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Latest & greatest articles for dementia
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on dementia or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Essential tremor is associated with dementia: Prospective population-based study in New York Mild cognitive deficits, mainly in frontal-executive function and memory, have been reported in patients with essential tremor (ET). Furthermore, an association between ET and dementia has been reported in a single population-based study in Spain. This has not been confirmed elsewhere.To determine whether baseline ET is associated with prevalent and incident dementia in an ethnically diverse, community (...) -based sample of elders.Community-dwelling elders in northern Manhattan were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Baseline ET diagnoses were assigned from handwriting samples. Dementia was diagnosed at baseline and follow-up using DSM-III-R criteria.In cross-sectional analyses, 31/124 (25.0%) ET cases had prevalent dementia vs 198/2,161 (9.2%) controls (odds ratio [OR](unadjusted) = 3.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.15-5.09, p < 0.001; OR(adjusted) = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.13-2.98, p = 0.01
Walking the line: a randomised trial on the effects of a short term walking programme on cognition in dementia Walking has proven to be beneficial for cognition in healthy sedentary older people. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a walking intervention on cognition in older people with dementia.97 older nursing home residents with moderate dementia (mean age 85.4 years; 79 female participants; mean Mini-Mental State Examination 17.7) were randomly allocated to the experimental (...) population of older people with dementia.
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet, cognitive decline, and risk of dementia. Higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet is linked to lower risk for mortality and chronic diseases, but its association with cognitive decline is unclear.To investigate the association of a Mediterranean diet with change in cognitive performance and risk for dementia in elderly French persons.Prospective cohort study of 1410 adults (> or = 65 years) from Bordeaux, France, included in the Three-City cohort in 2001 (...) -2002 and reexamined at least once over 5 years. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (scored as 0 to 9) was computed from a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.Cognitive performance was assessed on 4 neuropsychological tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Isaacs Set Test (IST), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). Incident cases of dementia (n = 99) were validated by an independent expert committee of neurologists.Adjusting
Memantine in patients with Parkinson`s disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are common forms of dementia that substantially affect quality of life. Currently, the only treatment licensed for PDD is rivastigmine, and there are no licensed treatments for DLB. We aimed to test the safety and efficacy of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine (...) in patients with PDD or DLB.We did a parallel-group, 24-week, randomised controlled study of memantine (20 mg per day) versus placebo at four psychiatric and neurological outpatient clinics in Norway, Sweden, and the UK during 2005-08. Patients were included if they fulfilled the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD) and developed dementia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria
Age, Neuropathology, and Dementia. Research in Alzheimer's disease is focused mainly on younger old persons, whereas studies involving very old persons report attenuated relationships between the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.We assessed 456 brains donated to the population-based Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study from persons 69 to 103 years of age at death. We used a standard neuropathological protocol that included measures (...) dementia decreased with increasing age. The association between neocortical neuritic plaques and dementia was strong at 75 years of age (odds ratio, 8.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.81 to 19.60) and reduced at 95 years of age (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 0.92 to 4.14), and similar attenuations with advancing age were observed in the association between other pathological changes related to Alzheimer's disease and dementia in all brain areas. In contrast, neocortical cerebral atrophy maintained
Incidence and survival of dementia in a general population of Japanese elderly: the Hisayama study To estimate the incidence and survival rates of total and cause specific dementia in a general Japanese population.A total of 828 subjects without dementia, aged 65 years or over, were followed-up prospectively for 17 years. Dementia was subdivided into cause specific subtypes: namely, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), combined dementia and other (...) types of dementia. During the follow-up, 275 subjects developed dementia; of these, 251 (91.2%) were evaluated morphologically, with 164 subjected to brain autopsy examination and the remaining 87 to neuroimaging.The incidences of total dementia, AD, VD, DLB, combined dementia and other types of dementia were 32.3 (n = 275), 14.6 (124), 9.5 (81), 1.4 (12), 3.8 (33), and 3.1 (16) per 1000 person years, respectively. The incidences of AD, combined dementia and other types of dementia rose
