letter