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Top results for hiv

1861. Diagnosing acute and prevalent HIV-1 infection in young African adults seeking care for fever: a systematic review and audit of current practice. (Full text)

Diagnosing acute and prevalent HIV-1 infection in young African adults seeking care for fever: a systematic review and audit of current practice. Fever is a common complaint in HIV-1 infected adults and may be a presenting sign of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). We investigated the extent to which HIV-1 infection was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of febrile adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through a systematic review of published literature and guidelines in the period 2003-2014. We (...) also performed a detailed audit of current practice for the evaluation of febrile young adults in coastal Kenya. Our review identified 43 studies investigating the aetiology of fever in adult outpatients in SSA. While the guidelines identified recommend testing for HIV-1 infection, none mentioned AHI. In our audit of current practice at nine health facilities, only 189 out of 1173 (16.1%) patients, aged 18-29 years, were tested for HIV-1. In a detailed record review, only 2 out of 39 (5.1%) young

2014 International health PubMed abstract

1862. HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. (Abstract)

HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. HIV prevalence is increasing worldwide because people on antiretroviral therapy are living longer, although new infections decreased from 3.3 million in 2002, to 2.3 million in 2012. Global AIDS-related deaths peaked at 2.3 million in 2005, and decreased to 1.6 million by 2012. An estimated 9.7 million people in low-income and middle-income countries had started antiretroviral therapy by 2012. New insights into the mechanisms (...) of latent infection and the importance of reservoirs of infection might eventually lead to a cure. The role of immune activation in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS clinical events (major causes of morbidity and mortality in people on antiretroviral therapy) is receiving increased recognition. Breakthroughs in the prevention of HIV important to public health include male medical circumcision, antiretrovirals to prevent mother-to-child transmission, antiretroviral therapy in people with HIV to prevent

2014 Lancet

1863. Impact of geographic and transportation-related barriers on HIV outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. (Full text)

Impact of geographic and transportation-related barriers on HIV outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Difficulty obtaining reliable transportation to clinic is frequently cited as a barrier to HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Numerous studies have sought to characterize the impact of geographic and transportation-related barriers on HIV outcomes in SSA, but to date there has been no systematic attempt to summarize these findings. In this systematic review, we summarized (...) this body of literature. We searched for studies conducted in SSA examining the following outcomes in the HIV care continuum: (1) voluntary counseling and testing, (2) pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) linkage to care, (3) loss to follow-up and mortality, and (4) ART adherence and/or viral suppression. We identified 34 studies containing 52 unique estimates of association between a geographic or transportation-related barrier and an HIV outcome. There was an inverse effect in 23 estimates (44 %), a null

2014 AIDS and behavior PubMed abstract

1864. Common conditions and diseases in HIV-positive men who have sex with men

to heterosexual References 1. Brown B, Davtyan M, Galea J, Chow E, Leon S, Klausner JD. The role of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus acquisition in men who have sex with men: a review of the literature. [Review]. Viruses 4(12):3851-8, 2012 De- cember. 2. Chin-Hong PV, Husnik M, Cranston RD, Colfax G, Buchbinder S, Da CM et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection is associated with HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. AIDS 2009 June 1;23 (9):1135-42. 3. Darragh TM, Winkler B. Anal (...) :CD009244, 2012. 9. Palefsky JM. Anal cancer preven- tion in HIV-positive men and wom- en. [Review] [17 refs]. Current Opinion in Oncology 21(5):433-8, 2009 September. men, men who have sex with men are more likely to have various STIs including HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, human papillomavirus, human simplex virus and sexually-acquired hepatitis C.(34) According to the STD Surveillance Network in the US, the prevalence of STIs is lower in HIV-negative men who have sex with men

2014 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

1865. HIV: condoms remain the most effective means of prevention

of prevention In situations where there is a high risk of HIV transmission, the combination of emtricitabine + tenofovir reduces the risk of the virus being sexually transmitted, but only by half. The condom is a more effective means of prevention. To avoid the transmission of the HIV virus in penetrative sex, routine use of a condom is the most effective means of prevention. Treatment of the partner already infected helps reduce the risk of transmission. The use of the combination emtricitabine + tenofovir (...) HIV: condoms remain the most effective means of prevention Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''HIV: condoms remain the most effective means of prevention'', 1 July 2013 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > HIV: condoms remain the most effective means of prevention Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  Spotlight HIV: condoms remain the most effective means

2014 Prescrire

1866. HIV prevalence and testing among street-involved youth in Ontario

interventions for street-involved youth did not exist in Canada, and were limited in the US. What We Did We searched Medline, PsycINFO and Embase for articles using a combination of text terms (HIV) AND text terms [(youth) or (young) or (adolescent*)] AND text terms [(street) or (homeless) or (housing)]. The search was limited to articles published since 2000 onwards, in English and among humans. We also searched grey literature databases including Google Scholar (www.scholar.google.ca), the New York (...) HIV prevalence and testing among street-involved youth in Ontario Rapid Review #81: April 2014 HIV prevalence and testing among street-involved youth in Ontario Questions ? What is the prevalence of HIV among street-involved youth in Ontario and Canada? ? To which risk groups do these youth belong? ? What street-involved youth-specific testing interventions have been conducted? ? What is the seropositivity rate found in these testing interventions? Key Take-Home Messages ? Although the evidence

2014 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

1867. Online counseling and support groups for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS

'. [References]. Com- puters in Human Behavior 2010 September;26(5):1183-93. 4. Mo PK, Coulson NS. Living with HIV/AIDS and use of online support groups. Journal of Health Psycholo- gy 2010;15(3):339-50. 5. Mo PK, Coulson NS. Exploring the communication of social support within virtual communities: a con- tent analysis of messages posted to an online HIV/AIDS support group. Cyberpsychology & Behavior 2008 June;11(3):371-4. 6. Mo PK, Coulson NS. Developing a model for online support group use, empowering (...) Online counseling and support groups for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS Rapid Review #80: April 2014 Online counseling and support groups for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS Questions ? What are best practices in providing online counselling and facilitating support groups for individuals living with or affected by HIV/AIDS? ? What are the ethical issues in providing online counselling and facilitating support groups for individuals living with or affected by HIV/AIDS

2014 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

1868. Behavioural emergencies among HIV-positive men who have sex with men

Behavioural emergencies among HIV-positive men who have sex with men Rapid Review #86: June 2014 Behavioural Emergencies among HIV-positive Men who have Sex with Men Questions 1. What is the scope and nature of behavioural emergencies or crises among HIV-positive adult men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada? Key Take-Home Messages ? Behavioural emergencies are crises in which a person’s behaviour can become so out of control that he or she becomes a danger to others in their surroundings (...) . ? Few studies have characterized behavioural emergencies among HIV- positive men who have sex with men; most explored mental illness, psychological distress or suicidal ideation in this population. ? In terms of mental health, sexual minorities -- specifically men who have sex with men -- are at increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts (2-4). ? Studies among HIV-positive men found that psychological distress, specifically suicidal ideation, was commonly associated with substance use, being

2014 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

1869. Effective HIV prevention, education and outreach activities in African, Caribbean and Black communities

.(4) ? FOY+ImPACT reduces substance use and sex risk behaviors of high-risk youth by focusing on decision-making, goal setting, communication, negotiation and consensual relationships. Through the use of games, discussions, homework, role-playing and videos, youth receive information on abstinence and safe sex, drugs, alcohol, drug selling, AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs, contraception and human development.(4) ? Be Proud! Be Responsible! aims to increase knowledge of HIV (...) Effective HIV prevention, education and outreach activities in African, Caribbean and Black communities Rapid Review #78: February 2014 Effective HIV prevention, education and outreach activities in African, Caribbean and Black communities Question What HIV prevention, education and outreach activities have been shown to be effective in African, Caribbean and Black communities? Key Take-Home Messages ? African, Caribbean and Black populations represent 14% of the HIV epidemic in Canada

