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Overview of depression Overview of depression - Summary of relevant conditions | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Overview of depression Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: November 2018 Introduction Depression is a mental state characterised by persistent low mood, loss of interest and enjoyment in everyday activities, neurovegetative disturbance, and reduced energy, causing varying levels of social and occupational dysfunction (...) . Depressive disorders are common in people of all ages and may be classified depending on the duration, severity, and number of symptoms, and the degree of functional impairment. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013. In bipolar disorder, a manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic
Depression in children Depression in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Depression in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2018 Summary Characterised by sad or irritable mood, anhedonia, decreased capacity to have fun, decreased self-esteem, sleep disturbance, social withdrawal or impaired social relationships, and impaired school performance. One of the most common (...) paediatric psychiatric disorders, especially among girls during adolescence. At-risk children should be screened for depression. It is crucial to make an accurate diagnosis, based on a comprehensive assessment and review of the history, with input from multiple sources. The safety of the child and others, and the duration and severity of depression, need to be evaluated carefully to help determine the appropriate level of care and treatment modality. Treatment is typically with active monitoring
Persistent depressive disorder Persistent depressive disorder - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Persistent depressive disorder Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary Common forms of depression, but lasting longer than acute major depressive disorder. Frequently misdiagnosed because the correct criteria to diagnose this condition are often not applied. The DSM-5, published (...) by the American Psychiatric Association, developed new diagnostic criteria for persistent depressive disorder, which includes both chronic major depressive disorder and the previous category of dysthymic disorder (dysthymia), or chronic low-grade depression. The DSM-5 includes specifiers to identify different pathways to the diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder and various presentations based on severity and clinical characteristics. Associated with significant functional impairment (including
Postnatal depression Postnatal depression - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Postnatal depression Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Refers to the development of a depressive illness following childbirth and may form part of a unipolar or, less frequently, a bipolar illness. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) does not recognise (...) postnatal depression as a separate diagnosis; rather, patients must meet the criteria for a major depressive episode and the criteria for the perinatal-onset specifier. The definition according to DSM-5 is, therefore, a major depressive episode with an onset in pregnancy or within 4 weeks of delivery. However there is no established consensus as to the length of postnatal period, and some authorities define postnatal depression as occurring within the first 12 months after delivery. Aetiology is poorly
Depression in adults Depression in adults - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Depression in adults Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Common symptoms include persistent low mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, sleep and appetite changes, guilt or self-criticism, poor concentration, and reduced energy. Affects 5% to 10% of patients in the primary care setting. Risk factors (...) include prior depression and a family history of depression. Recent bereavement, stress, or medical illness may contribute. For screening and diagnosis, self-rating forms are helpful, but clinical diagnosis is essential. Positive screening should trigger full history, mental status examination, treatment, and follow-up. Most patients respond well to treatment with medication, talk therapy, or a combination of both. Suicidal ideation can occur before and peak during treatment, so early and careful
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Major Depression and Schizophrenia Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Major Depression and Schizophrenia An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for the NSW Ministry of Health. August 2017 An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for the NSW Ministry of Health. August 2017. This report was prepared by: Ma N, Atukorale Y, Duncan J, Marlow N, Cameron A Research and Evaluation, incorporating ASERNIP-S, Royal (...) www.saxinstitute.org.au email@example.com Phone: +61 2 91889500 Suggested Citation: Ma N, Atukorale Y, Marlow N, Duncan J, Cameron A (2017) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for major depression and schizophrenia: an Evidence Check brokered by the Sax Institute (www.saxinstitute.org.au) for the NSW Ministry of Health, 2017. Disclaimer: This Evidence Check Review was produced using the Evidence Check methodology in response to specific questions from the commissioning agency. It is not necessarily
