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Latest & greatest articles for hiv
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The Accuracy of Anal Swab-Based Tests to Detect High-Grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-induced anal cancer is increasingly problematic among HIV-positive patients. Anal cancer is preceded by precursor lesions, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). AIN detection requires high-resolution anoscopy, a cumbersome and time-consuming procedure. We aggregated evidence on anal (...) swab-based tests to detect AIN in HIV-positive patients.We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for cross-sectional studies on AIN detection with anal cytology, HR-HPV DNA detection, HPV E6/E7 mRNA analysis, and P16INK4a and Ki-67 immunostaining. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using bivariate logistic regression. Cytology was reported using the terms squamous intra-epithelial lesion (SIL) for AIN and high-grade SIL (HSIL) for high-grade AIN (HGAIN).We included 22 studies
Investigation of HIV/AIDS prevalence and associated risk factors among female sex workers from 2010 to 2017: a meta-analysis study. Objectives: Female sex workers (FSW) are highly at risk of HIV, and can potentially transmit the humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) in different societies. Study design: The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and associated risk factors among FSW between 2010 and 2017 using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis (...) approach. Methods: International databases were searched, including ISI Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus. Using the appropriate keywords, relevant studies published on the HIV/AIDS prevalence among FSW between 2010 and 2017 were identified. Afterwards, the information was extracted and analyzed by STATA version 14. Results: Thirty-seven studies were found eligible for inclusion in this research, encompassing a total of 46,657 subjects. The results revealed that the global prevalence of HIV
Combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV and the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review. To assess if there is a relationship between use of combined antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women living with HIV and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP).Due to the heterogeneity of study designs in the literature and the utilization of different outcome measures in regards to assessing the presence of HDP, a systematic review was performed.ClinicalTrials.gov (...) and MEDLINE, via PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, EBSCOHost, DARE, and the Cochrane Library, were queried from January 1997 to October 2017. Studies were included if they reported HDP and focused on pregnant women living with HIV who used combined antiretroviral therapy. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessment of risk of bias and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force grading scale were used to assess the studies.Of 1055 abstracts, 28 articles met inclusion
A Systematic Review of the Current Status of Safer Conception Strategies for HIV Affected Heterosexual Couples in Sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a systematic review of safer conception strategies (SCS) for HIV-affected couples in sub-Saharan Africa to inform evidence-based safer conception interventions. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched fifteen electronic databases using the following inclusion criteria: SCS research in HIV-affected couples; published after 2007; in sub-Saharan Africa (...) -insemination, sperm washing, and voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC). SCS were largely unavailable outside of research settings, except for general availability (i.e., not specifically for safer conception) of ART and VMMC. SCS acceptability was impacted by low client and provider knowledge about safer conception services, stigma around HIV-affected couples wanting children, and difficulty with HIV disclosure in HIV-affected couples. Couples expressed desire to learn more about SCS; however
Disclosure of HIV Status to Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. Background and objectives: This study aimed to assess the level of HIV disclosure to children in sub-Saharan Africa as it relates to prevalence of disclosure, barriers, merits and demerits, timing of disclosure, and factors that promote parents and caregivers' decisions to disclose the information. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using the following online databases: PubMed (...) , Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase, to obtain relevant articles on HIV disclosure to children in sub-Saharan Africa. The following search terms were used: "HIV" AND "Disclosure" AND "Sub-Saharan Africa" AND "Children". Results: A total of 18 articles were included in this systematic review. The studies on HIV status disclosure to children in sub-Saharan Africa included a total of 1343 HIV-positive children and 1879 caregiver/child or healthcare worker-child dyads, from the following
Male Partner Involvement in the Utilization of Hospital Delivery Services by Pregnant Women Living with HIV in Sub Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Objective The level of male partner involvement in hospital delivery by pregnant women living with HIV in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is low. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the approaches that are used in improving male partner involvement and their impact on the utilization of hospital delivery (...) services by pregnant women living with HIV in SSA. Methods Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science and Current Controlled Trials were searched. Only studies carried out in SSA that reported an approach used in involving male partners and the impact on the uptake of hospital delivery services irrespective of the language and date of publication were included. Odds ratios were extracted or calculated from studies and combined in a meta-analysis using
Socio-Structural Factors Influencing the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Systematic Review. Introduction The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had the second-highest mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in Sub-Saharan Africa at 29% in 2013, however the uptake of preventive services for mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) remains suboptimal. This systematic review explores socio-cultural and structural factors influencing
