Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

5701. Impact of the Methotrexate Administration Dose on the Need for Intrathecal Treatment in Children and Adolescents With Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma: Results of a Randomized Trial of the EICNHL Group (Abstract)

Impact of the Methotrexate Administration Dose on the Need for Intrathecal Treatment in Children and Adolescents With Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma: Results of a Randomized Trial of the EICNHL Group To compare the efficacy and safety of two methotrexate doses and administration schedules in children with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL).This randomized trial for children with ALCL was based on the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster 90 (NHL-BFM90) study protocol and compared (...) six courses of methotrexate 1 g/m2 over 24 hours and an intrathecal injection (IT) followed by folinic acid rescue at 42 hours (MTX1 arm) with six courses of methotrexate 3 g/m2 over 3 hours followed by folinic acid rescue at 24 hours without IT (MTX3 arm). This trial involved most European pediatric/lymphoma study groups and a Japanese group.Overall, 352 patients (96% ALK positive) were recruited between 1999 and 2005; 175 were randomly assigned to the MTX1 arm, and 177 were assigned to the MTX3

2009 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5702. Iron supplementation of breastfed infants from an early age Full Text available with Trip Pro

Iron supplementation of breastfed infants from an early age In breastfed infants, iron deficiency at <6 mo of life, although uncommon, is observed in industrialized countries. Iron supplementation starting at an early age may prevent iron deficiency.The study assessed the effect of early iron supplementation of breastfed infants and tested the hypothesis that iron supplementation enhances iron status. Potential adverse effects (tolerance and growth) were monitored.The prospective, placebo (...) -controlled study involved exclusively breastfed infants who were randomly assigned at 1 mo of age to iron (n = 37) or placebo (n = 38). Iron (7 mg/d as multivitamin preparation with ferrous sulfate) or placebo (multivitamin preparation without iron) was given from 1 to 5.5 mo of age. Complementary foods were allowed at >4 mo. Infants were followed to 18 mo. Blood concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, and red cell indexes were determined at bimonthly intervals. Stool consistency

2009 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5703. Distinguishing between septic arthritis of the hip and transient synovitis in children

Distinguishing between septic arthritis of the hip and transient synovitis in children BestBets: Distinguishing between septic arthritis of the hip and transient synovitis in children Distinguishing between septic arthritis of the hip and transient synovitis in children Report By: Hester Taekema, PR Landham - Paediatric A&E registrars Search checked by Ian Maconochie - Consultant in Pediatrics Institution: Department of Paediatrics, Royal United Hospital, Bath and Department of Orthopaedic (...) Surgery Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, Date Submitted: 26th October 2007 Date Completed: 29th January 2009 Last Modified: 29th January 2009 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [children presenting with acute hip pain], is there [a single clinical or laboratory test] that will [distinguish between septic arthritis and transient synovitis]? Clinical Scenario A 3 year old boy presents to paediatric A&E with refusal to weightbear for the last day and a temperature of 37.9 ° centigrade

2009 BestBETS

5704. Does oral aciclovir improve clinical outcome in immunocompetent children with primary herpes simplex gingivotomatitis?

and perioral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection: review of its management. Oral Dis 2006;12:254–70. Blevins J. Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis in young children. Pediatr Nurs 2003;29:199–202. Amir J. Clinical aspects and antiviral therapy in primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Paediatr Drugs 2001;3:593–7. Leigh IM. Management of non-genital herpes simplex virus infections in immunocompetent patients. Am J Med 1988;85:34–8. Faden H. Management of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis in young (...) Does oral aciclovir improve clinical outcome in immunocompetent children with primary herpes simplex gingivotomatitis? BestBets: Does oral aciclovir improve clinical outcome in immunocompetent children with primary herpes simplex gingivotomatitis? Does oral aciclovir improve clinical outcome in immunocompetent children with primary herpes simplex gingivotomatitis? Report By: Dr B Hudson, C Powell - Pediatric registrars Institution: Children’s Hospital for Wales, University Hospital of Wales

2009 BestBETS

5705. Surfactant therapy for acute respiratory failure in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Surfactant therapy for acute respiratory failure in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2009 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

5706. Antibiotic use in children is associated with increased risk of asthma (Abstract)

Antibiotic use in children is associated with increased risk of asthma Antibiotic exposure in early childhood is a possible contributor to the increasing asthma prevalence in industrialized countries. Although a number of published studies have tested this hypothesis, the results have been conflicting.To explore the association between antibiotic exposure before 1 year of age and development of childhood asthma.Using administrative data, birth cohorts from 1997 to 2003 were evaluated (N (...) asthma in early childhood after adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status at birth, urban or rural address at birth, birth weight, gestational age, delivery method, frequency of physician visits, hospital visit involving surgery, visits to an allergist, respirologist, or immunologist, congenital anomalies, and presence of otitis media, acute, or chronic bronchitis, and upper and lower respiratory tract infections during the first year of life. As the number of courses of antibiotics increased

