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Latest & greatest articles for cardiovascular disease
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on cardiovascular disease or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Disease A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Edward P. Havranek , Mahasin S. Mujahid , Donald A. Barr , Irene V. Blair , Meryl S. Cohen , Salvador Cruz-Flores (...) illness and injury at rates that are demonstrably unnecessary.” The report blames many factors, “adverse economic and social conditions” among them. In an editorial in Science discussing the findings of the Institute of Medicine report, Bayer et al call for a national commission on health “to address the social causes (...) supplements, on clinical and selected intermediate cardiovascular (CV) outcomes (i.e., blood pressure, lipid concentrations) and the association of omega-3 FA dietary (...) clinical recommendations or guidelines. Heart and Blood Vessel Conditions Heart Disease Background The first observation of a link between fish consumption and cardiovascular (CV) health was made in the late 1970s in a Greenland Eskimo population. This population exhibited a comparatively low rate of CV mortality and consumed a greater
Skin autofluorescence assessment of cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illness People with severe mental illness (SMI) show significantly shorter life expectancy, mostly due to more prevalent cardiovasculardisease. Although age is a prominent contributor to contemporary risk assessment and SMI usually affects younger people, these assessments still do not reveal the actual risk. By assessing advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cardiovascular risk can be assessed independent (...) of age.To establish whether detection of AGEs with the AGE-reader will give a more accurate cardiovascular risk assessment in people with SMI.We compared assessment with the AGE-reader with that of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) table in a group of 120 patients with SMI.The AGE-reader showed an increased cardiovascular risk more often than the SCORE table, especially in the youngest group.Because of its ease of use and substantiation by studies done on other chronic diseases, we
Prediction of cardiovasculardisease among hematopoietic cell transplantation survivors Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is a leading cause of late morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors. HCT-specific CVD risk prediction models are needed to facilitate early screening and prevention. In the current study, patients who underwent HCT at City of Hope (COH) and survived 1-year free of clinically evident CVD (N = 1828) were observed for the development of heart (...) failure (HF) or coronary artery disease (CAD) by 10-years from index date (1 year from HCT). CVD occurred in 135 individuals (92 HF, 43 CAD). Risk prediction models were developed for overall CVD (HF and/or CAD) using COH-derived integer risk scores. Risk scores based on selected variables (age, anthracycline dose, chest radiation, hypertension, diabetes, smoking) achieved an area under the curve (AUC) and concordance (C) statistic of 0.74 and 0.72 for CVD; these varied from 0.70 to 0.82 according
Omega-6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovasculardisease. Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovasculardisease (CVD) risk is debated.To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May 2017 and clinicaltrials.gov and the World (...) make little or no difference to all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.12, 740 deaths, 4506 randomised, 10 trials) or CVD events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.15, 1404 people experienced events of 4962 randomised, 7 trials). We are uncertain whether increasing omega-6 fats affects CVD mortality (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.55, 472 deaths, 4019 randomised, 7 trials), coronary heart disease events (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.17, 1059 people with events of 3997
Targeting Postprandial Hyperglycemia With Physical Activity May Reduce CardiovascularDisease Risk. But What Should We Do, and When Is the Right Time to Move? Physical inactivity and excessive postprandial hyperglycemia are two major independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular-related mortality. Current health policy guidelines recommend at least 150 min of physical activity per week coupled with reduced daily sedentary behavior by interrupting prolonged sitting with bouts (...) type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular complications, this review examines a novel hypothesis that interrupting sitting time would be best focused on the postprandial period in order to optimize blood glucose control and maximize cardiometabolic health. In doing so, we aim to identify the science gaps which urgently need filling if we are to optimize healthcare policy in this critical area.
Prenatal biochemical screening and long term risk of maternal cardiovasculardisease: population based cohort study. To examine whether abnormal prenatal biochemical screening results are associated with an increased risk of premature cardiovasculardisease after pregnancy.Population based cohort study.The entire province of Ontario, Canada, where healthcare is universally available.Women aged 12-55 years, without pre-existing cardiovasculardisease, who underwent prenatal screening between (...) pregnancy.Among 855 536 pregnancies, and after a median of 11.4 (interquartile range 6.8-17.5) years of follow-up, 6209 women developed the main cardiovasculardisease outcome. Abnormal results for each of the five prenatal biochemical screening analytes, especially dimeric inhibin-A, were associated with a higher risk of cardiovasculardisease. Women with an abnormally high dimeric inhibin-A (≥95th centile) had the highest rate of cardiovasculardisease (30 events or 8.3 per 10 000 person years versus 251
Scale development and psychometric properties of the Cardiac Self-Blame Attributions scale in patients with cardiovasculardisease Patients with cardiovasculardisease may attribute their cardiovasculardisease to their behaviors (behavioral self-blame) or to their dispositions (characterological self-blame). However, findings are mixed on the effects of behavioral self-blame and characterological self-blame on health outcomes, possibly because there are no validated, multiple-item measures (...) . This study developed and tested an 11-item Cardiac Self-Blame Attributions scale via questionnaire data from 121 patients with cardiovasculardisease. Results yielded a two-factor structure that explained 65 percent of the variance, with good reliability and discriminant validity. Findings suggest that the scale is reliable and valid and can be used to understand the cardiac attributions patients create.
