Latest & greatest articles for hiv

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Top results for hiv

21. Efficacy and safety of the regimens containing tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in fixed-dose single-tablet regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (Full text)

Efficacy and safety of the regimens containing tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in fixed-dose single-tablet regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) can cause renal and bone toxicity, which is associated with high plasma tenofovir concentrations in antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infected patients. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel tenofovir prodrug with a 90 (...) % reduction in plasma tenofovir concentrations. We aimed to assess the non-inferiority of a TAF-containing combination regimen versus a TDF-containing fixed-dose single-tablet regimen in the antiretroviral-treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected patients.We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Trial Registry, from January 2001 to July 2019, using relevant keywords. Available data were extracted from eligible randomized trials (RCTs) and pooled as risk ratios (RRs) or standardized mean

2020 International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

22. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hydrocephalus is a common, life threatening complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related central nervous system opportunistic infection which can be treated by insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). In HIV-infected patients there is concern that VPS might be associated with unacceptably high mortality. To identify prognostic indicators, we aimed (...) to compare survival and clinical outcome following VPS placement between all studied causes of hydrocephalus in HIV infected patients.The following electronic databases were searched: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, LILACS, Research Registry, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, African Journals Online, and the OpenGrey database. We included observational studies of HIV-infected patients treated with VPS which reported

2020 BMC neurology PubMed abstract

23. Burden of Depression in Outpatient HIV-Infected adults in Sub-Saharan Africa; Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Burden of Depression in Outpatient HIV-Infected adults in Sub-Saharan Africa; Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Despite the substantial burden of HIV in Africa, and the knowledge that depression causes worse HIV outcomes, the burden of depression in people living with HIV in Africa is unknown. We searched Pubmed and four other databases using key terms: depression, Africa, HIV, and prevalence from 2008 to 2018. We summarized depression prevalence by country. We estimated the burden (...) of depression using our prevalence data and 2018 UNAIDS HIV estimates. Our search yielded 70 articles across 16 African countries. The overall prevalence of major depression in those HIV-infected using a diagnostic interview was 15.3% (95% CI 12.5-17.1%). We estimate that 3.63 million (99.7% CI 3.15-4.19 million) individuals with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa have major depression and provide country-level estimates. We estimate that 1.57 million (99.7% CI 1.37-1.82 million) DALYs are lost among people

2020 AIDS and behavior

24. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on HIV-infected adults: a systematic reviewVitamin DÓ¡ Supplementation on HIV-Infected Adults: A Systematic Review. (Full text)

analysed were few, insufficient to fully confirm the benefits and recommend supplementation. Therefore, intervention studies are needed to elucidate the role of vitamin D in human protection against HIV infections. (...) Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on HIV-infected adults: a systematic reviewVitamin DÓ¡ Supplementation on HIV-Infected Adults: A Systematic Review. Introduction: much evidence confirms that vitamin D may be associated with an improvement in CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected individuals, where antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used and associated with decreased 25(OH)D levels. Objective: to carry out a systematic review on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on HIV-infected adult patients

2020 Nutricion hospitalaria PubMed abstract

25. Health sector spending and spending on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, and development assistance for health: progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3. (Full text)

Health sector spending and spending on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, and development assistance for health: progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". While a substantial effort has been made to quantify progress towards SDG3, less research has focused on tracking spending towards this goal. We used spending estimates to measure progress in financing the priority areas (...) of SDG3, examine the association between outcomes and financing, and identify where resource gains are most needed to achieve the SDG3 indicators for which data are available.We estimated domestic health spending, disaggregated by source (government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private) from 1995 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. For disease-specific health spending, we estimated spending for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis for 135 low-income and middle-income countries, and malaria in 106 malaria