2009 EvidenceUpdates

5707. Longitudinal trajectories of postconcussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injuries and their relationship to acute clinical status Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal trajectories of postconcussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injuries and their relationship to acute clinical status We examined whether mild traumatic brain injuries in children and adolescents, especially when associated with acute clinical features reflecting more severe injury, result in different postinjury trajectories of postconcussive symptoms compared with mild orthopedic injuries.Participants in this prospective and longitudinal cohort study were 8 (...) - to 15-year-old children, 186 with mild traumatic brain injuries and 99 with mild orthopedic injuries, who were recruited from consecutive admissions to emergency departments in 2 large children's hospitals. Parents rated current postconcussive symptoms within 3 weeks of injury and at 1, 3, and 12 months after injury. At the initial assessment, parents also provided retrospective ratings of preinjury symptoms, and children with mild traumatic brain injuries received MRI of the brain. Clinical

2009 EvidenceUpdates

5708. Heparin-Bonded Central Venous Catheters Do Not Reduce Thrombosis in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease: A Blinded Randomized, Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Heparin-Bonded Central Venous Catheters Do Not Reduce Thrombosis in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease: A Blinded Randomized, Controlled Trial Infants with congenital heart disease who require central venous lines are at increased risk of thrombosis. Heparin-bonded catheters provide protection from thrombotic events in some children. However, heparin-bonded catheters may not be as effective in infants infants aged Infants

2009 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

5709. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiramate for migraine prevention in pediatric subjects 12 to 17 years of age (Abstract)

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiramate for migraine prevention in pediatric subjects 12 to 17 years of age Currently, no drugs are Food and Drug Administration-approved for migraine prophylaxis in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiramate for migraine prevention in adolescents.Adolescents (12-17 years of age) with a >/=6-month history of migraine were assigned randomly (...) in pediatric subjects. Overall, topiramate treatment was safe and well tolerated.

2009 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

5710. Intergenerational influences on childhood body mass index: the effect of parental body mass index trajectories Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intergenerational influences on childhood body mass index: the effect of parental body mass index trajectories Parental obesity in adulthood is a strong determinant of offspring obesity. Whether parental body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) at earlier life stages is associated with offspring BMI is unknown.The main objective was to assess whether recent BMI of parents in adulthood and their recent BMI gain are more strongly associated with offspring BMI than are BMI or changes in parental BMI (...) in childhood.Two generations in the 1958 British birth cohort were studied, including cohort members (parents' generation) with BMI at 7, 11, 16, 23, and 33 y (n = 16,794) and a one-third sample of their offspring selected in 1991 aged 4-18 y (n = 2908). We applied multilevel models to allow for within-family correlations.Childhood BMI increased on average by 0.25-1.10 between the 2 generations, depending on sex and age group, and overweight/obesity increased from 10% to 16%. Parents' BMI in childhood

2009 EvidenceUpdates

5711. Amniocentesis and mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission in the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hepatites Virales French Perinatal Cohort (Abstract)

Amniocentesis and mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission in the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hepatites Virales French Perinatal Cohort The objective of the study was to investigate whether performing an amniocentesis increased mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 (MTCT).We studied HIV -1 infected mothers and their children enrolled in the multicenter French Perinatal HIV Cohort from 1985 to 2006.One hundred sixty-six (...) combination (6.1%; 3/49 vs 3.3%; 117/3556; P = .22), but the difference was not significant. Among 81 mothers receiving HAART, there was no case of MTCT.Our results suggest that amniocentesis is not a major risk factor for mother-to-child transmission in mothers treated with effective antiretroviral therapy.

