Latest & greatest articles for cancer

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Top results for cancer

11261. Treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction: endoscopic implantation of self-expanding metal stents versus gastric bypass surgery

Treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction: endoscopic implantation of self-expanding metal stents versus gastric bypass surgery Treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction: endoscopic implantation of self-expanding metal stents versus gastric bypass surgery Treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction: endoscopic implantation of self-expanding metal stents versus gastric bypass surgery El-Shabrawi A, Cerwenka H, Bacher H, Kornprat P, Schweiger J, Mischinger H J Record Status (...) Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population comprised patients who underwent palliative endoscopic stenting or surgery for malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Patients without obstructive symptoms who had nonetheless undergone surgery were excluded. Setting The study setting was inpatient tertiary care. The economic study was undertaken at the Department of Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Austria. Dates to which data relate The effectiveness and resource use data were

2006 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

11262. Clinical and economic impact of epoetin in adjuvant-chemotherapy for breast cancer

. Pharmacoeconomics 1999;16:459-72. Bokemeyer C, Aapro MS, Courdi A, et al. EORTC guidelines for the use of erythropoietic proteins in anaemic patients with cancer. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:2201-16. Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Adult; Aged; Anemia /chemically induced /drug therapy /economics; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols /adverse effects; Biomarkers /blood; Breast Neoplasms /drug therapy /economics; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Cyclophosphamide /adverse (...) Clinical and economic impact of epoetin in adjuvant-chemotherapy for breast cancer Clinical and economic impact of epoetin in adjuvant-chemotherapy for breast cancer Clinical and economic impact of epoetin in adjuvant-chemotherapy for breast cancer Fagnoni P, Limat S, Chaigneau L, Guardiola E, Briaud S, Schmitt B, Merrouche Y, Pivot X, Woronoff-Lemsi M C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains

2006 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

11263. Cost-effectiveness of Mohs micrographic surgery vs surgical excision for basal cell carcinoma of the face

Cost-effectiveness of Mohs micrographic surgery vs surgical excision for basal cell carcinoma of the face Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2006 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

11264. Should We Screen All Smokers for Lung Cancer?

Should We Screen All Smokers for Lung Cancer? Should We Screen All Smokers for Lung Cancer? – Clinical Correlations Search Should We Screen All Smokers for Lung Cancer? November 15, 2006 2 min read Over the last few weeks there has been major press in the lay media about this lead article in the NEJM from 10/26/06. This study was designed to diagnose lung cancer at an earlier stage and therefore to decrease mortality rates. The authors had two study groups, one in New York and one in Japan (...) comprising almost 60,000 people who were considered high risk for lung cancer. They underwent annual chest CT. Of these people, 484 cancers were diagnosed and of those 412 had stage I. The authors go on to report that screening high risk patients could prevent 80% of the deaths from lung cancer. There are several issues with this paper. As with many screening articles there are issues of and . (For a review of all the ). There is no discussion of complication rates among people who were not diagnosed

2006 Clinical Correlations

11265. Breath test for lung cancer detection (12 month update)

of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in human breath', J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 826 -2), 69-74. (1 SEARCH CRITERIA TO BE USED: Alkanes/metabolism Breath Tests/ methods Bronchoscopy Lung Neoplasms/ diagnosis/secondary Tumor Markers, Biological/ analysis APPENDIX: Stages of cancer The staging of a carcinoma has to do with the size of the tumour, and the degree to which it has penetrated. When the tumour is small and has not penetrated the mucosal layer, it is said to be stage I cancer (...) , involving a total of 53 participants diagnosed with lung cancer and 185 control participants. Each 2 study demonstrated to som cancer. Deng et al (2004) r the blood, and val that certain alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in 73 per cent of lung cancer patients (11/15), but only in and s spectroscopy. In the study, 14 with bronchogenic carcinoma and 45 controls rate group of 76 participants, 14 with and 62 without cancer (whose disease state was blinded to the experimenters prior to model

