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Latest & greatest articles for children
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on children or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Effects of interventions with a physical activity component on bone health in obese children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Given the rise in pediatric obesity, clarifications on the relationship between obesity and bone health and on the impact of structured intervention on this relationship are needed. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of obesity on bone health and assessed the effect of structured intervention in children (...) and adolescents with obesity. Medline complete, OVID, CINAHL, EMBASE and PubMed databases were searched for studies on obesity and bone health variables up to September 2016, then an update occurred in March 2016. Search items included obesity, childhood, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Twenty-three studies (14 cross-sectional and nine longitudinal) matched the inclusion criteria. Results from the meta-analysis (cross-sectional studies) confirmed that children
A qualitative systematic review of the reasons for parental attendance at the emergency department with children presenting with minor illness. Over 5 million children attend the Emergency Department (ED) annually in England with an ever-increasing paediatric emergency caseload echoed globally. Approximately 60% of children present with illness and the majority have non-urgent illness creating burgeoning pressures on children's ED and this crisis resonates globally. To date no qualitative (...) systematic review exists that focuses on the parental reasons for childhood attendance at the ED in this sub-group.To identify parental reasons for attending ED for their children presenting with minor illness.A qualitative systematic review was conducted against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five electronic databases and key journals were searched in June 2015.471 studies were identified and following study selection, 4 qualitative studies were included. Nine themes were identified e.g. dissatisfaction
, and 28 met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Studies examined the likelihood of spontaneous closure based on child's age and size of hernia defect, complications of unrepaired umbilical hernias including incarceration, strangulation and evisceration based on child's age and size of defect, incidence of postoperative complications and current recommendations for timing of repair. In addition, 63 (27.5%) of the United States pediatric hospital websites published a wide range of management (...) Management of asymptomatic pediatric umbilical hernias: a systematic review. Uncomplicated pediatric umbilical hernias are common and most close spontaneously. No formal practice guidelines exist regarding the optimal timing and indications for repair. The objective of this review is to examine the existing literature on the natural history of pediatric umbilical hernias, known complications of repair and non-operative approaches, and management recommendations.A systematic literature search
Can Radiotherapy Be Omitted in Children With Hodgkin Lymphoma Who Achieve Metabolic Remission on Interim Positron Emission Tomography? Experience of a Tertiary Care Cancer Referral Center Treating pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involves a delicate balance between cure and reducing late toxicity. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) identifies patients with early response to chemotherapy, for whom radiotherapy may be avoided. The role
Differences in Adverse Drug Events Among Pediatric Patients With and Without Cancer: Sub-Analysis of a Retrospective Cohort Study This study investigated the differences in the incidence and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs) in pediatric patients with and without cancer.We used data from the Japan Adverse Drug Events Study for pediatrics, a cohort study enrolling pediatric inpatients at two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Japan. ADEs were identified by on-site review of all medical (...) charts, incident reports, and prescription queries by pharmacists. Two independent physicians reviewed all potential ADEs and classified ADEs in terms of severity and class of causative medication. We compared the incidence and characteristics of ADEs between pediatric cancer patients and non-cancer patients.We enrolled 1189 patients during the study period, 27 with cancer and 1162 without cancer. We identified 480 ADEs in 234 patients (20%): 191 ADEs among 21 cancer patients and 289 ADEs among 213
Low alcohol consumption and pregnancy and childhood outcomes: time to change guidelines indicating apparently 'safe' levels of alcohol during pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analyses. To determine the effects of low-to-moderate levels of maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy on pregnancy and longer-term offspring outcomes.Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Psychinfo from inception to 11 July 2016.Prospective observational studies, negative control and quasiexperimental studies
SystEmatic review and meta-aNAlysis of infanT and young child feeding Practices (ENAT-P) in Ethiopia: protocol. Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is the cornerstone of infant and child survival, healthy growth and development, healthy future generations and national development. In spite of the importance of optimal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries, there has been no review conducted in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate
Antibiotic Exposure in Early Life Increases Risk of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. A number of studies have previously assessed the impact of antibiotic exposure in early life on the risk of childhood obesity, but no systematic assessment is currently available. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to comprehensively and quantitatively elucidate the risk of childhood obesity caused by antibiotic exposure in early life. Literature search was performed (...) in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Random-effect meta-analysis was used to pool the statistical estimates. Fifteen cohort studies involving 445,880 participants were finally included, and all those studies were performed in developed countries. Antibiotic exposure in early life significantly increased risk of childhood overweight [relative risk (RR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.35, P < 0.001] and childhood obesity (RR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.13-1.30, P < 0.001). Antibiotic exposure in early
Determining the optimal vancomycin daily dose for pediatrics: a meta-analysis. The objective of this study was to check which initial dose of vancomycin is needed to achieve the therapeutic target that is currently used in pediatrics.The search was conducted in the following data sources: Pubmed (1980-2017), the Cochrane Library, and Embase (1986-2017) and the references of the published studies; searches were performed using the key terms: child, children, pediatrics, infants and adolescents (...) varied between 40 mg/kg/day to 120 mg/kg/day. The statistical tests demonstrated significant clinical heterogeneity of I2 (84%).The meta-analysis study revealed in the majority of studies that doses lower than 60 mg/kg/day were not enough to achieve desirable vancomycin plasma concentrations "area under the curve in 24 h/minimum inhibitory concentration >400 (AUC0-24/MIC>400) or trough 10-20 mg/L" to control bacterial infections in pediatrics.
