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of Science, and Sociological Abstracts with no restriction on publication date, for articles in English language. Sample search terms included: HIV infections OR HIV OR AIDS OR acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR humanimmunodeficiencyvirus AND social capital OR social control, informal OR social participation OR social cohesion OR generalized trust OR social trust OR collective efficacy OR community mob* OR civic participation.We identified 1581 unique manuscripts and reviewed 13 based on eligibility (...) Social capital and HIV/AIDS in the United States: Knowledge, gaps, and future directions Social capital is a well-established predictor of several behavioral health outcomes. However, we know less about the relationship with prevention, transmission, and treatment of HIV/AIDS outcomes in the United States (US).In 2017, we conducted a scoping review of empirical studies investigating the relationships between social capital and HIV/AIDS in the US by searching PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web
Effects of an ActRIIB.Fc Ligand Trap on Cardiac Function in Simian ImmunodeficiencyVirus-Infected Male Rhesus Macaques An important safety consideration in the use of antagonists of myostatin and activins is whether these drugs induce myocardial hypertrophy and impair cardiac function. The current study evaluated the effects of a soluble ActRIIB receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, on myocardial mass and function in simian (...) immunodeficiencyvirus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239; 4 weeks postinoculation, they were treated with weekly injections of 10 mg/kg ActRIIB.Fc or saline for 12 weeks. Myocardial mass and function were evaluated using two-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with a significantly greater increase in thickness of left ventricular
Impact of the US Food and Drug Administration registration of antiretroviral drugs on global access to HIV treatment Since 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) dedicated drug review process in support of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made safe, effective and quality antiretrovirals (ARVs) available for millions of patients. Furthermore, the WHO and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) can add the USFDA-reviewed products (...) to their respective formularies, through a novel process of 'one-way reliance'. We assessed the number of ARVs made available through WHO and Global Fund based on the USFDA review.We conducted a cross-sectional study of all the USFDA-reviewed PEPFAR drugs between 1 December 2014 and 20 March 2017 to determine 1) the percentage that are included on the WHO and Global Fund formularies; 2) the number of the USFDA ARVs supporting the WHO HIV treatment guidelines, and their uptake by WHO and Global Fund and 3) time
Lipodystrophy Increases the Risk of CKD Development in HIV-Positive Patients in Switzerland: The LIPOKID Study Antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of patients living with HIV. However, lipodystrophy syndrome (LD) remains prevalent, affecting mostly patients treated with first-generation antiretroviral drugs. This syndrome is characterized by changes in body fat distribution with or without associated metabolic changes. Here, we studied whether clinically evaluated LD (...) is independently associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) development (sustained estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) in HIV-positive patients.We conducted a prospective cohort study (the LIPOKID Study) among all the patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) with an eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 upon their entry into the cohort with more than 3 months of follow-up from January 2002 to August 2016. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between LD
Projected Cancer Incidence Rates and Burden of Incident Cancer Cases in HIV-Infected Adults in the United States Through 2030. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) have an elevated risk for certain types of cancer. With modern antiretroviral therapy, PLWH are aging and cancer rates are changing.To project cancer incidence rates and burden (number of new cancer diagnoses) among adult PLWH in the United States through 2030.Descriptive.HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study to project cancer rates and HIV (...) Optimization and Prevention Economics model to project HIV prevalence.HIV-infected adults.Projected cancer rates and burden among HIV-infected adults in the United States by age during 2006 to 2030 for AIDS-defining cancer (ADC)-that is, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer-and certain types of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC). All other cancer types were combined.The proportion of adult PLWH in the United States aged 65 years or older is projected to increase from 8.5% in 2010 to 21.4
Cervical Cancer Awareness among Women in Tanzania: An Analysis of Data from the 2011-12 Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicators Survey Awareness about cervical cancer is a first step in the process of screening and early treatment. The purpose of this study was to provide better understanding of basic knowledge about cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Tanzania.Data were analyzed from the 2011-2012 Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicators Survey (THMIS) and a sample of 5542 sexually
Integration of postpartum healthcare services for HIV-infected women and their infants in South Africa: A randomised controlled trial As the number of HIV-infected women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy increases globally, concerns have emerged regarding low levels of retention in HIV services and suboptimal adherence to ART during the postpartum period. We examined the impact of integrating postpartum ART for HIV+ mothers alongside infant follow-up within (...) maternal and child health (MCH) services in Cape Town, South Africa.We conducted a randomised trial among HIV+ postpartum women aged ≥18 years who initiated ART during pregnancy in the local antenatal care clinic and were breastfeeding when screened before 6 weeks postpartum. We compared an integrated postnatal service among mothers and their infants (the MCH-ART intervention) to the local standard of care (control)-immediate postnatal referral of HIV+ women on ART to general adult ART services
Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children More than 1 in 10 HIV-related deaths are as a result of cryptococcal me n i n g i t i s. Three quarters of deaths from cryptococcal meningitis are in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO/CDS/HIV/18.2 POLICY BRIEF WHO / James Oatway: Namibia Living with HIV / AIDS at the Katatura State Hospital in Windhoek, Namibia. GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT (...) OF CRYPTOCOCCAL DISEASE IN HIV-INFECTED ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2016 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION MARCH 2018 HIV TREATMENT 1 Cryptococcal meningitis is by far the commonest manifestation of cryptococcal disease representing 70–90% of HIV-related cryptococcal disease. Other less common disease presentations include pulmonary disease and skin, lymph node and bone involvement. The burden of morbidity and mortality
. Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in humanimmunodeficiencyvirus-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective, multicenter, randomized study. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1329–31. 93. Model List of Essential Medicines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017 (http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en, accessed 17 January 2018). 40 Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV (...) of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995;8:515–48. 13. Gonzalez CE, Shetty D, Lewis LL, Mueller BU, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ. Cryptococcosis in humanimmunodeficiencyvirus–infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996;15:796–800. 14. Speed BR, Kaldor J. Rarity of cryptococcal infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:536–7. 15. Meiring ST, Quan VC, Cohen C, Dawood H, Karstaedt AS, McCarthy KM et al. A comparison of cases of paediatric-onset and adult-onset cryptococcosis detected through
Birth Outcomes for Pregnant Women with HIV Using Tenofovir-Emtricitabine. In a previous trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) involving pregnant women with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) infection, those randomly assigned to receive tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) had infants at greater risk for very premature birth and death within 14 days after delivery than those assigned to receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC (...) to women receiving TDF-FTC-ATV/r, women receiving TDF-FTC-LPV/r had a similar or slightly higher risk of preterm birth (risk ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.72) and low birth weight (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.17). There were no significant differences between regimens in the risk of very preterm birth or very low birth weight.The risk of adverse birth outcomes was not higher with TDF-FTC-LPV/r than with ZDV-3TC-LPV/r or TDF-FTC-ATV/r among HIV-infected women and their infants in the United
Common elements and features of a mobile-based self-management system for people living with HIV In recent years, mobile-based applications have become important technologies to the delivery of healthcare around the world. Mobile-based self-management systems with standard features for providing, evaluating, and improving HIV care are significantly required in developing countries.To determine the common elements of a mobile-based self-management system for people living with HIV (PLWH (...) ).This cross-sectional study was done in two main phases in 2017. In the first phase, a review was conducted in relevant databases such as; PubMed, Scopus, Up To Date, and Web of Science. The keywords used to search for resources were as follows; Self-care, Self-management, Data elements, Minimum data set, Mobile application, Mobile health, and HIV/AIDS. In the second phase, the infectious diseases specialists and health information managers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences were
Tenofovir-Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Superior CD4 T Cells Repopulation Compared to Zidovudine-Based HAART in HIV 1 Infected Adults Tenofovir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is one of the preferred first-line therapies in the management of HIV 1 infection. Ghana has since 2014 adopted this recommendation; however there is paucity of scientific data that reflects the safety and efficacy of the tenofovir-based therapy compared to zidovudine (...) in the Ghanaian health system. This study sought to assess the comparative immune reconstitution potential between tenofovir and zidovudine-based HAART regimens, which includes lamivudine and efavirenz in combination therapy. It also aimed to investigate the adverse drug reactions/events (ADREs) associated with pharmacotherapy with these agents in a total of 106 HAART naïve HIV patients. The study included 80 patients in the tenofovir cohort while 26 patients were on the zidovudine regimen. The occurrence
Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015. Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health (...) , and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries.We collected published data on domestic health spending, from 1995 to 2015, from a diverse set of international agencies. We tracked development assistance for health from 1990 to 2017. We also extracted 5385 datapoints about HIV/AIDS spending, between 2000 and 2015, from online databases, country reports, and proposals submitted to multilateral organisations. We used spatiotemporal