2009 EvidenceUpdates

5712. Long-term risk of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury in children and young adults: a population-based cohort study. (Abstract)

Long-term risk of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury in children and young adults: a population-based cohort study. The risk of epilepsy shortly after traumatic brain injury is high, but how long this high risk lasts is unknown. We aimed to assess the risk of epilepsy up to 10 years or longer after traumatic brain injury, taking into account sex, age, severity, and family history.We identified 1 605 216 people born in Denmark (1977-2002) from the Civil Registration System. We obtained

2009 Lancet

5713. The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. The primary role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in causing infant hospitalizations is well recognized, but the total burden of RSV infection among young children remains poorly defined.We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections among children under 5 years of age in three U.S. counties. We enrolled hospitalized children from 2000 through 2004 and children presenting (...) as outpatients in emergency departments and pediatric offices from 2002 through 2004. RSV was detected by culture and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Clinical information was obtained from parents and medical records. We calculated population-based rates of hospitalization associated with RSV infection and estimated the rates of RSV-associated outpatient visits.Among 5067 children enrolled in the study, 919 (18%) had RSV infections. Overall, RSV was associated with 20% of hospitalizations

2009 NEJM

5714. Melamine-Contaminated Powdered Formula and Urolithiasis in Young Children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for, urinary tract stones. In addition, we performed urinalysis, renal-function and liver-function tests, urinary tests for biochemical markers and the calcium:creatinine ratio, and ultrasonography. Powdered-milk infant formulas were classified as having a high melamine content (>500 ppm), a moderate melamine content (<150 ppm), or no melamine (0 ppm); no formulas contained between 150 and 500 ppm of melamine.Contaminated formula was ingested by 421 of 589 children. Fifty had urinary stones, including 8 (...) and in whom urinary markers of glomerular function were measured had evidence of abnormalities; none had tubular dysfunction. Children exposed to high-melamine formula were 7.0 times as likely to have stones as those exposed to no-melamine formula. Preterm infants were 4.5 times as likely to have stones as term infants.Prematurity and exposure to melamine-contaminated formula were associated with urinary stones. Affected children lacked typical signs and symptoms of urolithiasis.2009 Massachusetts Medical

2009 NEJM

5715. Changes in outcomes (1996-2004) for pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation

Changes in outcomes (1996-2004) for pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2009 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

5716. Hypothermia Therapy after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

Hypothermia Therapy after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2009 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

5717. The use of isotonic fluid as maintenance therapy prevents iatrogenic hyponatremia in pediatrics: A randomized, controlled open study

The use of isotonic fluid as maintenance therapy prevents iatrogenic hyponatremia in pediatrics: A randomized, controlled open study PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2009 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

5718. The infant behavioral assessment and intervention program for very low birth weight infants at 6 months corrected age (Abstract)

The infant behavioral assessment and intervention program for very low birth weight infants at 6 months corrected age To determine whether the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP), designed to support and enhance infants' self-regulatory competence, improved developmental and neurobehavioral outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.We randomized 86 infants to 1 intervention before discharge and to 6 to 8 home interventions until 6 months corrected age, and 90 (...) control infants received standard care. Developmental and behavioral outcomes were evaluated at 6 months corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II). Neurobehavioral functioning was evaluated with the Infant Behavioral Assessment (IBA) at baseline and at 6 months corrected age.Despite randomization, some differences in neonatal characteristics were found between the intervention and control infants. After adjustment, intervention effects of 7.2 points (+/- standard error

2009 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5719. Environmental exposures and respiratory morbidity among very low birth weight infants at 1 year of life Full Text available with Trip Pro

Environmental exposures and respiratory morbidity among very low birth weight infants at 1 year of life Preterm infants have a substantially increased risk of developing respiratory illnesses. The goal of this study was to consider the impact of modifiable postnatal exposures on respiratory morbidity among a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.(1) Assess the rates of respiratory morbidity and exposure to indoor respiratory triggers in a population of VLBW infants at 1 year; (2 (...) ) determine the association between exposures and respiratory morbidity.We enrolled 124 VLBW infants into a prospective cohort study. Parents were called at 1 year to assess respiratory outcomes and environmental exposures. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relationship between environmental exposures and acute care for respiratory illnesses.At 1 year, 9% of infants had physician-diagnosed asthma, 47% required >or=1 acute visit and 11% required hospitalisation for respiratory

2009 EvidenceUpdates

5720. A comparison of dexmedetomidine-midazolam with propofol for maintenance of anesthesia in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (Abstract)

A comparison of dexmedetomidine-midazolam with propofol for maintenance of anesthesia in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging Dexmedetomidine is an alpha(2) agonist that is currently being investigated for its suitability to provide anesthesia for children. We compared the pharmacodynamic responses to dexmedetomidine-midazolam and propofol in children anesthetized with sevoflurane undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Forty ASA 1 or 2 children, 1-10 yr of age, were randomized (...) within normal limits for the children's ages. No adverse events were recorded.Dexmedetomidine-midazolam provides adequate anesthesia for MRI although recovery is prolonged when compared with propofol. Heart rate was slower and systolic blood pressure was greater with dexmedetomidine when compared with propofol. Respiratory indices were similar for the two treatments.

2009 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain