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Latest & greatest articles for hiv
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Does per-act HIV-1 transmission risk through anal sex vary by gender? An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Quantifying HIV-1 transmission risk per-act of anal intercourse (AI) is important for HIV-1 prevention. We updated previous reviews by searching Medline and Embase to 02/2018. We derived pooled estimates of receptive AI (URAI) and insertive AI (UIAI) risk unprotected by condoms using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were conducted by gender, study design, and whether (...) antiretroviral treatment (ART) had been introduced by the time of the study. Two new relevant studies were identified, one of which met inclusion criteria, adding three new cohorts and increasing number of individuals/partnerships included from 1869 to 14 277. Four studies, all from high-income countries, were included. Pooled HIV-1 risk was higher for URAI (1.25%, 95% CI 0.55%-2.23%, N = 5, I2 = 87%) than UIAI (0.17%, 95 % CI 0.09%-0.26%, N = 3, I2 = 0%). The sole heterosexual URAI estimate (3.38%, 95% CI
Hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition among women: an updated systematic review. To update a 2016 systematic review on hormonal contraception use and HIV acquisition.We searched Pubmed and Embase between 15 January 2016 and 26 June 2019 for longitudinal studies comparing incident HIV infection among women using a hormonal contraceptive method and either non-users or users of another specific hormonal contraceptive method. We extracted information from newly identified studies, assessed (...) study quality, and updated forest plots and meta-analyses.In addition to 31 previously included studies, five more were identified; three provided higher quality evidence. A randomised clinical trial (RCT) found no statistically significant differences in HIV risk among users of intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), levonorgestrel implant (LNG implant) or the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). An observational study found no statistically significant differences in HIV risk
HIV testing and engagement with the HIV treatment cascade among men who have sex with men in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. HIV disproportionately affects gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa, where many countries criminalise same-sex behaviour. We assessed changes in the engagement of African MSM with HIV testing and treatment cascade stages over time, and the effect of anti-LGBT legislation and stigma.We systematically searched Embase, Global (...) Health, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for peer-reviewed cross-sectional or longitudinal studies recruiting at least ten MSM, published from Jan 1, 1980, to Oct 10, 2018. We extracted or derived estimates of HIV testing, engagement with the HIV treatment cascade, or both among African MSM from published reports. We derived pooled estimates using inverse-variance random-effects models. We used subgroup and meta-regression analysis to assess associations between testing and status awareness
Association between the UGT1A1*28 allele and hyperbilirubinemia in HIV-positive patients receiving atazanavir: a meta-analysis. Objectives The uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1)*28 allele in HIV-positive patients receiving atazanavir (ATV) might be associated with the risk of hyperbilirubinemia. Owing to mixed and inconclusive results, a meta-analysis was conducted to systematically summarize and clarify this association.Methods Based on a comprehensive search of PubMed (...) . Publication bias was evaluated using Orwin's fail-safe N test.Results A total of six individual studies were included in this meta-analysis. A significantly increased risk of hyperbilirubinemia was observed in HIV-positive patients receiving ATV with the UGT1A1*1/*28 or UGT1A1*28/*28 genotype, and the risk was higher with the UGT1A1*28/*28 genotype than with the UGT1A1*1/*28 genotype. (UGT1A1*28/*28 versus UGT1A1*1/*28: OR = 3.69, 95%CI = 1.82-7.49; UGT1A1*1/*28 versus UGT1A1*1/*1: OR = 3.50, 95%CI = 1.35
HIV Care Among Elderly Population: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Elderly people living with HIV are increasing. At present in the United States, nearly half of newly diagnosed HIV-infected people are aged >50 years. Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected elderly patients tends to be delayed by several health care factors as several life-threatening diseases are common in elderly people. This study aimed to find the pooled HIV prevalence in elderly population and the present situation (...) of continuum care for the elderly HIV patients through systematic review and meta-analysis. All previously published articles from 2000 to 2018 are retrieved using MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. DerSimonian and Laird Random Effects model are used to critically appraise articles. STATA 13.0 is used to perform the meta-analysis and quantum-geographic information system (Q-GIS) is used to prepare desired map. I2 statistics has been used to test heterogeneity and publication
Dolutegravir based antiretroviral therapy compared to other combined antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of HIV-infected naive patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Numerous randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to evaluate dolutegravir based triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to other triple antiretroviral regimens in naïve patients, and a summary of the available evidence is required to shed more light on safety and effectiveness issues.Systematic review (...) and meta-analysis of RCTs comparing dolutegravir-containing ART to non-dolutegravir containing ART in HIV-infected naive patients. Primary outcomes: % of patients with viral load<50 copies/mL at 48 weeks, stratified according to baseline viral load levels (< or >100.000 copies/mL); overall rate of discontinuation and/or switching for any cause (virologic failure, clinical failure, adverse events). Measure of treatment effect: Risk Difference (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The GRADE system