Impact of HIV Infection on the Clinical Presentation and Survival of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Prospective Observational Study From Botswana Botswana has a high prevalence of HIV infection. Currently, there are few data regarding the sociodemographic factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)-an AIDS-defining cancer-in the country.This study used a prospective cancer registry to identify patients with a new diagnosis of NHL reporting for specialty cancer care (...) at three hospitals in Botswana between October 2010 and August 2016. Treatment patterns and clinical outcomes were analyzed.One hundred four patients with a new diagnosis of NHL were enrolled in this study, 72% of whom had HIV infection. Compared with patients not infected with HIV, patients infected with HIV were younger (median age, 53.9 v 39.1 years; P = .001) and more likely to present with an aggressive subtype of NHL (65.5% v 84.0%; P = .008). All patients infected with HIV received combined
Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial The benefit of daily over thrice-weekly antituberculosis therapy among HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy remains unproven.To compare the efficacy and safety of daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens in the treatment of HIV-associated pulmonary TB.This open-label, randomized (...) clinical trial was conducted by the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, south India. Adults infected with HIV with newly diagnosed, culture-positive, pulmonary TB were enrolled between September 14, 2009, and January 18, 2016.Patients were randomized to daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens, stratified by baseline CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear grade. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated as per national guidelines. Clinical and sputum microbiological
Ibalizumab-uiyk (Trogarzo) - HIV Drug Approval Package: TROGARZO injection (ibalizumab-uiyk) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: TROGARZO injection (ibalizumab-uiyk) Company: TaiMed Biologics USA Corp Application Number: 761065Orig1s000 Approval Date: March 6, 2018 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301) 796-3634 for assistance. FDA Approval Letter and Labeling (PDF) (PDF) FDA Application
Effectiveness of a Peer Navigation Intervention to Sustain Viral Suppression Among HIV-Positive Men and Transgender Women Released From Jail: The LINK LA Randomized Clinical Trial Diagnosis of humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) infection, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are steps in the care continuum enabling consistent viral suppression for people living with HIV, extending longevity and preventing further transmission. While incarcerated, people living (...) with HIV receive antiretroviral therapy and achieve viral suppression more consistently than after they are released. No interventions have shown sustained viral suppression after jail release.To test the effect on viral suppression in released inmates of the manualized LINK LA (Linking Inmates to Care in Los Angeles) peer navigation intervention compared with standard transitional case management controls.Randomized clinical trial conducted from December 2012 through October 2016 with people living
HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis: A Review. About 40 000 Americans and 2 million people worldwide are newly infected with HIV each year. The combination antiretroviral regimen, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine, taken as a single pill once daily, has been shown to prevent HIV transmission but is used by fewer than 20% of people who could benefit in the United States.PubMed was searched on February 15, 2018, using the search terms pre-exposure, prophylaxis, HIV, and PrEP to identify (...) English-language articles published between 2010 and 2018. Four placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily dosing of TDF/emtricitabine significantly reduces HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men, high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users who share injection equipment. The efficacy of daily TDF/emtricitabine exceeds 90% but is highly correlated with degree of adherence. TDF/emtricitabine is safe and well-tolerated. Only
HIV Incidence, HIV Prevalence, and Undiagnosed HIV Infections in Men Who Have Sex With Men, United States. HIV infection is a persistent health concern in the United States, and men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be the most affected population.To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence and the percentage of undiagnosed HIV infections overall and among MSM.Cross-sectional analysis.National HIV Surveillance System.Persons aged 13 years or older with diagnosed HIV infection.Data on HIV (...) diagnoses and the first CD4 test result after diagnosis were used to model HIV incidence and prevalence and the percentage of undiagnosed HIV infections from 2008 to 2015 on the basis of a well-characterized CD4 depletion model.Modeled HIV incidence decreased 14.8% overall, from 45 200 infections in 2008 to 38 500 in 2015, and among all transmission risk groups except MSM. The incidence of HIV increased 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6% to 4.5%) per year among Hispanic/Latino MSM (6300 infections in 2008, 7900 in 2015
Effect of Offering Same-Day ART vs Usual Health Facility Referral During Home-Based HIV Testing on Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among Adults With HIV in Lesotho: The CASCADE Randomized Clinical Trial. Home-based HIV testing is a frequently used strategy to increase awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. However, with referral to health facilities, less than half of those who test HIV positive link to care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART).To determine whether offering (...) same-day home-based ART to patients with HIV improves linkage to care and viral suppression in a rural, high-prevalence setting in sub-Saharan Africa.Open-label, 2-group, randomized clinical trial (February 22, 2016-September 17, 2017), involving 6 health care facilities in northern Lesotho. During home-based HIV testing in 6655 households from 60 rural villages and 17 urban areas, 278 individuals aged 18 years or older who tested HIV positive and were ART naive from 268 households consented