'Management of a spoiled identity': systematic review of interventions to address self-stigma among people living with and affected by HIV. Self-stigma, also known as internalised stigma, is a global public health threat because it keeps people from accessing HIV and other health services. By hampering HIV testing, treatment and prevention, self-stigma can compromise the sustainability of health interventions and have serious epidemiological consequences. This review synthesised existing (...) evidence of interventions aiming to reduce self-stigma experienced by people living with HIV and key populations affected by HIV in low-income and middle-income countries.Studies were identified through bibliographic databases, grey literature sites, study registries, back referencing and contacts with researchers, and synthesised following Cochrane guidelines.Of 5880 potentially relevant titles, 20 studies were included in the review. Represented in these studies were 9536 people (65% women) from
Community-based interventions for preventing diarrhoea in people living with HIV in sub-Sahara Africa: A systematic review. High prevalence rates of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are more predominant in sub-Saharan Africa compared to any region globally. Nonetheless, many people in the region have little access to safe water and live in poor sanitation environment. This region is, therefore, faced with a challenge in protecting PLHIV from infectious diseases that are transmitted through (...) with HIV and had incidence or prevalence of diarrhoea as an outcome met our inclusion criteria. Community-based interventions such as water treatment and safe storage were associated with 20%-53% reduction in diarrhoea episodes among PLHIV. The review has also demonstrated that the impact of hand hygiene and health education on the prevention of diarrhoeal infections is not adequately assessed.Future studies are, therefore, warranted to assess the effect of hand hygiene and health education
Microfinance Interventions and HIV Treatment Outcomes: A Synthesizing Conceptual Framework and Systematic Review. Microfinance interventions have the potential to improve HIV treatment outcomes, but the mechanisms through which they operate are not entirely clear.To construct a synthesizing conceptual framework for the impact of microfinance interventions on HIV treatment outcomes using evidence from our systematic review.We conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases (...) and journals from 1996 to 2018 to assess the effects of microfinance interventions on HIV treatment outcomes, including adherence, retention, viral suppression, and CD4 cell count.All studies in the review showed improved adherence, retention, and viral suppression, but varied in CD4 cell count following participation in microfinance interventions-overall supporting microfinance's positive role in improving HIV treatment outcomes. Our synthesizing conceptual framework identifies potential mechanisms
HIV, syphilis, and viral hepatitis among Latin American indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants: a systematic review. To identify and summarize existing literature on the burden of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis (VH) in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America to provide a broad panorama of the quantitative data available and highlight problematic data gaps.Published and grey literature were systematically reviewed to identify documents (...) published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with data collected between January 2000 and April 2016 on HIV, STI, and VH disease burden among indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in 17 Latin American countries.Sixty-two documents from 12 countries were found. HIV prevalence was generally low (< 1%) but pockets of high prevalence (> 5%) were noted in some indigenous communities in Venezuela (Warao) (9.6%), Peru (Chayahuita) (7.5%), and Colombia (Wayuu females) (7.0%). High active syphilis prevalence
Integration of HIV testing services into family planning services: a systematic review. Despite significant interest in integrating sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services into HIV services, less attention has been paid to linkages in the other direction. Where women and girls are at risk of HIV, offering HIV testing services (HTS) during their visits to family planning (FP) services offers important opportunities to address both HIV and unwanted pregnancy needs simultaneously.We (...) conducted a systematic review of studies comparing FP services with integrated HTS to those without integrated HTS or with a lower level of integration (e.g., referral versus on-site services), on the following outcomes: uptake/counseling/offer of HTS, new cases of HIV identified, linkage to HIV care and treatment, dual method use, client satisfaction and service quality, and provider knowledge and attitudes about integrating HTS. We searched three online databases and included studies published
Behavioral interventions promoting HIV serostatus disclosure to sex partners among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a systematic review. This review aimed to identify intervention components which were effective to promote disclosure of HIV status among men have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV, particularly from a theoretical perspective.A systematic review was performed through searching electronic databases, HIV-related conferences websites, and registered ongoing randomized (...) controlled trials. Studies were included if they reported intervention evaluation results related to HIV disclosure and published before December 31, 2017. Two independent reviewers collected studies and extracted data.Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were summarized. Interventions appeared effective in promoting HIV disclosure to their sex partners among MSM living with HIV if they were theory based (e.g., consequence theory and social cognitive theory). Key elements of effective
