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Latest & greatest articles for children
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on children or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II. Several societies have produced and disseminated clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the symptomatic management of fever in children. However, to date, the quality of such guidelines has not been appraised.To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children.The research was conducted using PubMed, guideline websites
The prevalence of obesity among school-aged children and youth aged 6-18 years in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis study. Obesity is considered as a major health problem of children and adolescents. The present meta-analysis was conducted by extensive search of studies on the prevalence of obesity among school-aged children and youth aged 6-18 years in Iran.All conducted cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of obesity in Iranian students in all grades were extracted, without
to the outcomes. In all, 2118 pediatric critically ill patients <18 y of age were included. The total daily protein intake ranged from 0.67 to 4.7 g/kg. Average daily total protein intake >1.1 g/kg, especially >1.5 g/kg, was associated with positive protein balance and lower mortality.In critically ill children, total daily protein intake >1.1 g/kg was associated with positive effects on clinical outcomes and protein balance. The existing data are not sufficient for determining the optimal structure (...) Impact of the structure and dose of protein intake on clinical and metabolic outcomes in critically ill children: A systematic review. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of structure/type and total amount of protein intake on protein balance and clinical outcomes in critically ill children.We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature on Embase, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences. A partial gray literature search
Child contact management in high tuberculosis burden countries: A mixed-methods systematic review. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science (...) for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population: child contacts (<15 years) exposed to TB in the household from programmatic settings in high burden countries (HBCs), b) interventions
Does This Child Have Pneumonia?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to identify the clinical symptoms and physical examination findings associated with pneumonia to improve timely diagnosis, prevent significant morbidity, and limit antibiotic overuse.To systematically review the accuracy of symptoms and physical examination findings in identifying children with radiographic pneumonia.MEDLINE (...) and Embase (1956 to May 2017) were searched, along with reference lists from retrieved articles, to identify diagnostic studies of pediatric pneumonia across a broad age range that had to include children younger than age 5 years (although some studies enrolled children up to age 19 years); 3644 unique articles were identified, of which 23 met inclusion criteria.Two authors independently abstracted raw data and assessed methodological quality. A third author resolved disputes.Likelihood ratios (LRs
Systematic review: probiotics for functional constipation in children. We updated our 2010 systematic review on the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of constipation in children. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases; clinical trial registries; and reference lists of included studies were searched to February 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed in children, with no language restriction. The primary outcome measure was treatment success, as defined (...) to treatment success. While some probiotic strains showed some effects on defecation frequency, none of the probiotics had beneficial effects on frequency of fecal incontinence or frequency of abdominal pain. Adverse events were rare and not serious.Limited evidence does not support the use of any of currently evaluated probiotics in the treatment of functional constipation in children. What is Known: • Conventional treatment for functional constipation in children does not always provide satisfying
analysis to estimate the burden of RSV in children younger than 5 years in England (UK), a representative high-income temperate country, and used these results to assess the potential effect of different RSV immunisation strategies (targeting vaccination for infants, or pregnant women, or prophylactic antibodies for neonates). We did a cost-effectiveness analysis for these strategies, implemented either separately or concurrently, and assessed the effect of restricting vaccination to certain months (...) of the year.We estimated that RSV is responsible for 12 primary care consultations (95% CI 11·9-12·1) and 0·9 admissions to hospital annually per 100 children younger than 5 years (95% CI 0·89-0·90), with the major burden occurring in infants younger than 6 months. The most cost-effective strategy was to selectively immunise all children born before the start of the RSV season (maximum price of £220 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 208-232] per vaccine, for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £20 000
Task-oriented interventions for children with developmental co-ordination disorder. Developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a common childhood disorder, which can persist into adolescence and adulthood. Children with DCD have difficulties in performing the essential motor tasks required for self-care, academic, social and recreational activities.To assess the effectiveness of task-oriented interventions on movement performance, psychosocial functions, activity, and participation (...) for children with DCD and to examine differential intervention effects as a factor of age, sex, severity of DCD, intervention intensity, and type of intervention.In March 2017, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, 13 other databases, and five trials registers. We also searched reference lists, and contacted members of the mailing list of the International Conference on DCD to identify additional studies.We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs
Meta-Analytic Review of the Development of Face Discrimination in Infancy: Face Race, Face Gender, Infant Age, and Methodology Moderate Face Discrimination. Infants show facility for discriminating between individual faces within hours of birth. Over the first year of life, infants' face discrimination shows continued improvement with familiar face types, such as own-race faces, but not with unfamiliar face types, like other-race faces. The goal of this meta-analytic review is to provide (...) an effect size for infants' face discrimination ability overall, with own-race faces, and with other-race faces within the first year of life, how this differs with age, and how it is influenced by task methodology. Inclusion criteria were (a) infant participants aged 0 to 12 months, (b) completing a human own- or other-race face discrimination task, (c) with discrimination being determined by infant looking. Our analysis included 30 works (165 samples, 1,926 participants participated in 2,623 tasks
Adverse Childhood Experiences and Obesity: Systematic Review of Behavioral Interventions for Women. Studies have demonstrated a relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult obesity. Group interventions addressing the psychosocial sequelae of ACES using a trauma-informed approach for adults are well described in the literature. There is also a significant body of literature on the efficacy and proposed structure of interventions addressing weight reduction in adults (...) . However, it is unknown how often interventions addressing attainment of a healthy weight incorporate a specific focus on adult women with a history of ACEs, including childhood abuse and trauma.A systematic review of the literature was conducted using standard approaches. Two additional reviews used broadened inclusion criteria to identify and include group-level interventions that addressed intended outcomes other than obesity. Studies that examined the link between ACEs and obesity as a primary
Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in reducing anxiety in adults and children with asthma: a systematic review. Asthma and anxiety are known to interact, leading to exacerbations for both conditions. This systematic review summarised evidence regarding the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing anxiety in individuals with asthma, with results presented separately for adults and children.PRISMA and CRD guidance were followed to conduct and report the current (...) review. Three major electronic databases (Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and manual searches were used to find relevant published and unpublished research.Sixteen trials (12 adult- and four child-focused) met inclusion criteria, and were evaluated with adapted quality criteria. Both controlled trials and repeated-measures designs were eligible. All CBT intervention formats were eligible (group, individual, computerised, and self-help). Nine studies (eight adult and one child) focused upon
Treadmill interventions in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay. Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, general developmental delay or children born preterm. It limits the child's exploration of the environment and can hinder cognitive and social-emotional development. Literature suggests that task-specific training, such as locomotor treadmill training, facilitates motor development.To assess the effectiveness of treadmill (...) interventions on locomotor development in children with delayed ambulation or in pre-ambulatory children (or both), who are under six years of age and who are at risk for neuromotor delay.In May 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, six other databases and a number of trials registers. We also searched the reference lists of relevant studies and systematic reviews.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that evaluated the effect of treadmill intervention in the target
Malocclusions in young children: Does breast-feeding really reduce the risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Researchers have purported that breast-feeding can decrease the risk of malocclusions. The authors studied the relationship of breast-feeding on malocclusions in young children by means of conducting a systematic review of association (etiology).The authors used a 3-step search strategy, including electronic searches. They considered studies whose investigators included healthy (...) children with primary dentition with a history of breast-feeding and in which the study investigators had assessed specific malocclusion outcomes to be eligible for inclusion in this review. The authors considered prospective and retrospective (longitudinal) studies, case-control studies, and analytical cross-sectional studies. Two of the authors, using standardized instruments, independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted data from the included studies. For situations for which
Manipulative interventions for reducing pulled elbow in young children. Pulled elbow (nursemaid's elbow) is a common injury in young children. It often results from a sudden pull on the arm, usually by an adult or taller person, which pulls the radius through the annular ligament, resulting in subluxation (partial dislocation) of the radial head. It can also be caused by a fall or twist. The child experiences sudden acute pain and loss of function in the affected arm. Pulled elbow is usually (...) , and extracted data. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model.Overall, nine trials with 906 children (all younger than seven years old and 58% of whom were female) were included, of which five trials were newly identified in this update. Eight trials were performed in emergency departments or ambulatory care centres, and one was performed in a tertiary paediatric orthopaedic unit. Four trials were conducted in the USA, three in Turkey, one in Iran, and one in Spain. Five trials were at high risk
of children with a diagnosis of GERD with esophagitis that had persisting symptoms and/or were on antireflux medication at follow-up (12 months to >5 years) ranged from 23% (weekly symptoms) to 68% (antireflux medication), depending on definition used. In children with a diagnosis of GERD without esophagitis, 1.4% developed esophagitis at follow-up (>5 years); none developed Barrett esophagus. In conclusion, prognostic studies on pediatric GERD are of limited quality and show large methodological (...) Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Systematic Review on Prognosis and Prognostic Factors. In this systematic review, we summarize the evidence on prognosis and prognostic factors of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A structured search of Embase and MEDLINE/PubMed (inception to April 2016) yielded 5365 references; 4 publications met our inclusion criteria (risk of bias moderate-high). Definitions and outcome measures varied widely between studies. The percentage
was conducted using four databases. A total of 129 studies were retrieved; 15 met the criteria for the synthesis. Meta-analysis involving 2,582 mothers and fathers of children with physical disabilities mainly cerebral palsy was conducted for the five scales of the MPOC-20.Aggregated mean ratings varied from 5.0 to 5.5 for Providing Specific Information about the Child; Coordinated and Comprehensive Care; and Respectful and Supportive Care (relational behaviors) and Enabling and Partnership (participatory (...) Parents' Perception of Receiving Family-Centered Care for Their Children with Physical Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis. Understanding parent perceptions of family-centered care (FCC) is important to improve processes and outcomes of children's services.A systematic review and meta-analysis of research on the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-20) were performed to determine the extent parents of children with physical disabilities perceive they received FCC.A comprehensive literature search
The impact of epilepsy on academic achievement in children with normal intelligence and without major comorbidities: A systematic review. To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors.A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years (...) ), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English. Excluded were children with learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities (IQ<70) and other comorbidities such as attention deficits hyperactive disorder or autism. Two pairs of reviewers extracted the data, and met to resolve any differences from the data
Ventilation in Extremely Preterm Infants and Respiratory Function at 8 Years. Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvements in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy during the newborn period and in lung function at 8 years of age in children whose birth was extremely (...) premature.We conducted longitudinal follow-up of all survivors of extremely preterm birth who were born in Victoria, Australia, in three periods - the years 1991 and 1992 (225 infants), 1997 (151 infants), and 2005 (170 infants). Perinatal data were collected prospectively, including data on the duration and type of assisted ventilation provided, the duration of oxygen therapy, and oxygen requirements at 36 weeks of age. Expiratory airflow was measured at 8 years of age, and values were converted to z
Correction: Improving the detection of environmental enteric dysfunction: a lactulose, rhamnose assay of intestinal permeability in children aged under 5 years exposed to poor sanitation and hygiene [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2016-000066.].