2006 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

11266. Program for the treatment of prostate cancer

outcomes in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. Hormonal therapy aims to reduce the size of the tumour, making subsequent radiotherapy more effective. Laverdiere et al (1997) found that either three or six months of androgen deprivation prior to radiotherapy improved local disease control two years after treatment relative to radiotherapy alone. Another study by Pilepich et al (2001) found that four months of androgen deprivation before and during radiotherapy improved outcomes on all measures (...) included local failure and prostate-cancer-specific survival. Local failure was defined as the time to tumour recurrence, or in cases where the primary tumour never disappeared, was defined as occurring at random. In measuring prostate-cancer- specific survival, death was attributed to prostate cancer if the patient had progressive prostate cancer, otherwise the observation was censored. Secondary outcomes included distant failure, biochemical failure, disease-free survival and freedom from salvage

2006 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

11267. Proton Beam Therapy for the treatment of cancer

patients who may be eligible fro treatment with proton beam therapy in Australia and New Zealand is indicated in Table 1. In New Zealand during 2002-2003, the prevalence of all cancers was 3.2% of the population (2.6-3.7%) and during that same period 47,715 patients received 201,445 chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments for cancer (Ministry of Health 2004 and 2005). Table 1 Possible clinical burden of disease Principle diagnosis Malignant neoplasms Number of new cases 2001, Australia Number (...) is adjusted relative to the fixed proton beam, are primarily used for tumours of the head and neck, or to treat eye disease such as choroidal melanoma or macular degeneration (Jones 2006; LLUMC 2006). CLINICAL NEED AND BURDEN OF DISEASE Proton beam therapy is not suitable for all tumour types but may be of particular benefit treating superficial lesions (such as those of the eye), intermediate depth lesions (such as the head and neck), for cancers that are difficult or dangerous to treat with surgery

2006 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

11268. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of suspected breast malignancies

resonance imaging (MRI) may offer a more reliable method for diagnosing breast cancer. Other benefits of MRI include its safety (it does not use ionising radiation) and ability to define, where applicable, morphologic features of lesion architecture (Nunes et al 1997). Following the discovery of a suspicious mass on an MRI scan of the breast, a patient may be required to undergo a biopsy in order to accurately determine whether the mass is benign or 1 malignant. A biopsy is an invasive procedure (...) of the 63,000 high-risk women would likely benefit from additional MRS. DIFFUSION MRS can be performed on MRI equipment using specialised software packages. A number of software packages have been approved by the FDA for the evaluation of suspected tumours in the brain and the prostate, but none have been approved for the purpose of diagnosing breast cancer. In addition to regulatory approval, potential uptake of MRS for the evaluation of breast malignancy depends to a large degree on the availability

2006 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

11269. Dose verification system for the measurement of radiation dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast and prostate cancer

cancer patients resulted in a 65 per cent change in disease free status over time. 1 In order to ensure accurate radiation delivery, radiation oncologists have relied on a variety of techniques to help visualise tumour location. Techniques such as ultrasound localisation and X-ray based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) have emerged as reliable and efficient tools for guaranteeing accurate tumour targeting. A second and equally important requirement in ensuring accurate radiation delivery (...) HealthPACT through funding. This Horizon scanning prioritising summary was prepared by Tom Sullivan and Tracy Merlin from the National Horizon Scanning Unit, Adelaide Health Technology Assessment, Discipline of Public Health, Mail Drop 511, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005. PRIORITISING SUMMARY REGISTER ID: 000227 NAME OF TECHNOLOGY: DOSE VERIFICATION SYSTEM PURPOSE AND TARGET GROUP: MEASURING THE RADIATION DOSAGE RECEIVED AT THE TUMOUR SITE IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST OR PROSTATE CANCER STAGE

2006 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

11270. NMP22 BladderChek for the detection of bladder cancer (12 month update)

/ urine Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/ urine Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/ diagnosis/ urine Nuclear Proteins/ urine Tumor Markers, Biological/ urine 5 JUNE 2006 - COMPARATORS Published literature indicates that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is emerging as a valid test for bladder cancer surveillance (Jones 2006). A critical review of Medline literature (Jones 2006) indicated that FISH was superior in performance when compared to cytology, and was able to detect cancer before lesions were (...) there were 2,954 new cases of bladder cancer in the Australian population, representing a crude rate of 15.2 per 100,000. There was a higher incidence in males (24 per 100,000) compared to females (7 per 100,000), (AIHW 2005a). In the year 2002-03 there were 15,672 hospitalisations for a principal diagnosis (C67) of malignant neoplasm of bladder (AIHW 2005b). DIFFUSION The NMP22 BladderChek ™ is not currently available in Australia. In the United States, the cost of using the test is almost half the cost