2020 Lancet PubMed abstract

26. Mental health and retention in HIV care: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Mental health and retention in HIV care: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mental health (MH) diagnoses, which are prevalent among persons living with HIV infection, might be linked to failed retention in HIV care. This review synthesized the quantitative evidence regarding associations between MH diagnoses or symptoms and retention in HIV care, as well as determined if MH service utilization (MHSU) is associated with improved retention in HIV care.A comprehensive search of the Centers (...) for Disease Control and Prevention's HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis database of electronic (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO) and manual searches was conducted to identify relevant studies published during January 2002-August 2017. Effect estimates from individual studies were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis, and a moderator analysis was conducted.Forty-five studies, involving approximately 57,334 participants in total, met the inclusion criteria: 39 examined MH diagnoses or symptoms

2020 Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association PubMed abstract

27. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) is one of the leading causes of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The current study was aimed to determine the frequency of MAC infection in patients infected with HIV.Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. All statistical analyses were performed by STATA (...) version 14.From 6,627 retrieved articles, 23 were included in the final analysis. A total of 18,463 patients with HIV were included in the analysis. The frequency of MAC infection in patients with HIV was found to be 10.6% (95% confidence interval, 6.9-14.2).The relatively large fractions of HIV-infected patients were coinfected with MAC, which may poses significant public health problems. Continued progress in the development of rapid diagnostic methods and preventive therapy for MAC should lead

2020 Journal of cellular physiology

28. Oral Manifestations in HIV-Positive Children: A Systematic Review. (Full text)

Oral Manifestations in HIV-Positive Children: A Systematic Review. Background: The number of pediatric patients affected by HIV still remains high, mainly in developing countries, where the main cause of infection is vertical transmission from the mother. Even today, a large number of these children do not have access to treatment, and, without proper care, they die in the first few years of life. Objective: The aim of our review was to assess the prevalence of oral hard and soft tissue lesions (...) in HIV-positive pediatric patients by identifying the most common manifestations and the overall impact that they may have on the children's quality of life. Study design: A systematic review of the articles in the English language in PubMed and Scopus was conducted in March 2019 in order to identify the main epidemiological and cross-sectional studies on the topic. Results: Oral diseases are still one of the most common manifestations in HIV-positive pediatric patients, and they often represent

2020 Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) PubMed abstract

29. HIV-1 subtype C predicted co-receptor tropism in Africa: an individual sequence level meta-analysis. (Full text)

chronic infections, X4 viruses increase 3-5 folds. We can draw two inferences from our observations: (1) to enhance the utility of Maraviroc in chronic HIV subtype C infections in Africa, prior virus co-receptor determination is needed; (2) on the flip side, research on the efficacy of CXCR4 antagonists for HIV-1-C infections is encouraged. Currently, the use of Maraviroc is very limited in Africa. (...) HIV-1 subtype C predicted co-receptor tropism in Africa: an individual sequence level meta-analysis. Entry inhibitors, such as Maraviroc, hold promise as components of HIV treatment and/or pre-exposure prophylaxis in Africa. Maraviroc inhibits the interaction between HIV Envelope gp120 V3-loop and CCR5 coreceptor. HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) is predominant in Southern Africa and preferably uses CCR5 co-receptor. Therefore, a significant proportion of HIV-1-C CXCR4 utilizing viruses (X4) may

2020 AIDS research and therapy PubMed abstract

30. Evidence of sociodemographic heterogeneity across the HIV treatment cascade and progress towards 90-90-90 in sub-Saharan Africa - a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Evidence of sociodemographic heterogeneity across the HIV treatment cascade and progress towards 90-90-90 in sub-Saharan Africa - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of sociodemographics and risk behaviours across the HIV treatment cascade could influence the public health impact of universal ART in sub-Saharan Africa if those not virologically suppressed are more likely to be part of a risk group contributing to onward infections. Sociodemographic and risk heterogeneity across (...) the treatment cascade has not yet been comprehensively described or quantified and we seek to systematically review and synthesize research on this topic among adults in Africa.We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature in Embase and MEDLINE databases as well as grey literature sources published in English between 2014 and 2018. We included studies that included people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged ≥15 years, and reported a 90-90-90 outcome: awareness of HIV-positive status, ART use among