Enteral tube feeding for older people with advanced dementia. The use of enteral tube feeding for patients with advanced dementia who have poor nutritional intake is common. In one US survey 34% of 186,835 nursing home residents with advanced cognitive impairment were tube fed. Potential benefits or harms of this practice are unclear.To evaluate the outcome of enteral tube nutrition for older people with advanced dementia who develop problems with eating and swallowing and/or have poor (...) nutritional intake.The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS were searched in April 2008. Citation checking was undertaken. Where it was not possible to accept or reject, the full text of the citation was obtained for further evaluation.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies that evaluated
Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia. Following the discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system and the identification of specific cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system, much work has been done to investigate the main effects of these compounds. There is increasing evidence that the cannabinoid system may regulate neurodegenerative processes such as excessive glutamate production, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurodegeneration is a feature common to the various (...) types of dementia and this has led to interest in whether cannabinoids may be clinically useful in the treatment of people with dementia. Recent studies have also shown that cannabinoids may have more specific effects in interrupting the pathological process in Alzheimer's disease.To determine from available research whether cannabinoids are clinically effective in the treatment of dementia.The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane
Huperzine A for vascular dementia. Huperzine A, a form of herbal medicine, has been considered as an alternative treatment for vascular dementia (VaD) in China.To assess the efficacy and safety of Huperzine A in patients with vascular dementia.The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG) was searched on 7 July 2008 using the terms: huperzi* OR ayapin OR scoparon*. The CDCIG Specialized Register contains records from all major health care databases (...) Trials Register (ChiCTR, August 2008); Google (August 2008). In addition, the review authors searched reference lists, relevant clinical trials and contacted researchers in an effort to identify further published and unpublished studies.Randomized controlled trials comparing Huperzine A with placebo in patients with vascular dementia were considered eligible for inclusion.Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data.Only one small trial
Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although acute hypoglycemia may be associated with cognitive impairment in children with type 1 diabetes, no studies to date have evaluated whether hypoglycemia is a risk factor for dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes.To determine if hypoglycemic episodes severe enough to require hospitalization are associated with an increased risk of dementia in a population of older patients with type 2 (...) diabetes followed up for 27 years.A longitudinal cohort study from 1980-2007 of 16,667 patients with a mean age of 65 years and type 2 diabetes who are members of an integrated health care delivery system in northern California.Hypoglycemic events from 1980-2002 were collected and reviewed using hospital discharge and emergency department diagnoses. Cohort members with no prior diagnoses of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, or general memory complaints as of January 1, 2003, were followed up
Caring for Aged Dementia Care Resident Study (CADRES) of person-centred care, dementia-care mapping, and usual care in dementia: a cluster-randomised trial Evidence for improved outcomes for people with dementia through provision of person-centred care and dementia-care mapping is largely observational. We aimed to do a large, randomised comparison of person-centred care, dementia-care mapping, and usual care.In a cluster randomised controlled trial, urban residential sites were randomly (...) assigned to person-centred care, dementia-care mapping, or usual care. Carers received training and support in either intervention or continued usual care. Treatment allocation was masked to assessors. The primary outcome was agitation measured with the Cohen-Mansfield agitation inventory (CMAI). Secondary outcomes included psychiatric symptoms including hallucinations, neuropsychological status, quality of life, falls, and cost of treatment. Outcome measures were assessed before and directly after 4
Predictors of nursing home admission for persons with dementia The objective of this systematic review was to identify factors that consistently predict nursing home admission (NHA) in persons with dementia.Studies published in English were retrieved by searching the MEDLINE (1966-2006), PSYCINFO (1950-2006), CINAHL (1982-2006), and Digital Dissertations (1950-2006) databases. Bibliographies of retrieved studies were also searched. Information on study characteristics and empirical results were (...) extracted using a standardized protocol.Of 782 relevant studies identified 80 were selected for review based upon eligibility criteria. The most consistent predictors of NHA in persons with dementia included severity of cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease diagnosis, basic activity of daily living dependencies, behavioral symptoms, and depression. Caregivers who indicated greater emotional stress, a desire to institutionalize the care recipient, and feelings of being "trapped" in care
