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Latest & greatest articles for cancer
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on cancer or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Pregnancy characteristics and maternal risk of breast cancer. During pregnancy, serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones are markedly higher than during other periods of life. Pregnancy hormones primarily are produced in the placenta, and signs of placental impairment may serve as indirect markers of hormone exposures during pregnancy. During pregnancy, these markers have been inconsistently associated with subsequent risk of breast cancer in the mother.To examine associations (...) between indirect markers of hormonal exposures, such as placental weight and other pregnancy characteristics, and maternal risk of developing breast cancer.Population-based cohort study using data from the Swedish Birth Register, the Swedish Cancer Register, the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the Swedish Register of Population and Population Changes.Women included in the Sweden Birth Register who delivered singletons between 1982 and 1989, with complete information on date of birth
45 (1.1% and 0%) and on follow-up colonoscopy if advanced neoplasia was absent initially (1.7% and 0.1%). The incidence of colorectal cancer was substantially lower-80% in families with moderate risk (P = 0.00004), and 43% in families with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (P = 0.06)-than the expected incidence in the absence of surveillance when the family history was taken into account.Colonoscopic surveillance reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in people with a strong family (...) history. This study confirms that members of families with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer require surveillance with short intervals. Individuals with a lesser family history may not require surveillance under age 45, and if advanced neoplasia is absent on initial colonoscopy, surveillance intervals may be lengthened. This would reduce the demand for colonoscopic surveillance.
cancer.Epidemiologic survey and 26 institutions that treat childhood cancer.Participants included 11 481 persons who were treated for primary brain cancer, leukemia, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kidney tumor, neuroblastoma, soft-tissue sarcoma, or malignant bone tumor before the age of 21 years and who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. The comparison group included 3839 siblings of survivors of childhood cancer.Medical data were abstracted, and participants or parents (if the participants were (...) Limitations on physical performance and daily activities among long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors of childhood cancer may experience important disease- and treatment-related late effects, including functional limitations.This study evaluated performance limitations and restricted abilities to participate in personal care, to engage in routine activities like shopping or housework, and to attend work or school (participation restrictions) in a cohort of survivors of childhood
a 3 cm excision margin was technically possible. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, a history of cancer (except basal cell carcinoma), and treatment with immunosuppressive agents. Intervention: primary tumour excision with a total surrounding margin of 1 cm (n = 453) or 3 cm (n = 447). All excisions were extended to or included the deep fascia. Outcomes: incidence of local, in transit, or nodal tumour recurrence and a composite endpoint comprising tumour recurrence and all cause mortality (...) reduced recurrence in melanomas > 2 mm thick Free Robin Marks , MBBS, MPH, MRACP, FACD, FRACP Statistics from Altmetric.com Thomas JM, Newton-Bishop J, A’Hern R, et al. Excision margins in high-risk malignant melanoma. N Engl J Med 2004 ; 350 : 757 –66. Q In patients with high risk malignant melanoma, is primary tumour excision with a surrounding margin of 3 cm more effective than a margin of 1 cm for reducing recurrence and improving survival? Clinical impact ratings Dermatology ★★★★★★☆ Oncology ★★★★
Gefitinib plus best supportive care in previously treated patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (Iressa Survival Evaluation in Lung Cancer). This placebo-controlled phase III study investigated the effect on survival of gefitinib as second-line or third-line treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.1692 patients who were refractory to or intolerant (...) of their latest chemotherapy regimen were randomly assigned in a ratio of two to one either gefitinib (250 mg/day) or placebo, plus best supportive care. The primary endpoint was survival in the overall population of patients and those with adenocarcinoma. The primary analysis of the population for survival was by intention to treat. This study has been submitted for registration with ClinicalTrials.gov, number 1839IL/709.1129 patients were assigned gefitinib and 563 placebo. At median follow-up of 7.2 months