A neglected infection in literature: Childhood musculoskeletal tuberculosis - A bibliometric analysis of the most influential papers. Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is known to have a wide range of presentations, and if left untreated, primary TB may lead to bone and joint involvement. The literature on this topic is very scarce, and no comprehensive systematic review or meta-analysis of the current knowledge is available to date. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the literature (...) . Their experience is of a high level of importance and relevance which furthermore is necessary to create a more accurate picture of pediatric musculoskeletal TB burden in literature.
Children's experiences of living with a parent with mental illness: A systematic review of qualitative studies using thematic analysis. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: There are many qualitative studies that explore what it is like for children who live with a parent who has a mental illness. These studies are sometimes criticized because they have small sample sizes which limits their application. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We conducted a systematic review of qualitative (...) papers with an aim to strengthening our understanding of what it is like for children who live with a parent who has a mental illness. We used stringent criteria to make sure that only the voices of children affected by parental mental illness were included in the review. In addition, the paper presents a timely update on previous reviews completed in this area. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The findings of this review highlight the impact that parental mental illness has on children
the association between perinatal PTSD and child outcomes. Databases EMBASE, BNI, Medline, PsycInfo and CINAHL were searched using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria.26 papers reporting 21 studies were identified that examined associations between perinatal PTSD and postpartum birth outcomes, child development, and mother-infant relationship. Studies reviewed were heterogeneous, with poor-to-medium scores of methodological quality. Results showed that maternal postpartum PTSD is associated with low (...) birth weight and lower rates of breastfeeding. Evidence for an association between maternal PTSD and preterm birth, fetal growth, head circumference, mother-infant interaction, the mother-infant relationship or child development is contradictory. Associations between maternal PTSD and infant salivary cortisol levels, and eating/sleeping difficulties are based on single studies, so require replication.Methodological weaknesses of the studies included insufficient sample size, use of invalidated
Comparison of anti-malarial drugs efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in African children and adults using network meta-analysis. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and novel drug combinations are available and used in African countries to treat uncomplicated malaria. Network meta-analysis methods are rarely and poorly applied for the comparison of their efficacies. This method was applied on a set of randomized controlled trials to illustrate its usefulness.A literature (...) review available in Pubmed was conducted in July 2016. Eligible studies, conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, published between 2002 and 2016, focused on randomized controlled trials of at least two artemisinin-based combinations to treat uncomplicated malaria in children and adults. Agglomerate data were: the number of PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28, used as the primary enDHAPoint in all interventions, the number of participants and the list of treatments
A growth reference for mid upper arm circumference for age among school age children and adolescents, and validation for mortality: growth curve construction and longitudinal cohort study. Objectives To construct growth curves for mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC)-for-age z score for 5-19 year olds that accord with the World Health Organization growth standards, and to evaluate their discriminatory performance for subsequent mortality.Design Growth curve construction and longitudinal cohort (...) study.Setting United States and international growth data, and cohorts in Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.Participants The Health Examination Survey (HES)/National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) US population datasets (age 5-25 years), which were used to construct the 2007 WHO growth reference for body mass index in this age group, were merged with an imputed dataset matching the distribution of the WHO 2006 growth standards age 2-6 years. Validation data were from 685 HIV infected children
Whole-exome sequencing for RH genotyping and alloimmunization risk in children with sickle cell anemia RH genes are highly polymorphic and encode the most complex of the 35 human blood group systems. This genetic diversity contributes to Rh alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and is not avoided by serologic Rh-matched red cell transfusions. Standard serologic testing does not distinguish variant Rh antigens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based DNA arrays detect (...) for reducing Rh alloimmunization in children with SCA.
Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus based on different risk profiles and settings for improving maternal and infant health. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. Although GDM usually resolves following birth, it is associated with significant morbidities for mothers and their infants in the short and long term. There is strong evidence to support treatment for GDM. However, there is uncertainty as to whether or not screening all pregnant (...) women for GDM will improve maternal and infant health and if so, the most appropriate setting for screening. This review updates a Cochrane Review, first published in 2010, and subsequently updated in 2014.To assess the effects of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus based on different risk profiles and settings on maternal and infant outcomes.We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (31 January 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry
Parent-child relationship associated with the development of borderline personality disorder: A systematic review. The parent-child relationship (PCR) is considered as a central factor in most contemporary theories on the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). This systematic review aimed to answer the three following questions: (1) How is the PCR described by BPD participants and their parents in comparison to other normative and clinical groups? (2) Which aspects of the PCR
Clinical and laboratory predictors of death in African children with features of severe malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The criteria for defining severe malaria have evolved over the last 20 years. We aimed to assess the strength of association of death with features currently characterizing severe malaria through a systematic review and meta-analysis.Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge) were searched (...) to identify publications including African children with severe malaria. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Selection was based on design (epidemiological, clinical and treatment studies), setting (Africa), participants (children < 15 years old with severe malaria), outcome (survival/death rate), and prognostic indicators (clinical and laboratory features). Quality assessment was performed following the criteria of the 2011 Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). Odds ratios (ORs) were
of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Pasanen Anu A PEDEGO Research Center and Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Children and Adolescents, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. Waage Johannes J COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen & Danish Pediatric Asthma Center, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Sevelsted Astrid A COPSAC, Copenhagen (...) Research Center and Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Children and Adolescents, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. Stokholm Jakob J COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen & Danish Pediatric Asthma Center, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Chawes Bo L BL COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Faculty of Health