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Latest & greatest articles for elderly
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How income and food prices influence global dietary intakes by age and sex: evidence from 164 countries While income and prices are key drivers of dietary choices, how their influence varies by food category, nation, and demographics is not well established. Based on intake data for 164 countries and 11 food categories, we examined how income and food prices relate to food intake globally, including by world region, age, and sex.We used 2010 intake data from the Global Dietary Database (...) , the first database of consumption estimates for major food categories by country, age, and sex. We combined these data with national per capita GDP and food price data. We estimated intake responsiveness to income and prices for each food category, accounting for differences by national income, world region, age, and sex.We identified several differences in intake responsiveness. For example, rising income was estimated to increase milk intake most strongly in Sub-Saharan Africa and fruit intake most
Patterns of Sedentary Behavior and Mortality in U.S. Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A National Cohort Study. Excessive sedentary time is ubiquitous in Western societies. Previous studies have relied on self-reporting to evaluate the total volume of sedentary time as a prognostic risk factor for mortality and have not examined whether the manner in which sedentary time is accrued (in short or long bouts) carries prognostic relevance.To examine the association between objectively measured (...) sedentary behavior (its total volume and accrual in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts) and all-cause mortality.Prospective cohort study.Contiguous United States.7985 black and white adults aged 45 years or older.Sedentary time was measured using a hip-mounted accelerometer. Prolonged, uninterrupted sedentariness was expressed as mean sedentary bout length. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated comparing quartiles 2 through 4 to quartile 1 for each exposure (quartile cut points: 689.7, 746.5, and 799.4 min/d
Hemocoagulase might not control but worsen gastrointestinal bleeding in an elderly patient with type II respiratory failure Hemocoagulase has been successfully used for the management of bleeding in patients undergoing surgery. Local spray of hemocoagulase during endoscopic therapy may be effective for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. In China, intravenous infusion of hemocoagulase is given by some physicians for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the potential (...) adverse events secondary to hemocoagulase, such as hypofibrinogenemia, are poorly recognized. In this paper, we reported an elderly patient with type II respiratory failure in whom hemocoagulase might induce hypofibrinogenemia and further worsen gastrointestinal bleeding. We highlighted that fibrinogen levels should be cautiously monitored in patients receiving hemocoagulase.
appropriate support in real-life. In this paper we integrated behavior change and aging theory and research as well as knowledge around older adult's technology use to conceptualize a JITAI targeting the reduction of sedentary behavior in older adults. The JITAIs ultimate goal is to encourage older adults to take regular activity breaks from prolonged sitting. As a proximal outcome, we suggest the number of daily activity breaks from sitting. Support provided to interrupt sitting time can be based (...) The conceptualization of a Just-In-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI) for the reduction of sedentary behavior in older adults Low physical activity and high sedentary behavior in older adults can be addressed with interventions that are delivered through modern technology. Just-In-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) are an emerging technology-driven behavior-change intervention type and capitalize on data that is collected via mobile sensing technology (e.g., smartphones) to trigger
Blockage of regulatory T cells augments induction of protective immune responses by influenza virus-like particles in aged mice Elderly humans over 65 years old are at great risk to pathogenesis by influenza virus infection. However, although influenza vaccines provide effective protection in healthy young adults, protection of elderly adults is substantially lower even with a good match between the vaccine and the circulating influenza virus. To gain insight of the underlying mechanism (...) for the reduced immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the aged population, we investigated immunogenicity of influenza virus-like particle vaccines in aged mice, which represent a useful model for studying aging associated impairment in immune responses. Specifically, we investigated the effect of inhibiting regulatory T cells in aged mice on induction of protective immune responses by influenza vaccines. Our results showed that injecting anti-CD25 antibodies could down-regulate CD25 on the surface
Genetic association with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in allogeneic transplant patients differs by age and sex The incidence and mortality rates of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) differ by age and sex. To determine if inherited genetic susceptibility contributes to these differences we performed 2 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by age, sex, and subtype and subsequent meta-analyses. The GWAS included 446 B-ALL cases, and 3027 healthy unrelated blood and marrow (...) . A previously identified adolescent and young-adult onset ALL-associated variant in GATA3 is associated with B-ALL risk in those >40 years. Our findings provide more evidence of the influence of genetics on B-ALL age of onset and we have shown the first evidence that IKZF1 associations with B-ALL may be sex and age specific.