Diagnostic accuracy of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT in possible dementia with Lewy bodies (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) can help in the differential diagnosis of probable dementia with Lewy bodies (Lewy body dementia) and Alzheimer's disease.Our aim was to determine the accuracy of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT in diagnosing people with possible dementia with Lewy bodies.We undertook a 12-month follow-up of 325 individuals with probable or possible Lewy body or non-Lewy body (...) dementia who had previously undergone (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT. A consensus panel, masked to SPECT findings, established diagnosis at 12 months in 264 people.Of 44 people with possible dementia with Lewy bodies at baseline, at follow-up the diagnosis for 19 people was probable dementia with Lewy bodies (43%), in 7 people non-Lewy body dementia (16%) and for 18 individuals it remained possible dementia with Lewy bodies (41%). Of the 19 who at follow-up were diagnosed with probable dementia with Lewy bodies
Abuse of people with dementia by family carers: representative cross sectional survey. To determine the prevalence of abusive behaviours by family carers of people with dementia.Representative cross sectional surveyCommunity mental health teams in Essex and London.220 family carers of people newly referred to secondary psychiatric services with dementia who were living at home.Psychological and physical abuse (revised modified conflict tactics scale).115 (52%, 95% confidence interval 46% to 59 (...) %) carers reported some abusive behaviour and 74 (34%, 27% to 40%) reported important levels of abuse. Verbal abuse was most commonly reported. Only three (1.4%) carers reported occasional physical abuse.Abusive behaviour by family carers towards people with dementia is common, with a third reporting important levels of abuse and half some abusive behaviour. We found few cases of physical or frequent abuse, although those with the most abusive behaviour may have been reluctant to report it.
Donepezil for dementia in people with Down syndrome. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common form of dementia in people with Down Syndrome [DS]. Acetylcholine is a chemical found in the brain that has an important role in memory, attention, reason and language. Donepezil a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which is thought to maintain levels of acetylcholine, and is reported to have some benefits for people with AD in the general population. It is important to note that people (...) randomised controlled study on the effect of donepezil. This shows, at best, a modest, non statistically significant trend in favour of people with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's dementia who are able to tolerate donepezil (this drug is currently only dispensed in relatively large doses and is contraindicated for those with cardiac and respiratory problems).This study does not provide good evidence on which to base practice. Findings in an open-label follow up to this study suggest possible benefit
Memantine for dementia in people with Down syndrome. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common form of dementia in people with Down Syndrome (DS). There is an understanding that an increase in L-glutamate contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemias and AD. Memantine acts as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type receptors, which is thought to reduce abnormal activation of glutamate neurotransmission. It binds with a low affinity to the NMDA receptor and so should
Galantamine for dementia in people with Down syndrome. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common form of dementia in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Acetylcholine is a chemical found in the brain that has an important role in memory, attention, reason and language. Galantamine both inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase and increases the level of acetylcholine. Galantamine can improve cognitive function and slow the decline of AD in the general population over time. It is important
Rivastigmine for dementia in people with Down syndrome. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common form of dementia in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Acetylcholine is a chemical found in the brain that has an important role in memory, attention, reason and language. Rivastigmine is a "pseudo-irreversible" inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which is thought to maintain levels of acetylcholine. Rivastigmine can improve cognitive function and slow the decline of AD in the general population
Driving assessment for maintaining mobility and safety in drivers with dementia. Demographic changes are leading to an increase in the number of older drivers: as dementia is an age-related disease, there is also an increase in the numbers of drivers with dementia. Dementia can impact on both the mobility and safety of drivers, and the impact of formal assessment of driving is unknown in terms of either mobility or safety. Those involved in assessment of older drivers need to be aware (...) a crash.1. To assess whether driving assessment facilitates continued driving in people with dementia 2. To assess whether driving assessment reduces accidents in people with dementia.To assess the quality of research on assessment of drivers with dementia.The Cochrane Dementia Group's Specialized Register was searched on 30 October 2007 using the terms: driving or driver* or "motor vehicle*" or "car accident*" or "traffic accident*" or automobile* or traffic. This register contains records from major
Clinical and cost effectiveness of services for early diagnosis and intervention in dementia Clinical and cost effectiveness of services for early diagnosis and intervention in dementia Clinical and cost effectiveness of services for early diagnosis and intervention in dementia Banerjee S, Wittenberg R Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary The objective was to assess the costs and benefits associated with a memory service for early diagnosis and intervention for people with dementia. The authors concluded that, based on the best available evidence, there was a case for the development of a nationwide service for early diagnosis and intervention in dementia. Overall, there were some limitations to the study, so