Internet Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Older Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial To determine the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) program for depression in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD).We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 69 adults (ages ≥50 years) meeting criteria for MDD and OA of the knee with 1-week postintervention (week 11) and 3-month (...) followup (week 24) end points. Patients were allocated to either a 10-week iCBT program for depression added to treatment as usual (TAU) or to a TAU control group. Primary outcomes were depression symptoms (9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) and psychological distress (Kessler-10 [K-10]). Secondary outcomes included arthritis self-efficacy (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale [ASES]), OA pain, stiffness, physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC
Clinical Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in the Assessment of Major Depression After Broad-Spectrum Traumatic Brain Injury To determine the predictive validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) when screening for symptoms of depression after traumatic brain injury.Retrospective analysis of data collected as part of routine clinical outpatient care over a period of 30 months.Regional rehabilitation facility.Persons (N=137) with mild to severe traumatic brain injury who (...) were referred for neuropsychological evaluation within 1 to 12 months.Not applicable.PHQ-9 and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form.PHQ-9 scores ≥10 had a sensitivity of 91.7 and a specificity of 60.2 for predicting a diagnosis of major depression. Correlations between scores of PHQ-9 and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form Demoralization (.64) and Low Positive Emotions (.48) scales ranged from large to medium. Premorbid outpatient psychiatric
Depression - antenatal and postnatal Depression - antenatal and postnatal - NICE CKS Share Depression - antenatal and postnatal: Summary Depression refers to a spectrum of mental health problems characterized by the absence of positive affect (that is a loss of interest and enjoyment in ordinary things and experiences), low mood, and additional emotional, cognitive, physical, and behavioural symptoms. Women who are pregnant or postnatal can develop or have the same mental health problems (...) as other adults. Depression in the postnatal period can occur at any time within a year after birth. Common misconceptions about depression in the postnatal period are that symptoms and effects are less severe than depression at other times, it will go away by itself, and that it is entirely due to hormonal changes. The possibility of depression should be assessed at a pregnant woman's first contact with primary care, at her booking visit, and postnatally. The usual diagnostic criteria for depression
Assessment and Interventions for Perinatal Depression Best Practice Guideline Assessment and Interventions for Perinatal Depression Second Edition OCTOBER 2018Disclaimer These guidelines are not binding on nurses or the organizations that employ them. The use of these guidelines should be flexible and based on individual needs and local circumstances. They neither constitute a liability nor discharge from liability. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the contents (...) , reproduced, and published in its entirety, without modification, in any form, including in electronic form, for educational or non-commercial purposes. Should any adaptation of the material be required for any reason, written permission must be obtained from RNAO. Appropriate credit or citation must appear on all copied materials as follows: Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario. Assessment and Interventions for Perinatal Depression. 2nd ed. Toronto (ON): Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario
Prevention and early intervention for adults with mild to moderate depression Prevention and early intervention for adults with mild to moderate depression d An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for Beyond Blue. December 2018. An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for Beyond Blue. December 2018. This report was prepared by: Frances Kay-Lambkin, Jayden Gilbert, Lauren Pedemont, Matthew Sunderland, Hazel Dalton, Tonelle Handley, Sally Chan, David (...) @saxinstitute.org.au Phone: +61 2 91889500 Suggested Citation: Kay-Lambkin F, Gilbert J, Pedemont L, Sunderland M, Dalton H et al. Prevention and early intervention for people aged 18 and over with, or at risk of, mild to moderate depression and anxiety: An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute (www.saxinstitute.org.au) for Beyond Blue, 2018. Disclaimer: This Evidence Check Review was produced using the Evidence Check methodology in response to specific questions from the commissioning agency
Regulations and legislation to reduce discrimination for people with depression, anxiety or who experience suicidality Regulations and legislation to reduce discrimination for people with depression, anxiety or who experience suicidality Regulations and legislation to reduce discrimination for people with depression, An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for Beyond Blue. December 2018. An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute 2 REGULATIONS (...) indicated above requires written permission from the copyright owners. Enquiries regarding this report may be directed to the: Principal Analyst Knowledge Exchange Program Sax Institute www.saxinstitute.org.au firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: +61 2 91889500 Suggested Citation: Stratton E, Glozier N. Regulations and legislation to reduce discrimination for people with depression, anxiety or who experience suicidality: an Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Is Associated With Enhanced Cognitive Control Network Activity in Major Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by depressive symptoms, abnormalities in brain regions important for cognitive control, and response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, whether a common neural mechanism underlies CBT response across diagnoses is unknown.Brain activity during (...) a cognitive control task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 104 participants: 28 patients with MDD, 53 patients with PTSD, and 23 healthy control subjects; depression and anxiety symptoms were determined on the same day. A patient subset (n = 31) entered manualized CBT and, along with controls (n = 19), was rescanned at 12 weeks. Linear mixed effects models assessed the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms and brain activity before and after CBT.At baseline
Factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms in family caregivers of patients with incurable cancer. Family caregivers (FCs) are critically important for patients with cancer, yet they may experience psychological distress related to caregiving demands. We sought to describe rates of depression and anxiety in FCs of patients with incurable cancer and identify factors associated with these symptoms to determine those at greatest risk for psychological distress.We performed a cross (...) -sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized trial of early palliative care. We assessed depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients within 8 weeks of diagnosis of incurable lung or gastrointestinal cancer and their FCs. We also assessed patients' quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General), coping strategies (Brief COPE), and their report of the primary goal of their cancer treatment. We used linear regression with purposeful
Evaluation of anxiety and depression in mothers of children with asthma Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood. Parents have an important role in managing asthma in children. Studies have shown a higher degree of depression and anxiety and lower family performance in mothers of asthmatic children in comparison with the control group.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parenting styles and also depression, anxiety and stress parameters in mothers of children (...) with asthma.This case-control study was performed on 45 mothers of 3 to 15 years old asthmatic children in the allergy clinic of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, during the years of 2014 to 2016. The control group was 45 mothers of non-asthmatic children who were matched for the age of their children with the case group in the same population. The parenting styles, as well as depression and anxiety of mothers were evaluated using parenting scales, and the depression-anxiety-stress scales
BICAO-induced ischaemia caused depressive-like behaviours and caspase-8/-9-dependent brain regional neural cell apoptosis in mice Cerebral ischaemia-induced depression is among the most frequent neuropsychiatric consequences and adversely impact the prognosis and recovery of patients. Although several brain regions have been implied in the development of ischaemia-induced depression, the brain region-specific neural cell apoptosis pathways have not been clarified yet.In this study, bilateral (...) preference and increased immobility times, which were representative depressive-like behaviours of mice until 30 days after BICAO treatment compared with Sham-operated mice. This outcome was associated with significant neuron loss by using immunofluorescent staining and increased cleavage levels of pro-caspase-3/-8/-9, but not pro-caspase-12, by western blot analysis in hypothalamus, midbrain, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mice.This study showed that BICAO-induced ischaemia caused depressive-like
The Nottingham Fatigue after Stroke (NotFAST) study: factors associated with severity of fatigue in stroke patients without depression To identify factors associated with post-stroke fatigue in a sample of stroke survivors without depression.Cross-sectional cohort study.Recruitment was from four stroke units in the UK.Participants were assessed within four to six weeks of first stroke; those with high levels of depressive symptoms (score ⩾7 Brief Assessment Schedule Depression Cards) were (...) ). Post-stroke fatigue was reported by 115 (43%) of participants, with 71 (62%) reporting this to be a new symptom since their stroke. Multivariate analysis using the Fatigue Severity Scale as the outcome variable found pre-stroke fatigue, having a spouse/partner, lower Rivermead Mobility Index score, and higher scores on both the Brief Assessment Schedule Depression Cards and Beck Anxiety Index were independently associated with post-stroke fatigue, accounting for approximately 47% of the variance
Improving the Efficiency of Psychotherapy for Depression: Computer-Assisted Versus Standard CBT The authors evaluated the efficacy and durability of a therapist-supported method for computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CCBT) in comparison to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).A total of 154 medication-free patients with major depressive disorder seeking treatment at two university clinics were randomly assigned to either 16 weeks of standard CBT (up to 20 sessions of 50 (...) minutes each) or CCBT using the "Good Days Ahead" program. The amount of therapist time in CCBT was planned to be about one-third that in CBT. Outcomes were assessed by independent raters and self-report at baseline, at weeks 8 and 16, and at posttreatment months 3 and 6. The primary test of efficacy was noninferiority on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at week 16.Approximately 80% of the participants completed the 16-week protocol (79% in the CBT group and 82% in the CCBT group). CCBT met