2005LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Diagnostic performance of digital versus film mammography for breast-cancer screening. Film mammography has limited sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer in women with radiographically dense breasts. We assessed whether the use of digital mammography would avoid some of these limitations.A total of 49,528 asymptomatic women presenting for screening mammography at 33 sites in the United States and Canada underwent both digital and film mammography. All relevant information was available (...) for 42,760 of these women (86.3 percent). Mammograms were interpreted independently by two radiologists. Breast-cancer status was ascertained on the basis of a breast biopsy done within 15 months after study entry or a follow-up mammogram obtained at least 10 months after study entry. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the results.In the entire population, the diagnostic accuracy of digital and film mammography was similar (difference between methods in the area under
Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. We used modeling techniques to assess the relative and absolute contributions of screening mammography and adjuvant treatment to the reduction in breast-cancer mortality in the United States from 1975 to 2000.A consortium of investigators developed seven independent statistical models of breast-cancer incidence and mortality. All seven groups used the same sources to obtain data on the use of screening mammography (...) , adjuvant treatment, and benefits of treatment with respect to the rate of death from breast cancer.The proportion of the total reduction in the rate of death from breast cancer attributed to screening varied in the seven models from 28 to 65 percent (median, 46 percent), with adjuvant treatment contributing the rest. The variability across models in the absolute contribution of screening was larger than it was for treatment, reflecting the greater uncertainty associated with estimating the benefit
%). Specificity increased to 94% (95% CI, 85%-98%) for individuals aged 75 years or younger. The same predictive capacity of telomerase activity levels was observed for patients with low-grade tumors or with negative cytology results.The present validation study demonstrated the ability of urine telomerase activity levels to accurately detect the presence of bladder tumors in men. This test represents a potentially useful noninvasive diagnostic innovation for bladder cancer detection in high-risk groups (...) Relevance of urine telomerase in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The identification of new molecular markers is one of the most challenging goals for the early detection of bladder cancer because available noninvasive methods have neither sufficient sensitivity nor specificity to be acceptable for routine use.To develop a relatively simple, inexpensive, and accurate test that measures telomerase activity in voided urine to apply to large-scale screening programs for bladder cancer
Comorbidity and survival disparities among black and white patients with breast cancer. Reasons for the shorter survival of black breast cancer patients compared with their white counterparts are not completely understood.To evaluate the role of comorbidity in this racial disparity among breast cancer patients.Historical cohort from the Henry Ford Health System (a large comprehensive health system in Detroit, Mich) followed up for a median of 10 years. Patients (n = 906) included 264 black (...) (29.1%) and 642 white (70.9%) women diagnosed as having breast cancer between 1985 and 1990. Detailed comorbidity data (268 comorbidities) and study data were abstracted from medical records and institutional, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results, and Michigan State registries. Associations were analyzed with logistic and Cox regression.Breast cancer recurrence/progression and survival to death from all, breast cancer, and competing (non-breast cancer) causes.Of blacks, 64 (24.9%) died
Does dietary folate intake modify effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk? Prospective cohort study. To evaluate the effect of dietary folate intake on the relation between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk.Prospective cohort study.Melbourne, Australia.17,447 Anglo-Australian women resident in Melbourne, aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 1990-4, and followed up until 31 December 2003.Invasive breast cancers diagnosed during follow-up and ascertained through the Victorian (...) cancer registry.537 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Compared with lifetime abstainers, the hazard ratio for breast cancer in women who consumed an average of 40 g or more of alcohol daily at baseline was 1.41 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.23). No direct association was found between dietary folate intake and risk of breast cancer, but a high folate intake mitigated the excess risk associated with alcohol. The estimated hazard ratio of an alcohol consumption of 40 g/day or more was 2.00