2006 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

11271. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutational assay for patients with non small-cell lung carcinoma (12 month update)

proliferation, motility, adhesion, blocking of apoptosis, increased angiogenesis and a resistance to chemotherapy. Any of these factors may contribute to the development of a 1 malignancy. Increased activity at the EGFR has been shown to occur with a variety of solid tumours. The EGFR is highly expressed in 88-99 per cent of non-small cell lung carcinomas, with high expression more common in squamous cell cancers (57-92%) than in adenocarcinomas (33-58%) (Janne et al 2004). Developing tumours depend (...) other forms of chemotherapy (Pao et al 2004; Paez et al 2004; Lynch et al 2004; Janne et al 2004). Patients with a mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR may demonstrate an increased sensitivity to inhibition of tumour growth, demonstrated by non-progression or stabilisation of the disease, to treatment with gefitinib. However, not all patients diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma will have a mutation in the EGFR (Lynch et al 2004). Jänne et al (2004) described a case series of 200

2006 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

11272. Effector memory T cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer. (Abstract)

Effector memory T cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer. The role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the early metastatic invasion of colorectal cancer is unknown.We studied pathological signs of early metastatic invasion (venous emboli and lymphatic and perineural invasion) in 959 specimens of resected colorectal cancer. The local immune response within the tumor was studied by flow cytometry (39 tumors), low-density-array real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay (75 (...) tumors), and tissue microarrays (415 tumors).Univariate analysis showed significant differences in disease-free and overall survival according to the presence or absence of histologic signs of early metastatic invasion (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that an early conventional pathological tumor-node-metastasis stage (P<0.001) and the absence of early metastatic invasion (P=0.04) were independently associated with increased survival. As compared with tumors with signs of early metastatic

2005 NEJM

11273. Insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and glucose intolerance have been associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk; however, prediagnostic serum insulin concentration has not been evaluated as a predictor of this malignancy.To investigate whether prediagnostic fasting glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance are associated with subsequent incidence of exocrine pancreatic cancer in a cohort of male (...) smokers.A case-cohort prospective study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1985-1988) cohort of 29,133 male Finnish smokers ages 50 to 69 years. The study included 400 randomly sampled subcohort control participants and 169 incident pancreatic cancer cases that occurred after the fifth year of follow-up. All participants were followed up through December 2001 (up to 16.7 years of follow-up).Incident exocrine pancreatic cancer identified from the Finnish Cancer

2005 JAMA

11274. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with risk of colorectal cancer. The pooled multivariate RRs comparing the highest vs lowest study- and sex-specific quintile of dietary fiber intake were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.90-1.11) for colon cancer and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.72-1.01) for rectal cancer (P for common effects by tumor site = .07).In this large pooled analysis, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted analyses. However, after accounting for other dietary risk factors, high dietary fiber intake (...) Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer.To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer.From 13 prospective cohort studies included in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer, 725,628 men and women were followed up for 6 to 20 years across

2005 JAMA

11275. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer: implications of race/ethnicity, age, and differentiation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer: implications of race/ethnicity, age, and differentiation. A 1990 National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference recommended that patients with stage III colon cancer receive adjuvant chemotherapy because survival was improved in clinical trials in patients who received a 5-fluorouracil-based regimen.To determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy is used in the community as a standard of practice that improves outcome and whether it failed (...) to benefit any specific sets of patients.Prospective data from 85 934 patients with stage III colon cancer from 560 hospital cancer registries were entered into the National Cancer Data Base between 1990 and 2002 and included standard clinical, pathological, and first course of treatment variables.Prevalence of adjuvant chemotherapy usage and 5-year survival in patients treated in US hospitals.Adjuvant chemotherapy use increased from 39% in 1991 to 64% in 2002 but was lower in black, female, and elderly

2005 JAMA

11276. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interdisciplinary rehabilitation of chronic non-malignant pain syndrome patients.

