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Latest & greatest articles for hiv
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Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in patients on antituberculosis treatment in high humanimmunodeficiencyvirus and tuberculosis burden countries: A systematic review. Efavirenz (EFV) and rifampicin-isoniazid (RH) are cornerstone drugs in humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-tuberculosis (TB) coinfection treatment but with complex drug interactions, efficacy and safety challenges. We reviewed recent data on EFV and RH interaction in TB/HIV high-burden countries.We conducted a systematic review (...) of studies conducted in the high TB/HIV-burden countries between 1990 and 2016 on EFV pharmacokinetics during RH coadministration in coinfected patients. Two reviewers conducted article screening and data collection.Of 119 records retrieved, 22 were included (two conducted in children), reporting either EFV mid-dose or pre-dose concentrations. In 19 studies, median or mean concentrations of RH range between 1000 and 4000 ng ml-1 , the so-called therapeutic range. The proportion of patients
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients infected with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus: a systematic review. To evaluate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with HIV/AIDS.The systematic review included articles indexed in MEDLINE (by PubMed), Web of Science, IBECS, and LILACS. Studies eligible included the year of publication, diagnose criteria of NAFLD and HIV, and were published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish from 2006 to 2018. The exclusion criteria (...) were studies with HIV-infection patients and other liver diseases. Two reviewers were involved in the study and applied the same methodology, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses).One hundred and sixteen papers were selected, including full articles, editorial letters, and reviews. Twenty-seven articles were excluded because they did meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 89 articles were read, and 13 were considered eligible for this review. Four
HIV Proviral Sequence Database: A New Public Database for Near Full-Length HIV Proviral Sequences and Their Meta-Analyses. 31502467 2020 04 15 1931-8405 36 1 2020 01 AIDS research and human retroviruses AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses HIV Proviral Sequence Database: A New Public Database for Near Full-Length HIV Proviral Sequences and Their Meta-Analyses. 1-3 10.1089/AID.2019.0214 Shao Wei W Advanced Biomedical Computing Science, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR), Frederick (...) , Maryland. Shan Jigui J Advanced Biomedical Computing Science, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR), Frederick, Maryland. Hu Wei-Shau WS HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland. Halvas Elias Konstantine EK Division of Infectious Disease, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Mellors John W JW Division of Infectious Disease, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Coffin John M JM Tufts University, Boston
Efficacy and safety of direct acting antiviral regimens for hepatitis C virus and humanimmunodeficiencyvirus co-infection: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Various all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens are being widely used in the treatment of humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients; however, the comparative efficacy and safety of different types and combinations of DAAs are not completely clear. There is still a lack (...) of integration of evidence for optimized therapies for HIV/HCV co-infection.We conducted a systematic literature search in several databases up to January 1, 2020. All the studies that reported the sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse events of DAAs in HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. The Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was used for the pooled estimates of network meta-analysis.We identified 33 eligible articles with 7 combinations of all-oral DAAs for the analyses of efficacy
Interventions to Improve Linkage to HIV Care in the Era of "Treat All" in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Systematic Review. In 2015, antiretroviral therapy (ART) was recommended for all people living with HIV (PLHIV) regardless of CD4 count ("Treat All"). To better understand how to improve linkage to care under these new guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating linkage interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa under Treat All.We identified 14 eligible articles and qualitatively
Identifying Opportunity for Online Education to Address HIV/HCV Knowledge Gaps in Health Professionals and Students in Egypt. HCV prevalence rates in Egypt are high. While low, HIV prevalence rates may be underreported. Adequate solutions to address these public health challenges are lacking. Stigma, misperceptions, and lack of specialized skills to deal with infection are persistent impediments. To address these challenges, we propose a plan that incorporates the use of online education
Association between cognitive reserve and cognitive performance in people with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cognitive reserve is a potential explanation for the disparity between brain pathology and its clinical manifestations. The main objective of this study was to estimate, based on published studies, the strength of the association between cognitive reserve and cognitive performance in individuals with HIV. A systematic literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO (...) , and EMBASE was performed to identify studies published between 1990 and 2016 that quantified the association between cognitive reserve and cognitive performance in HIV. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to compute a summary estimate (Cohen's d) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and 95% prediction intervals (PI). The risk of bias and quality of reporting in the studies were indicated by the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS). Ten observational studies were deemed eligible. The pooled