therapeutic use Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung drug therapy surgery Chemotherapy, Adjuvant Cisplatin administration & dosage Humans Lung Neoplasms drug therapy surgery Neoplasm Staging Survival Analysis 2005 10 7 9 0 2005 10 12 9 0 2005 10 7 9 0 ppublish 16207858 353/14/1523 10.1056/NEJMc052019 (...) Treatment of resected non-small-cell lung cancer. 16207858 2005 10 11 2013 11 21 1533-4406 353 14 2005 Oct 06 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Treatment of resected non-small-cell lung cancer. 1523-4; author reply 1523-4 Bria Emilio E Giannarelli Diana D Terzoli Edmondo E eng Comment Letter Meta-Analysis United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 Q20Q21Q62J Cisplatin AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 23;352(25):2589-97 15972865 Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Somatic acquisition and signaling of TGFBR1*6A in cancer. TGFBR1*6A is a common polymorphism of the type I transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFBR1). Epidemiological studies suggest that TGFBR1*6A may act as a tumor susceptibility allele. How TGFBR1*6A contributes to cancer development is largely unknown.To determine whether TGFBR1*6A is somatically acquired by primary tumors and metastases during cancer development and whether the 3-amino acid deletion that differentiates TGFBR1*6A (...) that endogenously carry TGFBR1*6A, and SW48 colorectal cancer cells that do not carry TGFBR1*6A.TGFBR1*6A somatic acquisition in cancer. Determination of the amino terminus of the mature TGFBR1*6A and TGFBR1 receptors. Determination of TGF-beta-dependent cell proliferation.TGFBR1*6A was somatically acquired in 13 of 44 (29.5%) colorectal cancer metastases, in 4 of 157 (2.5%) of colorectal tumors, in 4 of 226 (1.8%) head and neck primary tumors, and in none of the 104 patients with breast cancer. TGFBR1*6A
Carlini P P Fabi A A Ruggeri E M EM Alimonti A A Nardoni C C Cognetti F F eng Clinical Trial Letter Randomized Controlled Trial 2005 04 27 England Ann Oncol 9007735 0923-7534 143011-72-7 Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor 3Z8479ZZ5X Epirubicin 8N3DW7272P Cyclophosphamide IM Acute Disease Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols adverse effects Breast Neoplasms drug therapy Cyclophosphamide administration & dosage Epirubicin administration & dosage Female Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (...) Does the concurrent use of anthracycline and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor influence the risk of secondary leukaemia in breast cancer women? 15857847 2005 10 04 2016 10 17 0923-7534 16 7 2005 Jul Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology Ann. Oncol. Does the concurrent use of anthracycline and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor influence the risk of secondary leukaemia in breast cancer women? 1209-10 Di Cosimo S S Ferretti G G Papaldo P P
Dietary phytoestrogens and lung cancer risk. Despite lung-specific in vitro and in vivo studies that support a chemopreventive role for phytoestrogens, there has been little epidemiologic research focused on dietary intake of phytoestrogens and risk of lung cancer.To examine the relationship between dietary intake of phytoestrogens and risk of lung cancer.Ongoing US case-control study of 1674 patients with lung cancer (cases) and 1735 matched healthy controls. From July 1995 through October (...) 2003, participants were personally interviewed with epidemiologic and food frequency questionnaires to collect demographic information and to quantify dietary intake of 12 individual phytoestrogens.Risk of lung cancer, estimated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and smoking status and adjusted for established and putative lung cancer risk factors.Reductions in risk of lung cancer tended to increase with each increasing quartile of phytoestrogen intake
Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk. Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases.To assess the effects of smoking reduction on lung cancer incidence.Observational population-based cohort study with up to 31 years of follow-up from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population (...) population was divided into 6 groups according to smoking habits: continued heavy smokers (> or =15 cigarettes/d), reducers (reduced from > or =15 cigarettes/d by minimum of 50% without quitting), continued light smokers (1-14 cigarettes/d), quitters (stopped between first and second examination), stable ex-smokers, and never smokers.Incident primary lung cancer cases assessed by record linkage with the National Cancer Registry until December 31, 2003.There were 864 incident lung cancers during follow-up
Autoantibody signatures in prostate cancer. New biomarkers, such as autoantibody signatures, may improve the early detection of prostate cancer.With a phage-display library derived from prostate-cancer tissue, we developed and used phage protein microarrays to analyze serum samples from 119 patients with prostate cancer and 138 controls, with the samples equally divided into training and validation sets. A phage-peptide detector that was constructed from the training set was evaluated (...) on an independent validation set of 128 serum samples (60 from patients with prostate cancer and 68 from controls).A 22-phage-peptide detector had 88.2 percent specificity (95 percent confidence interval, 0.78 to 0.95) and 81.6 percent sensitivity (95 percent confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.90) in discriminating between the group with prostate cancer and the control group. This panel of peptides performed better than did prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in distinguishing between the group with prostate cancer