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interdisciplinary rehabilitation of chronic non-malignant pain syndrome patients. Guidelines and Measures | Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality HHS.gov Search ahrq.gov Search ahrq.gov Menu Topics A - Z Healthcare Delivery Latest available findings on quality of and access to health care Searchable database of AHRQ Grants, Working Papers & HHS Recovery Act Projects AHRQ Projects funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund You

2005 Siskin Hospital for Physical Rehabilitation (Chattanooga, TN)

11277. What is the risk of cancer in a child with hemihypertrophy?

(cancer) development and the best scheme for surveillance. Hence you decide to look at the evidence base for these answers so that the family can be counselled appropriately. Search Strategy Cochrane database Medline database (1996 to date and 1951 to date) PubMed Medline: Hemi hypertrophy or hemi hyperplasia, tumours or neoplasm, follow up ultrasound scans Pubmed: Four searches: hemi hypertrophy, hemi hyperplasia, tumours in hemihyperplasia, hemihypertrophy and review or follow up. Limits: birth (...) such as Beckwith-Wiedmann, Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber, or McCune-Albright syndromes. Predisposition to neoplasia (cancer) in isolated hemihyperplasia is well known, but the exact risk is not well documented. Green and colleagues in 1993 reported that only in one third of cases of children with Wilm's tumour and hemihyperplasia, was the hyperplasia diagnosed more than a month prior to the discovery of the tumour. The case series by Choyke and colleagues concluded that children with BWS/HH may benefit from

2005 BestBETS

11278. Risk of cervical and other cancers after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: retrospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk of cervical and other cancers after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: retrospective cohort study. To study the long term risk of cervical and other cancers after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.Retrospective cohort study.University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.7564 women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during 1974 and 2001 and followed up through the Finnish cancer registry until 2003.Standardised incidence ratio for cervical cancer and other (...) cancers.During follow-up 22 cases of invasive cervical cancer occurred in women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (standardised incidence ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.2). The highest risk was during the second decade (10 cases observed: 3.1, 1.5 to 5.7). The standardised incidence ratio for cervical intraepithelial cancer type 1 was 3.1 (1.4 to 6.2) and for type 2 was 3.7 (0.9 to 10.7).The risk of cervical cancer in the first 20 years after treatment for cervical intraepithelial

2005 BMJ

11279. Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. (Abstract)

Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. With respect to reducing mortality, advances in cancer treatment have not been as effective as those for other chronic diseases; effective screening methods are available for only a few cancers. Primary prevention through lifestyle and environmental interventions remains the main way to reduce the burden of cancers. In this report, we estimate mortality from 12 types of cancer (...) attributable to nine risk factors in seven World Bank regions for 2001.We analysed data from the Comparative Risk Assessment project and from new sources to assess exposure to risk factors and relative risk by age, sex, and region. We applied population attributable fractions for individual and multiple risk factors to site-specific cancer mortality from WHO.Of the 7 million deaths from cancer worldwide in 2001, an estimated 2.43 million (35%) were attributable to nine potentially modifiable risk factors

2005 Lancet

11280. Cost-effectiveness of cervical-cancer screening in five developing countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-effectiveness of cervical-cancer screening in five developing countries. Cervical-cancer screening strategies that involve the use of conventional cytology and require multiple visits have been impractical in developing countries.We used computer-based models to assess the cost-effectiveness of a variety of cervical-cancer screening strategies in India, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, and Thailand. Primary data were combined with data from the literature to estimate age-specific incidence (...) and mortality rates for cancer and the effectiveness of screening for and treatment of precancerous lesions. We assessed the direct medical, time, and program-related costs of strategies that differed according to screening test, targeted age and frequency, and number of clinic visits required. Single-visit strategies involved the assumption that screening and treatment could be provided in the same day. Outcomes included the lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved, lifetime costs, and cost

2005 NEJM