2020 Journal of the International AIDS Society PubMed abstract

31. Atrial fibrillation and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection: a systematic review. Implications for anticoagulant and antiarrhythmic therapy. (Full text)

Atrial fibrillation and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection: a systematic review. Implications for anticoagulant and antiarrhythmic therapy. The prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have been poorly investigated. We performed a systematic review using PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references, searching for clinical studies reporting (...) on the association between HIV-1 infection and AF/AFL. We also summarized the main interactions of antiretroviral agents with antithrombotic and antiarrhythmic drugs. We found a prevalence of AF/AFL ranging from 2.0% to 5.13% in patients with HIV-1, with an incidence rate of 3.6/1000 person-years. Low CD4+ count (<200-250 cells ml-1 ) and high viral load were predictors of AF/AFL. Regarding drugs interactions, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase inhibitor and maraviroc have the lowest

2020 British journal of clinical pharmacology PubMed abstract

32. Uptake of couples HIV testing and counselling among heterosexual couples in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Uptake of couples HIV testing and counselling among heterosexual couples in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. There is a need for further research to inform policy and practice on Couples HIV Testing and Counselling (CHTC) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate and characterise the uptake of CHTC in the SSA. A comprehensive search of published studies was carried out in six electronic databases. Of 30,273 (...) was higher among pregnant women and their partners (OR = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.58-1.84), and when one person in the dyad first tested individually (OR = 3.16, 95%CI: 2.69-3.72) compared to their counterparts. These findings suggest that people may be cautious of testing together as a couple. Further studies are required to explore how couples intend to use HIV-testing services including CHTC and under what circumstances CHTC may be beneficial to individuals in a relationship.

2020 AIDS care

33. HIV testing barriers and intervention strategies among men, transgender women, female sex workers and incarcerated persons in the Caribbean: a systematic review. (Abstract)

HIV testing barriers and intervention strategies among men, transgender women, female sex workers and incarcerated persons in the Caribbean: a systematic review. This systematic review summarises evidence on the HIV testing barriers and intervention strategies among Caribbean populations and provides pertinent implications for future research endeavours designed to increase rates of HIV testing in the region.We used a systematic approach to survey all literature published between January 2008 (...) and November 2018 using four electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Global Health). Only peer-reviewed articles published in English that examined HIV testing uptake and interventions in the Caribbean with men, men who have sex with men, female sex workers, transgender women and incarcerated individuals were included.Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Lack of confidentiality, access to testing sites, stigma, discrimination, poverty and low HIV risk perception were

2020 Sexually transmitted infections

34. Treatment of pre- and confirmed cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a systematic review. (Full text)

Treatment of pre- and confirmed cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a systematic review. Cervical cancer has become a major public health challenge in developing countries with a reported age-standardised incidence rate of about 17.9/100,000/year and lifetime risks approaching 1 in 20 in some settings. Evidence indicates that HIV-seropositive women are 2 to 12 times more likely to develop precancerous lesions that lead to cervical cancer than HIV-negative women (...) . There is a lack of rigorous evidence on which treatment methods are being utilised for HIV-positive women, and this review aims to synthesise available evidence on treatment modalities for both cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries.A systematic review guided by a published protocol was conducted. Online databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Emerald (via EBSCOhost), PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and health databases, which cover developing

2020 Systematic reviews PubMed abstract

35. Men's perspectives on HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-synthesis. (Full text)

Men's perspectives on HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-synthesis. Despite the many HIV testing models implemented in Africa, the level of HIV testing uptake remains relatively poor, especially among men. The HIV self-testing (HIVST) model offers an additional approach for encouraging men to get tested. This study aimed to synthesise evidence on men's perspectives regarding HIVST in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).The databases searched included PubMed/MEDLINE (...) , American Doctoral Dissertations via EBSCO host; Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations; SA ePublications via SABINET Online; World Cat Dissertations; Theses via OCLC; ERIC; CINAH; PsychInfo; Embase, Sociological Abstract, Scopus; and Google Scholar. The World Health Organization (WHO) and The Joint United Nations' Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) websites were further searched. We only extracted qualitative information from the included studies, despite the research method used (qualitative