Chronic Effects of Different Rest Intervals Between Sets on Dynamic and Isometric Muscle Strength and Muscle Activity in Trained Older Women. This study investigated the chronic effects of different rest intervals (RIs) between sets on dynamic and isometric muscle strength and muscle activity.We used a repeated-measures design (pretraining and posttraining) with independent groups (different RI). Twenty-one resistance-trained older women (66.4 ± 4.4 years) were randomly assigned to either a 1 (...) and posttraining.There was a significant increase in load of 15 maximum repetitions posttraining for G-3 min only (3.6%; P < 0.05). However, posttraining results showed no significant differences between G-1 min and G-3 min groups for all dependent variables (P > 0.05).The findings suggest that different RIs between sets did not influence dynamic and isometric muscle strength and muscle activity in resistance-trained older women.
Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early (...) acuity in children aged 3 to 5 years, which are likely to result in permanent improvements in vision throughout life. The USPSTF concluded that the benefits are moderate because untreated amblyopia results in permanent, uncorrectable vision loss, and the benefits of screening and treatment potentially can be experienced over a child's lifetime. The USPSTF found adequate evidence to bound the potential harms of treatment (ie, higher false-positive rates in low-prevalence populations) as small
(qHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. We aimed to report efficacy of the 9vHPV vaccine for up to 6 years following first administration and antibody responses over 5 years.We undertook this randomised, double-blind, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety study of the 9vHPV vaccine study at 105 study sites in 18 countries. Women aged 16-26 years old who were healthy, with no history of abnormal cervical cytology, no previous abnormal cervical biopsy results, and no more than four lifetime sexual (...) Final efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety analyses of a nine-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in women aged 16-26 years: a randomised, double-blind trial. Primary analyses of a study in young women aged 16-26 years showed efficacy of the nine-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) vaccine against infections and disease related to HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, and non-inferior HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 antibody responses when compared with quadrivalent HPV
2017LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU) has evaluated the effects, complications, health economic aspects and ethical considerations of arm fractures treatment in the elderly with a mean age above 60 years. The project originates from a proposal from the Swedish Orthopaedic Association. The systematic review also includes studies on how patients with osteoporosis experience participation in their care and their encounters with health care professionals. Using plaster (...) , Hoxha Ekstrom E, Josefsson PO, et al. Treatment of humerus fractures in the elderly: A systematic review covering effectiveness, safety, economic aspects and evolution of practice. PLoS One 2018;13:e0207815. Appendices Project group Experts Carl Ekholm (Associate Professor, University of Gothenburg and Senior Consultant in Orthopedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg) Per Olof Josefsson (Associate Professor, Lund University and Senior Consultant in Orthopedics, Skåne University Hospital
Impact of an Age-Adjusted Co-morbidity Index on Survival of Patients With Heart Failure Implanted With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices Age is an adverse prognostic factor in patients with heart failure. We aimed to assess the impact of age and noncardiac co-morbidities in the outcome of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and determine which of these two factors is the most important predictor of survival. The study involved a single-center retrospective (...) assessment of 697 consecutive CRT implants during a 12-year period. Patient co-morbidity profile was assessed using the Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI) and the Charlson Age-Co-morbidity Index (CACI). Predictors of survival free from heart transplantation were assessed. CRT-related complications and cause of death analysis were assessed within tertiles of the CACI. During a mean follow-up of 1,813 ± 1,177 days, 347 patients (49.9%) died and 37 (5.3%) underwent heart transplantation. On multivariate Cox
A randomized controlled trial of a combined self-management and exercise intervention for elderlypeople with osteoarthritis of the knee: the PLE2NO program To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week self-management and exercise intervention (the PLE2NO program) in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis.Randomized controlled trial.Four different community settings.Eighty individuals aged 60 years or older with clinical and radiographic knee osteoarthritis enrolled in the study.A combined (...) and upper limb flexibility, and handgrip strength.In all, 67 participants, mean age 69.1 ± 5.8 years, completed the study: 32 in the Educational Group and 35 in the Self-Management and Exercise Group. A significant group effect favorable to the Self-Management and Exercise Group was observed in the following variables: communication with the physicians ( P = .048), aerobic capacity ( P = .035), and functional lower limb strength ( P = .015). Although no significant group effect was detected, clinical