Treatment outcomes of patients with localized anal squamous cell carcinoma according to HIV infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. Definitive chemoradiation (CRT) is the standard treatment for localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). Because most phase III trials in SCCA have excluded patients with HIV, the evidence on treatment outcomes of these patients is lacking. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and toxicity profiles of HIV-positive (...) SCCA patients treated with definitive CRT.The systematic search was conducted Embase, Medline, Cochrane Libary, Scopus, Lilacs and Opengrey, from inception until September 2017. Eligible studies were clinical trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies. The main outcome variables were 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates and frequency of grade 3 or 4 (G3/4) treatment-related toxicities, according to HIV status. Meta-analyses using pooled risk ratios were
Precancerous Cervical Lesion Among HIV-Positive Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. In sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer is an intersecting epidemic with HIV and it is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Therefore, this study was aimed to estimate the current status of the prevalence and associated factors of precancerous cervical lesions among HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic literature search was conducted (...) studies were included in the review. Data synthesis and statistical analysis was conducted using OpenMeta and comprehensive meta-analysis version 2 software. The study protocol is registered on PROSPERO with ID: CRD42018114266. The pooled prevalence of precancerous cervical lesion among HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa was 25.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.4%-31.8%). Having more than 2 lifetime sexual partners (odds ratio [OR]: 4.77; 95% CI: 1.35-16.93), having had a history of sexually
Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C Virus Co-infections among Iranian High-Risk Groups: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Co-infection with hepatitis B and C among HIV infected patients are prevalent among high-risk populations. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV co-infections among high-risk populations in Iran. We systematically searched the national and international electronic databases until 2016. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV, HBV (...) , HCV and HIV co-infections in different high-risk populations in Iran. All English and Persian studies conducted on Iranian high-risk groups were included in the study. The review was reported based on PRISMA guidelines and data were analysed at 95% confidence level using random effect models. Overall, 916 relevant papers were recognised and 14 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of HBV/HCV, HCV/HIV, HBV/HIV and HBV/HCV/HIV were 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1), 16.3% (95%CI: 1.1
Seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Ethiopia.PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct and Google scholar databases were searched to retrieve 15 relevant articles based on the inclusion criteria. A total of 13,746 participants were included in the original studies and considered in this analysis. Among subjects, 717 were infected (...) with HIV only, and 12 were HIV-HBV co-infected pregnant women. In this meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 5.74% (95% CI 3.96-7.53%). Regional analysis showed that 9.50% (95% CI 7.76-11.23%) in Amhara, 4.80% (95% CI 3.12-6.49%) in Addis Ababa, 2.14% (95% CI - 0.54 to 4.82%) in SNNP and 4.48% (95% CI 2.56-6.41%) in Oromia region. Besides, six studies reported HIV-HBV co-infection and the pooled prevalence was 0.68% (95% CI 0.27-1.08%) among pregnant women
A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analyses of the new World Health Organization guidelines for the treatment of HIV-positive adults in India. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013 has revised its guidelines on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-positive adults and further updated it in 2016. Based on the WHO recommendations, in May 2017, National AIDS Control Organisation, India recommended initiation of ART treatment for all people (...) living with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, clinical stage, age, or population. This systematic review aims to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost implication of the new guidelines for India.A systematic and comprehensive literature search on PubMed, OvidSP, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was carried out. Studies reporting either acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or mortality or both as outcome variables were selected. A meta-analysis of the available studies was carried out
Integrated Intimate Partner Violence and HumanImmunodeficiencyVirus Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review Targeting or Including Adolescents. Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa are at disproportionately high risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV). The interconnected risks for IPV and HIV present the opportunity for interventions to concurrently seek to reduce violence and sexual risk behaviors among young people. Accordingly (...) , the present systematic review evaluates interventions that concomitantly address IPV and HIV risk among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors systematically reviewed electronic databases for studies meeting the following criteria: use of randomized control trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT in Sub-Saharan African countries; inclusion of adolescents aged 13-18 years; use of a comparison group (wait listed, designated to a comparative treatment, or treatment as usual); and incorporation of IPV and HIV
Screening for HIV and linkage to care in adolescents: insights from a systematic review of recent interventions in high- versus low- and middle-income settings. Compared to adults, adolescents and young adults have a higher incidence of HIV infection, yet lower rates of HIV testing. Few evidence-based interventions effectively diagnose new HIV infections among adolescents while successfully providing linkage to care.We conducted a systematic review of recent interventions to increase HIV (...) as behavioral/educational, alternate venue/self-testing, youth-friendly services, technology/mobile health, incentives, or peer-based/community-based interventions. The studies consisted of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective observational studies, and quasi-experimental/pre-post evaluations with variable sample sizes. Study designs, populations, and settings varied. All categories showed some degree of acceptability, yet not all interventions were effective in increasing HIV