Effects of exercise on depression and anxiety in persons living with HIV: A meta-analysis. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of exercise on depression and anxiety in people living with HIV (PLWH), and to evaluate, through subgroup analysis, the effects of exercise type, frequency, supervision by exercise professionals, study quality, and control group conditions on these outcomes.A literature search was conducted through four electronic databases (...) from inception to February 2019. Considered for inclusion were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating exercise interventions and depression or anxiety as outcomes in people living with HIV (≥ 18 years of age). Ten studies were included (n = 479 participants, 49.67% females at baseline), and the standardized mean difference (SMD) and heterogeneity were calculated using random-effect models. An additional pre-post meta-analysis was also conducted.A large effect in favor of exercise when
A Meta-analysis Assessing Diarrhea and Pneumonia in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Compared With HIV-Unexposed Uninfected Infants and Children. Previous studies have demonstrated that HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants and children experience morbidity and mortality at rates exceeding those of their HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) counterparts. We sought to summarize the association between HEU vs. HUU infants and children for the outcomes of diarrhea and pneumonia.Meta-analysis.We reviewed studies
Global systematic review and ecological analysis of HIV in people who inject drugs: National population sizes and factors associated with HIV prevalence. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at elevated risk of HIV infection. Data on population sizes of PWID living with HIV are needed to inform the implementation of prevention, treatment and care programs. We estimated national population sizes of people who recently (past 12 months) injected drugs living with HIV and evaluated ecological (...) associations with HIV prevalence in PWID.We used national data on the prevalence of injecting drug use and of HIV among PWID, derived from systematic reviews, to estimate national population sizes of PWID living with HIV. Uncertainty was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation with 100,000 draws. We extracted data on sample characteristics from studies of HIV prevalence among PWID, and identified national indicators that have been observed or hypothesised to be associated with HIV prevalence in PWID. We
Audiological assessment of children with HIV/AIDS: a meta-analysis. To analyze the results of the audiological evaluation of children with HIV and AIDS.Systematic review carried out in May 2019 in the Web of Science, PubMed, SciELO, and Scopus databases. Case reports and original articles were included, with no limitationsregarding country or year of publication.278 articles were identified; 26 were included, in which HIV/AIDS was shown to be a risk factor for hearing loss (OR=5.364; p=0.00 (...) ). The studies used different audiological exams, with varying methodologies. There was no difference regarding the type of hearing loss (p=0.119).Longitudinal studies using the same type of examination at all stages are suggested, to allow better monitoring of the effects of HIV on the child's hearing,and studies that provide more methodological details. The knowledge of the influence of HIV on the child's auditory system may lead to the promotion of measures that minimize the prevalence of hearing loss
HIV/AIDS treatment failure and associated factors in Ethiopia: meta-analysis. The national burden of humanimmunodeficiencyvirus treatment failure and associated factors in the Ethiopian context is required to provide evidence towards a renewed ambitious future goal.We accessed Ethiopian Universities' online repository library, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to get the research articles. We run I-squared statistics to see heterogeneity. Publication bias was checked by using (...) %), and 6.3% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.0%), respectively. The pooled effects of World Health Organization clinical stage III/IV (Adjusted Odd Ratio = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.6), presence of opportunistic infections (Adjusted Odd Ratio = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4), and poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (Adjusted Odd Ratio = 8.1; 95% CI: 4.3-11.8) on HIV treatment failure were estimated.Human immunodeficiencyvirus treatment failure in Ethiopia found to be high. Being on advanced clinical
Economic compensation interventions to increase uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Economic compensation interventions may help support higher voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) coverage in priority sub-Saharan African countries. To inform World Health Organization guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of economic compensation interventions to increase VMMC uptake.Economic compensation interventions were (...) defined as providing money or in-kind compensation, reimbursement for associated costs (e.g. travel, lost wages), or lottery entry. We searched five electronic databases and four scientific conferences for studies examining the impact of such interventions on VMMC uptake, HIV testing and safer-sex/risk-reduction counseling uptake within VMMC, community expectations about compensation, and potential coercion. We screened citations, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicate. We conducted
Alcohol Use and Antiretroviral Therapy Non-Adherence Among Adults Living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is efficacious in improving clinical outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH) and reducing HIV transmission when taken regularly. Research examining modifiable factors associated with ART non-adherence is critical for informing novel intervention development in settings with high HIV prevalence. Alcohol use has been (...) analyses to account for heterogeneity and publication bias. In a secondary analysis with studies using viral non-suppression as their primary outcome, we also estimated a statistically significant pooled effect of alcohol use on viral non-suppression (pooled odds ratio: 2.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.58-3.87). Evidence suggests alcohol use is associated with ART non-adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa, potentially hindering achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 HIV treatment targets.