care) at improving function, disability, and walking ability of older adults.Cluster-randomized, single-blind intervention trial. Thirty-two independent living facilities, senior apartment buildings, and senior community centers were randomized to On the Move (16 sites; 152 participants) or usual care (16 sites; 146 participants). Participants were 65 years or older, able to ambulate independently with a gait speed of at least 0.60 m/s, able to follow 2-step commands, and were medically (...) Effectiveness of a Timing and Coordination Group Exercise Program to Improve Mobility in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial Timing and coordination exercises may be an important addition to community-based health promotion exercise programs to improve walking in older adults.To compare the effectiveness of the On the Move group exercise program, which focuses on the timing and coordination of movement, with a seated strength, endurance, and flexibility program (usual
[Optical coherence tomography (OCT) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration as well as diabetic retinopathy with macular oedema] Optische kohärenztomografie bei neovaskulärer altersbedingter makuladegeneration sowie beim makulaödem im rahmen der diabetischen retinopathie: abschlussbericht; auftrag D15-01 [Optical coherence tomography (OCT) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration as well as diabetic retinopathy with macular oedema] Optische kohärenztomografie bei neovaskulärer (...) altersbedingter makuladegeneration sowie beim makulaödem im rahmen der diabetischen retinopathie: abschlussbericht; auftrag D15-01 [Optical coherence tomography (OCT) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration as well as diabetic retinopathy with macular oedema] Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made
Cancer risk and survival in path_MMR carriers by gene and gender up to 75 years of age: a report from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival.This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences (...) % and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at olderages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer.Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk
Comparison of clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer and age-adjusted D-dimer interpretation to exclude venous thromboembolism Two new strategies for interpreting D-dimer results have been proposed: i) using a progressively higher D-dimer threshold with increasing age (age-adjusted strategy) and ii) using a D-dimer threshold in patients with low clinical probability that is twice the threshold used in patients with moderate clinical probability (clinical probability-adjusted strategy). Our (...) objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of age-adjusted and clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer interpretation in patients with a low or moderate clinical probability of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical data and blood samples from two prospective studies. We compared the negative predictive value (NPV) for VTE, and the proportion of patients with a negative D-dimer result, using two D-dimer interpretation strategies: the age-adjusted strategy
Perioperative Gabapentin Does Not Reduce Postoperative Delirium in Older Surgical Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial Postoperative pain and opioid use are associated with postoperative delirium. We designed a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, double-blinded trial to determine whether perioperative administration of gabapentin reduced postoperative delirium after noncardiac surgery.Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 347) or gabapentin 900 mg (N (...) = 350) administered preoperatively and for the first 3 postoperative days. The primary outcome was postoperative delirium as measured by the Confusion Assessment Method. Secondary outcomes were postoperative pain, opioid use, and length of hospital stay.Data for 697 patients were included, with a mean ± SD age of 72 ± 6 yr. The overall incidence of postoperative delirium in any of the first 3 days was 22.4% (24.0% in the gabapentin and 20.8% in the placebo groups; the difference was 3.20%; 95% CI
Can Cut-Off-Values for Tumor Size or Patient Age in Breast Ultrasound Reduce Unnecessary Biopsies or is it all About Bi-rads?â€“ A Retrospective Analysis of 763 Biopsied T1-Sized Lesions To assess whether it is possible to establish a size cut-off-value for sonographically visible breast lesions in a screening situation, under which it is justifiable to obviate a biopsy and to evaluate the grayscale characteristics of the identified lesions.Images of sonographically visible and biopsied breast (...) lesions of 684 patients were retrospectively reviewed and assessed for the following parameters: size, shape, margin, lesion boundary, vascularity, patient's age, side of breast, histological result, and initial BI-RADS category. Statistical analyses (t-test for independent variables, ROC analyses, binary logistic regression models, cross-tabulations, positive/negative predictive values) were performed using IBM SPSS (Version 21.0).Of all 763 biopsied lesions, 223 (29.2%) showed a malignant histologic
Self-efficacy of foot care behaviour of elderly patients with diabetes Elderly patients with diabetes are at a high risk of contracting diabetic foot problems. Self-efficacy is essential to help improve foot care behaviour.To identify levels of self-efficacy and foot care behaviour and their relationship with demographic characteristics in elderly patients with diabetes.A cross-sectional study was conducted in two general hospitals in Malaysia from May to June 2015. Diabetes patients aged 60