Comparison of mHealth and Face-to-Face Interventions for Smoking Cessation Among People Living With HIV: Meta-Analysis. The prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is higher than that reported in the general population, and it is a significant risk factor for noncommunicable diseases in this group. Mobile phone interventions to promote healthier behaviors (mobile health, mHealth) have the potential to reach a large number of people at a low cost. It has been hypothesized
Brief Report: Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function Among HIV-1-Infected Individuals in China, India, and Nigeria. Risk of cognitive impairment is increased among persons with high or low body mass index in HIV- and HIV+ populations in resource-rich settings. We examined this association among HIV+ patients in 3 resource-limited settings.This secondary analysis included data of 761 HIV+ volunteers pooled from 3 prospective cohort studies conducted in China (n = 404; 53%), India (n = 200; 26 (...) logistic regression of pooled longitudinal data, adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, the odds of global NCI were 38% higher among the overweight/obese as compared to normal weight participants [odds ratio: 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 1.72); P = 0.005]. Similarly, the odds of global NCI were 39% higher among the underweight as compared to normal weight participants [odds ratio: 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.87); P = 0.029].NCI among HIV-1-infected patients was more
Factors Associated With Excess Myocardial Infarction Risk in HIV-Infected Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. To estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among HIV-infected adults compared with HIV-uninfected controls and explore the contribution of traditional and HIV-related risk factors.Understanding AMI risk and associated risk factors in HIV-infected populations has the potential to inform clinical management and prevention (...) strategies.We systematically identified cohort studies of HIV-infected or HIV-infected and matched uninfected adults reporting AMI incidence rates published up to January 1, 2017. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate the aggregate RR of AMI by HIV status. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to explore factors affecting risk.Sixteen studies (N = 1,619,690, median age 38.5 years, 78.9% male, mean follow-up of 6.5 years) were included. In pooled analyses of HIV-infected
Second-line HIV treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Increased second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure rate narrows future options for HIV/AIDS treatment. It has critical implications in resource-limited settings; including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where the burden of HIV-infection is immense. Hence, pooled estimate for second-line HIV treatment failure is relevant to suggest valid recommendations that optimize ART outcomes in SSA.We retrieved (...) literature systematically from PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and AJOL. The retrieved studies were screened and assessed for eligibility. We also assessed the eligible studies for their methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute's appraisal checklist. The pooled estimates for second-line HIV treatment failure and its associated factors were determined using STATA, version 15.0 and MEDCALC, version 18.11.3, respectively. We assessed publication bias using Comprehensive Meta
Increases in HIV Incidence Following Receptive Anal Intercourse Among Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Receptive anal intercourse (RAI) carries a greater per-act risk of HIV acquisition than receptive vaginal intercourse (RVI) and may influence HIV epidemics driven by heterosexual sex. This systematic review explores the association between RAI and incident HIV among women, globally. We searched Embase and Medline through September 2018 for longitudinal studies reporting crude (cRR (...) ) or adjusted (aRR) relative risks of HIV acquisition by RAI practice among women. Of 27,563 articles identified, 17 eligible studies were included. We pooled independent study estimates using random-effects models. Women reporting RAI were more likely to acquire HIV than women not reporting RAI (pooled cRR = 1.56 95% CI 1.03-2.38, N = 18, I2 = 72%; pooled aRR = 2.23, 1.01-4.92, N = 5, I2 = 70%). In subgroup analyses the association was lower for women in Africa (pooled cRR = 1.16, N = 13, I2 = 21%) than
A Qualitative Systematic Review of Cigarette Smoking Cessation Interventions for Persons Living with HIV. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) have disproportionately high rates of both cigarette smoking and tobacco-induced negative health outcomes. The goal of this qualitative systematic review was to identify gaps in the existing literature and future directions for smoking cessation support for PLWH. Three online databases were searched from their inception through December 31, 2017, using
Prevalence and burden of HBV co-infection among people living with HIV: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. Globally, in 2017 35 million people were living with HIV (PLHIV) and 257 million had chronic HBV infection (HBsAg positive). The extent of HIV-HBsAg co-infection is unknown. We undertook a systematic review to estimate the global burden of HBsAg co-infection in PLHIV. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and other databases for published studies (2002-2018) measuring prevalence of HBsAg (...) among PLHIV. The review was registered with PROSPERO (#CRD42019123388). Populations were categorized by HIV-exposure category. The global burden of co-infection was estimated by applying regional co-infection prevalence estimates to UNAIDS estimates of PLHIV. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the odds of HBsAg among PLHIV compared to HIV-negative individuals. We identified 506 estimates (475 studies) of HIV-HBsAg co-infection prevalence from 80/195 (41.0%) countries. Globally, the prevalence
Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles in long-term non-progressors infected with HIV-1. In the absence of antiretroviral treatments (ARTs), a small group of individuals infected with HIV, including long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) who maintain high levels of CD4+ T cells for more than 7-10 years in the absence of ART and in particular a subgroup of LTNPs, elite controllers (ECs), who have low levels of viremia, remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years. However (...) , the mechanism of stable disease progression in LTNPs and ECs needs to be elucidated to help those infected with HIV-1 remain healthy. In this study, to identify the characteristics of gene expression profiles and biomarkers in LTNPs, we performed a meta-analysis using multiple gene expression profiles among LTNPs, individuals infected with HIV-1 without ART, individuals infected with HIV-1 with ART, and healthy controls.The gene expression profiles obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray
The Association Between Marijuana Use and HIV Continuum of Care Outcomes: a Systematic Review. Approximately 77% of HIV-infected adults report lifetime marijuana use. Given the high rates and social acceptability of marijuana use among HIV-infected individuals, it is important to gain a stronger understanding of if, and how, marijuana impacts HIV care cascade outcomes. The purpose of this study is to systematically review recent articles that assess the relationship between marijuana use (...) and HIV continuum of care outcomes.One hundred and ninety articles from PubMed were considered for inclusion, and 15 were included in the review. The studies focus on marijuana use among HIV-infected individuals aware of their serostatus (k = 4), individuals engaged in treatment (k = 1), marijuana use in association with adherence to antiretroviral medications (k = 6), and marijuana use in relation to multiple stages of the HIV care cascade (k = 4). Preliminary findings from the small number
Which community-based HIV initiatives are effective in achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets? A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence (2007-2018). Reaching the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets to end the HIV epidemic relies on effective interventions that engage untested HIV+ individuals and retain them in care. Evidence on community-based interventions through the lens of the targets has not yet been synthesized, reflecting a knowledge gap. We (...) conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to shed light on successful community-based interventions that have been effective in contributing, directly or indirectly, towards the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets: knowledge of HIV status, linkage to care/on treatment, and viral suppression. Linkage to care was also included in this review due to the limitations of studies.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the period 2007-2018. Eleven databases were searched to identify community-based
Physical activity and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of correlates and levels. Self-management strategies such as physical activity (PA) can address disability and optimize mental, physical, social and economic outcomes for persons living with HIV (PLWH). Understanding factors that influence PA behavior in PLWH is a first step in order to devise effective interventions.The present review provides a systematic review of the correlates of PA in PLWH in sub-Saharan (...) Africa.Electronic databases were searched till April 2016. Keywords included 'physical activity' or 'exercise' or 'sports' and 'AIDS' or 'HIV'.Ten correlates were identified in 6 studies including 1,015 (329♂) PLWH (mean age range=30.5-40.8years). Lower levels of PA were associated with older age (2/2 studies), a lower number of CD4 cells/µl (1/1), a more severe HIV-stage (1/1), a higher HIV load (1/1), the presence of opportunistic infections (1/1) and a higher BMI (1/1). Fisher's exact tests showed there were
Risk of Skin Cancers in Older Persons Living With HIV: A Systematic Review. Skin cancers-including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma-impose high incidence and morbidity in older persons. As life expectancy continues to increase in persons living with HIV (PLWH), this population may face an increased risk of non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as skin cancers. We conducted a systematic review on skin cancer risks in PLWH, ages 50 years or older, as compared with age (...) -matched, HIV-uninfected persons. Four studies met criteria and were included. No statistically significant associations were demonstrated between HIV infection and skin cancers in older persons. For those with a history of basal or squamous cell carcinoma, HIV infection was associated with higher risks of subsequent squamous cell carcinoma. Future studies are needed to elucidate and reduce morbidity of primary and multiple skin cancers to promote successful aging in PLWH.
evidence of effective interventions for this age group. Recent years have seen an increase in focus on adolescent health and a rapidly changing programmatic environment. This systematic review article provides an evidence update by synthesizing empirical evaluations of interventions designed to improve antiretroviral therapy adherence and retention among adolescents (10-19) and youth (15-24) living with HIV, published between January 2016 and June 2018. A search of 11 health and humanities databases (...) Recent Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care and Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment Among Adolescents and Youth: A Systematic Review. Adolescents represent a growing proportion of people living with HIV worldwide and the highest risk population group for treatment attrition and AIDS-related mortality. There is an urgent need to design, implement, and test interventions that keep young people in HIV treatment and care. However, previous systematic reviews show scarce and inconclusive
Which HIV-infected youth are at risk of developing depression and what treatments help? A systematic review focusing on Southern Africa. Background Depression is common in people with HIV and is associated with lower quality of life, reduced medication adherence, worse disease progression and higher risk of transmission to others. While the majority of HIV-infected youth live in Southern Africa, research has largely focused on adults from Western countries, with limited generalisability across (...) these populations. This review sought to identify and synthesise research on the risk factors for depression in HIV-infected youth in Southern Africa, and to summarise the available evidence on psychosocial interventions to reduce depression. Method A systematic review was conducted of studies using a validated measure of depression in HIV-infected youth (aged ≤19) in Southern Africa. Eligible studies included either analysis of variables associated with depression, or evaluation of the impact of psychosocial