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Latest & greatest articles for hepatitis
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Type B hepatitis after transfusion with blood containing antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. We tested the hypothesis that donor blood containing antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) but lacking detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody (anti-HBs)might transmit Type B hepatitis by examining donor and recipient serums from a Veterans Administration study of post-transfusion hepatitis. Donor blood was available from three patients with Type B hepatitis and from one (...) patient with hepatitis B virus infection (development of anti-HBs and anti-HBc) without symptomatic disease. All four had received 1 unit of blood with high titer of anti-HBc but lacking HBsAg and anti-HBs. In contrast, no such units had been transfused into nine patients with "immunization-like" response (development of anti-HBs without anti-HBc) or into 26 control patients. These data stress the importance of anti-HBc as an indicator of hepatitis B virus infection and support the hypothesis
H2-receptor antagonists and antacids in the prevention of acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage in fulminant hepatic failure. Two controlled trials. In two controlled trials, involving 75 patients, on the prevention of bleeding from gastric erosions in fulminant hepatic failure, antacids given four-hourly had no significant effect. Only 35% of intragastric pH recordings taken at two-hourly intervals in the treated group were maintained above 5 with the doses used, whereas this could
Treatment of acute viral hepatitis with (+)-cyanidanol-3. A double-blind trial of (+)-cyanidanol-3 (2 g/day) versus placebo tablets was carried out in 100 patients with acute viral hepatitis. 51 received the drug and 49 placebo. (+)-Cyanidanol-3 accelerated the disappearance of HBsAg from the blood, lowered serum-bilirubin, and relieved symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, and pruritus. The drug was well tolerated. None of the patients had a relapse of acute hepatitis. Chronic active hepatitis (...) developed in 1 of the placebo-treated patients. Thus, (+)-cyanidanol-3 seems to be of benefit in acute viral hepatitis.
Steroid therapy in severe viral hepatitis. A double-blind, randomized trial of methyl-prednisolone versus placebo. The efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in severe viral hepatitis has never been demonstrated in a controlled clinical trial. For this reason, patients with severe viral hepatitis were randomly assigned to methyl-prednisolone or placebo treatment groups. The two groups were comparable in clinical findings, laboratory results and the presence of bridging necrosis on liver biopsy (...) . Seven of the 14 patients assigned to methyl-prednisolone and two of the 15 assigned to placebo died during the 16-week study period. Although the apparent excess mortality in the steroid-treated patients is not quite statistically significant (P = 0.08), the trend persists when only patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (P = 0.04) are analyzed separately. Methyl-prednisolone does not enhance survival in patients with severe viral hepatitis, and it may be detrimental.
Efficacy of prophylactic gamma-globulin in preventing non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. Of 279 cardiac-surgery patients receiving a mean of twelve transfusions, 47 had significantly increased transaminase concentrations 14 to 180 days postoperatively and 10 were icteric. Preoperatively, each patient randomly received high-titre HbsAb gamma-globulin, normal gamma-globulin, or placebo and was followed at intervals for 9 months. Only 3 patients had serological evidence of hepatitis-B (...) infection. 3 additional patients had serological evidence of cytomegalovirus infection, while none had evidence of hepatitis-A or Epstein-Barr infection. Less icteric hepatitis occurred in patients receiving the gamma-globulin preparations (P = 0-003), and the overall frequency of hepatitis was significantly reduced when compared with recipients of placebo. The protective effects of the two gamma-globulin preparations were not significantly different. Most post-transfusion hepatitis tody is neither