HIV-1 Subtype Frequency in Northeast Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Information on HIV molecular epidemiology is required to verify HIV/AIDS epidemic dynamics in different regions, as well as provide support for response to antiretroviral therapy, transmission of resistance mutations, disease progression, and viral spread. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the frequency of HIV-1 subtypes in Northeast Brazil. Seventy-six articles (...) that refer to HIV-1 and its subtypes in the Northeast Brazil and published between January 1, 1999 and August 31, 2019 were identified. We included 27 articles for the qualitative synthesis, thus analysing results from 4466 patients and 4298 genomic sequences. The results showed that subtypes B, F, and C and recombinant BF were responsible for 76% (IC95%: 71-80), 8% (IC95%: 5-11), 2% (IC95%: 2-3), and 7% (IC95%: 4-12) infections, respectively. The highest proportion of subtype B infections (82.2
Effects of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) polymorphisms on HIV acquisition: A meta-analysis. Genetic involvement of Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) polymorphisms and HumanImmunodeficiencyVirus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (HESN) compared to HIV-infected (HIVI) individuals has been reported. However, inconsistency of the outcomes reduces precision of the estimates. A meta-analysis was applied to obtain more precise estimates of association.A multi-database literature
The global and regional prevalence, burden, and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in HIV-infected people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is among the most important opportunistic pathogens in HIV+ patients, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality.The MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched for studies that investigated the prevalence of MRSA (...) colonization in HIV+ patients. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data based on World Health Organization regions.Among 9,772 records identified, 69 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 30,050 HIV+ patients from 21 countries. We estimated the pooled worldwide prevalence of MRSA in people living with HIV to be 7% (95% CI 5%-9%, 1,623/30,050), with the highest prevalence in Southeast Asia (16%, 95% CI 9%-24
). A random-effects model was used to pool individual studies. Overall, 25 studies with 42,642 participants from 17 countries were included. One study reported the prevalence of PH among HIV-infected adults based on RHC: 0.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-0.6). The global prevalence of PH based on echography was 8.3% (95% CI: 4.6-12.8; 22 studies) among HIV-infected adults. In subgroup analysis, there was no difference between regions, human development indicator, and HIV burden in countries. Among (...) Pulmonary hypertension in the global population of adolescents and adults living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PH in adolescents and adults living with HIV at the global level. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Global Index Medicus were searched to identify articles published until November 4, 2018. PH had to be investigated with transthoracic echography or right heart catheterization (RHC
Prevalence and incidence of new-onset seizures and epilepsy in patients with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV): Systematic review and meta-analysis. The prevalence and incidence of seizures are substantially higher in patients with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) compared with the general population and is associated with higher mortality rates. Despite this, the condition remains poorly understood, and there is variation in reported epidemiological studies. The aim of this systematic (...) with new-onset seizures, 63% had seizure recurrence. At the time of first seizure, 82.3% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Factors that appeared to be linked to seizures in HIV included advanced HIV disease, opportunistic infections particularly toxoplasmosis, and metabolic derangement. Most seizures were effectively controlled by common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).The prevalence and incidence of seizures and epilepsy in the population with HIV are substantially higher than the general
Association of antiretroviral therapy with anal high-risk human papillomavirus, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the natural history of anal high-risk HPV and anal lesion progression is not well established. We reviewed the association of ART and other HIV-related factors on anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and anal cancer among people living (...) with HIV.For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published between Jan 1, 1996, and Oct 30, 2019, that reported the association of HIV-related exposures (ART or highly active ART [HAART], HIV-RNA plasma viral load [PVL], and nadir or current CD4 cell count) with outcomes of anal high-risk HPV prevalence, incidence, and persistence; prevalence, incidence, progression, or regression of anal histological and cytological abnormalities; and anal cancer incidence