2020 BMC public health PubMed abstract

36. Prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV infection and sociodemographic characteristics of people who inject drugs in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV infection and sociodemographic characteristics of people who inject drugs in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Globally, China is the largest country by population and contributes substantially to the burden of people who inject drugs (PWID). The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PWID at the national and subnational level in China and examine characteristics of PWID.We (...) undertook a systematic review of studies published from 2008 to 2017 on HIV, HCV, and HBV seroprevalence among PWID, and characteristics of PWID in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. Meta-analyses were conducted to generate pooled prevalence estimates by province, region, and nationally.Eighty-five papers were included. The pooled HIV, HCV antibody and HBV prevalence among PWID in China was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 8.6%-12.5%), 71.6% (65.7%-77.6%) and 19.6% (13.7%-25.5

2020 The International journal on drug policy PubMed abstract

37. Antiretroviral therapy and the risk of sexual transmission of HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Antiretroviral therapy and the risk of sexual transmission of HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with or without condom use on the risk of sexual transmission of HIV.A search of the literature was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, SCOPUS and EMBASE databases for studies dating back to 2008. The results were summarized as relative risks and incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs (...) person-years (95% CI 0.00-0.00 person-years) (Q = 1.00; I2 = 0.0%; overall effect Z = 6.80, P < 0.0001).ART and condom use were found to cause a significant reduction in the risk of sexual transmission of HIV in both homosexual and heterosexual populations, based on previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses.© 2020 British HIV Association.

2020 HIV medicine

38. Selenium supplementation in HIV-infected individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. (Abstract)

Selenium supplementation in HIV-infected individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. HIV infection has been linked to selenium deficiency which, in turn, is thought to be associated with a high risk of tuberculosis and mortality in HIV-infected patients. Furthermore, several trials have reported the beneficial effects of selenium supplementation in patients with HIV. However, the evidence remains inconclusive. Our study aimed to investigate whether daily selenium (...) supplementation in patients infected with HIV delays the progression of HIV infection.A systematic review was performed using EMBASE and Medline databases from January 2000 to June 2018. We included randomized clinical trials in adults comparing selenium with placebo and reporting outcomes including its effect on HIV viral load and cluster of differentiation 4 cell count (CD4).Six out of the 507 retrieved articles that met the inclusion criteria were used in this review. Reviewed studies show that daily

2020 Clinical nutrition ESPEN

39. Effectiveness of vaginal microbicides in preventing HIV transmission. (Full text)

Effectiveness of vaginal microbicides in preventing HIV transmission. To evaluate the evidence on the effectiveness of vaginal microbicides in preventing HIV transmission in women.Systematic review through a comprehensive search of relevant electronic databases for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through June 2019. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts according to eligibility criteria, then extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies (...) . We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of risk ratios (RR) of HIV infection and assessed heterogeneity using Chi2 and I2 tests. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated through subgroup analysis, publication bias was assessed using funnel plots, and certainty of evidence was graded using GRADEPro software.We included 18 RCTs which enrolled 40,048 sexually-active, HIV-negative, non-pregnant women, aged 16 years and older, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa. The intravaginal ring containing

2020 Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH PubMed abstract

40. Service delivery interventions to increase uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention: A systematic review. (Full text)

Service delivery interventions to increase uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention: A systematic review. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) remains an essential component of combination HIV prevention services, particularly in priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As VMMC programs seek to maximize impact and efficiency, and to support World Health Organization guidance, specific uptake-enhancing strategies are critical to identify.We systematically reviewed (...) the literature to evaluate the impact of service delivery interventions (e.g., facility layout, service co-location, mobile outreach) on VMMC uptake among adolescent and adult men. For the main effectiveness review, we searched for publications or conference abstracts that measured VMMC uptake or uptake of HIV testing or risk reduction counselling within VMMC services. We synthesized data by coding categories and outcomes. We also reviewed studies assessing acceptability, values/preferences, costs

2020 PloS one PubMed abstract