Hepatitis-B immunoglobulin in prevention of HBs antigenaemia in haemodialysis patients. In a double-blind study, hepatitis-B immunoglobulin significantly protected patients in a haemodialysis unit against the development of HBs antigenaemia, compared to control patients receiving normal human immunoglobulin (p less than 0-01). Injections were given at the beginning and after 6 months, and observations extended over 16 months. Analysis of antiHBc and anti-HBs antibodies suggested
Hepatitis B immune globulin--prevention of hepatitis from accidental exposure among medical personnel. The role of anti-HBs antibody in reducing the probability of hepatitis after accidental exposure to serum from patients with hepatitis or carriers of HBs Ag was studied prospectively among 712 medical workers. One fourth of the workers were anti-HBs positive and less than one per cent of them developed hepatitis, in contrast to 11 per cent among those who were anti-HBs negative. Three coded (...) immune-serum globulin preparations of varying anti-HBs titer were randomly assigned. Among 251 persons passively immunized with globulin having a conventionally low anti-HBs titer, hepatitis developed in 17 (seven per cent) within six months. Comparative rates among those receiving intermediately high titer and high titer globulin, respectively, were five per cent (11 of 208) and two per cent (5 of 253). The significantly lower incidence among the latter (P less than 0.05) was offset by six
Hepatitis B "immune" globulin: effectiveness in prevention of dialysis-associated hepatitis. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of hepatitis prevention by immune serum globulin with high anti-HBs titer ("hepatitis B immune globulin") was carried out among 318 new patients and 296 staff members of renal dialysis units. Three milliliters of high titer globulin, repeated at four months, was compared with equal doses of intermediate or normal titer globulin. Among staff members (...) , the cumulative percentages developing hepatitis or HBs Ag, or both, within eight months were 6.9, 11.7, and 11.1 in the high, intermediate, and normal titer groups respectively. The lower incidence associated with high titer globulin was not significant (P greater than 0.05). However, among the patients the respective percentages were 7.9, 21.3, and 23.1 and the lower incidence in the high titer globulin group was significant.
Efficacy of hepatitis B immune serum globulin after accidental exposure. Preliminary report of the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial has been undertaken to compare the efficacy of hepatitis B immune globulin (H.B.I.G.) with that of immune serum globulin (I.S.G.) for the prophylaxis of viral hepatitis. Participants in the trial were individuals exposed accidentally to material infectious for hepatitis (primarily viral B hepatitis (...) ). Preliminary evaluation of the first 302 of the 561 individuals entered into the study indicates that H.B.I.G. significantly reduced the frequencies of both clinical and subclinical hepatitis during the first 3--4 months after the injection. Less than 10% of H.B.I.G. recipients had detectable anti-HBs at the sixth month after the injection, suggesting that H.B.I.G. might need to be given every 3--4 months to continually exposed individuals. Further long-term evaluation is required in order to define more
Prednisone therapy of acute alcoholic hepatitis. Report of a controlled trial. 4751740 1974 01 15 2016 11 23 0003-4819 79 5 1973 Nov Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. Prednisone therapy of acute alcoholic hepatitis. Report of a controlled trial. 625-31 Campra J L JL Hamlin E M EM Jr Kirshbaum R J RJ Olivier M M Redeker A G AG Reynolds T B TB eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States Ann Intern Med 0372351 0003-4819 0 Serum Albumin EC 126.96.36.199
Summary of the national Halothane Study. Possible association between halothane anesthesia and postoperative hepatic necrosis. 5953371 1967 01 24 2016 10 17 0098-7484 197 10 1966 Sep 05 JAMA JAMA Summary of the national Halothane Study. Possible association between halothane anesthesia and postoperative hepatic necrosis. 775-88 eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Barbiturates 0 Cyclopropanes 0 Ethers K50XQU1029
Gamma-globulin in the prophylaxis of posttransfusion hepatitis. 4160268 1966 07 16 2016 10 17 0098-7484 196 6 1966 May 09 JAMA JAMA Gamma-globulin in the prophylaxis of posttransfusion hepatitis. 471-4 Holland P V PV Rubinson R M RM Morrow A G AG Schmidt P J PJ eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 gamma-Globulins AIM IM Cardiac Surgical Procedures Follow-Up Studies Hepatitis B prevention & control Humans gamma-Globulins