Risk Assessment for CardiovascularDisease With Nontraditional Risk Factors: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is the most common cause of death among adults in the United States. Treatment to prevent CVD events by modifying risk factors is currently informed by the Framingham Risk Score, the Pooled Cohort Equations, or similar CVD risk assessment models. If current CVD risk assessment models could be improved by adding more risk factors (...) , treatment might be better targeted, thereby maximizing the benefits and minimizing the harms.To update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on using nontraditional risk factors in coronary heart disease risk assessment.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on using nontraditional risk factors in CVD risk assessment, focusing on the ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score; the health benefits and harms
Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and CardiovascularDisease Risk Assessment With the Ankle-Brachial Index: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis in the lower limbs. It can impair walking and, in severe cases, can lead to tissue loss, infection, and amputation. In addition to morbidity directly caused by PAD, patients with PAD are at increased risk for cardiovasculardisease (CVD) events, because (...) atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that also causes coronary and cerebrovascular events.To update the 2013 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for PAD and CVD risk with the ankle-brachial index (ABI).The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on whether screening for PAD with the ABI in generally asymptomatic adults reduces morbidity or mortality from PAD or CVD. The current review expanded on the previous review to include individuals with diabetes and interventions that include
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Maternal CardiovascularDisease Risk Factor Development: An Observational Cohort Study. Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are nearly twice as likely to develop cardiovasculardisease (CVD) as those who are normotensive during pregnancy. However, the emergence of CVD risk factors after HDP is less well-understood.To identify associations between HDP and maternal CVD risk factors and chart the trajectory of risk factor
Deciphering Non-coding RNAs in Cardiovascular Health and Disease After being long considered as "junk" in the human genome, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) currently represent one of the newest frontiers in cardiovasculardisease (CVD) since they have emerged in recent years as potential therapeutic targets. Different types of ncRNAs exist, including small ncRNAs that have fewer than 200 nucleotides, which are mostly known as microRNAs (miRNAs), and long ncRNAs that have more than 200 nucleotides (...) of ncRNAs in cardiovascular health and disease and provide some insight on the cardioprotective signaling pathways elicited by the non-coding genome. We will highlight important basic and clinical breakthroughs that support employing ncRNAs for treatment or early diagnosis of a variety of CVDs, and also depict the most relevant limitations that challenge this novel therapeutic approach.
Cardiovascular (CV) Risk after Initiation of Abatacept versus TNF Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with and without Baseline CV Disease To evaluate the cardiovascular safety of abatacept (ABA) versus tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with and without underlying cardiovasculardisease (CVD).We identified RA patients with and without baseline CVD who initiated ABA or TNFi by using data from 2 large US insurance claims databases: Medicare
The effect of community-based interventions for cardiovasculardisease secondary prevention on behavioural risk factors Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing; with limited healthcare resources, secondary prevention programmes outside traditional hospital settings are needed, but their effectiveness is unclear. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of secondary prevention cardiovascular risk reduction programmes delivered in venues
Annual Risk of Major Bleeding Among Persons Without CardiovascularDisease Not Receiving Antiplatelet Therapy. A decision to initiate aspirin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovasculardisease (CVD) requires consideration of both treatment benefits and harms. The most significant harm associated with aspirin is major bleeding, yet there is a paucity of data on bleeding risk in suitable community populations.To determine the risk of major bleeding among people without CVD who (...) are not receiving antiplatelet therapy.Prospective cohort study of 359 166 individuals aged 30 to 79 years receiving primary care in New Zealand who had CVD risk assessment between 2002 and 2015. Participants were censored at the earliest date on which they had a first major bleeding event, died, or met any baseline cohort exclusion criteria or the study end date of December 31, 2015. Analyses were repeated after excluding people with medical conditions associated with increased bleeding risk (non-high-risk
Primary Prevention of CardiovascularDisease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts. Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk.In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovasculardisease at enrollment, to one of three diets (...) : a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the trial
Screening for CardiovascularDisease Risk With Electrocardiography: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Cardiovasculardisease (CVD), which encompasses atherosclerotic conditions such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease, is the most common cause of death among adults in the United States. Treatment to prevent CVD events by modifying risk factors is currently informed by CVD risk assessment with tools such as the Framingham (...) Risk Score or the Pooled Cohort Equations, which stratify individual risk to inform treatment decisions.To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for coronary heart disease with electrocardiography (ECG).The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on whether screening with resting or exercise ECG improves health outcomes compared with the use of traditional CVD risk assessment alone in asymptomatic adults.For asymptomatic adults at low risk of CVD events
Clinical Implications of Revised Pooled Cohort Equations for Estimating Atherosclerotic CardiovascularDisease Risk. The 2013 pooled cohort equations (PCEs) are central in prevention guidelines for cardiovasculardisease (CVD) but can misestimate CVD risk.To improve the clinical accuracy of CVD risk prediction by revising the 2013 PCEs using newer data and statistical methods.Derivation and validation of risk equations.Population-based.26 689 adults aged 40 to 79 years without prior CVD from 6 (...) U.S. cohorts.Nonfatal myocardial infarction, death from coronary heart disease, or fatal or nonfatal stroke.The 2013 PCEs overestimated 10-year risk for atherosclerotic CVD by an average of 20% across risk groups. Misestimation of risk was particularly prominent among black adults, of whom 3.9 million (33% of eligible black persons) had extreme risk estimates (<70% or >250% those of white adults with otherwise-identical risk factor values). Updating these equations improved accuracy among all race
Genetics of CardiovascularDisease: Fishing for Causality Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death in all western world countries and genetic predisposition in combination with traditional risk factors frequently mediates their manifestation. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies revealed numerous potentially disease modifying genetic loci often including several SNPs and associated genes. However, pure genetic association does not prove direct or indirect relevance (...) loci and to identify novel cardiovasculardisease genes. We summarize the benefits of the zebrafish for cardiovascular research and highlight examples demonstrating the successful combination of GWA studies and functional genomics in zebrafish to broaden our knowledge on the genetic and molecular underpinnings of cardiovasculardiseases.