2014 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

1870. Comment on "Pain in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review (Parker et al. 2014)". (Full text)

, United Kingdom; richard.harding@kcl.ac.uk. Sherr Lorraine L Clinical and Health Psychology, Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. eng Letter Comment 2014 05 27 Switzerland J Int AIDS Soc 101478566 1758-2652 IM X J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18719 24560338 J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:19234 24871498 HIV Infections complications Humans Pain epidemiology 2014 02 28 2014 04 23 2014 04 23 2014 5 30 6 0 2014 5 30 6 0 2014 9 27 6 0 epublish 24871497 19096 (...) Comment on "Pain in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review (Parker et al. 2014)". 24871497 2014 09 26 2018 12 02 1758-2652 17 2014 Journal of the International AIDS Society J Int AIDS Soc Comment on "Pain in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review (Parker et al. 2014)". 19096 10.7448/IAS.17.1.19096 Harding Richard R Global Research Programmes and Partnerships, Department of Palliative Care, Policy & Rehabilitation, Cicely Saunders Institute, King's College London, London

2014 Journal of the International AIDS Society PubMed abstract

1871. Response to comment on "Pain in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review (Parker et al. 2014)". (Full text)

@uct.ac.za. Stein Dan J DJ Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Jelsma Jennifer J Department of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. eng Letter Comment 2014 05 27 Switzerland J Int AIDS Soc 101478566 1758-2652 IM X J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18719 24560338 J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:19096 24871497 HIV Infections complications Humans Pain epidemiology 2014 (...) Response to comment on "Pain in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review (Parker et al. 2014)". 24871498 2014 09 26 2018 12 02 1758-2652 17 2014 Journal of the International AIDS Society J Int AIDS Soc Response to comment on "Pain in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review (Parker et al. 2014)". 19234 10.7448/IAS.17.1.19234 Parker Romy R Department of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; romy.parker

2014 Journal of the International AIDS Society PubMed abstract

1872. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis. (Full text)

Prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis. To figure out the most current prevalence of HIV and syphilis in MSM in China.A meta-analysis was conducted on the studies searched through PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang published between 1 January 2009 and 11 April 2013.Eighty-four eligible studies, either in Chinese or in English, were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection in MSM in China was 6.5% and 11.2 (...) %, respectively. The subgroup analyses indicated that the prevalence of HIV infection was higher in the economically less developed cities than that in the developed cities (7.5% versus 6.1%, P<0.05). In contrast, the prevalence of syphilis infection was lower in less developed cities than in developed cities (8.6% versus 15.1%). Studies with a sample size smaller than 500 had a lower prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection than those with a sample size greater than 500 (5.9% versus 7.2% for HIV; 11.0

2014 BioMed research international PubMed abstract

1873. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men: a systematic review. (Full text)

eHealth interventions for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men: a systematic review. While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rate has remained steady in most groups, the overall incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been steadily increasing in the United States. eHealth is a platform for health behavior change interventions and provides new opportunities for the delivery of HIV prevention messages.The purpose of this systematic review (...) was to examine the use of eHealth interventions for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM.We systematically searched PubMed, OVID, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and Google for articles and grey literature reporting the original results of any studies related to HIV prevention in MSM and developed a standard data collection form to extract information on study characteristics and outcome data.In total, 13 articles met the inclusion criteria, of which five articles targeted HIV testing behaviors and eight

2014 Journal of medical Internet research PubMed abstract

1874. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review. (Full text)

HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review. The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group.We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources (...) Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel.Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five

2014 BMC Public Health PubMed abstract

1875. Safety and effectiveness of antiretroviral therapies for HIV-infected women and their infants and children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis. (Full text)

Safety and effectiveness of antiretroviral therapies for HIV-infected women and their infants and children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Antiretroviral therapy reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. However, these agents have been associated with preterm birth, anemia and low birth weight. We aim to evaluate the comparative safety and effectiveness of the use of antiretroviral drugs (...) among HIV-infected women and the effects on their infants and children through a systematic review and network meta-analysis.Studies examining the effects of six antiretroviral drug classes (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, co-receptor inhibitors) administered to HIV-infected pregnant women will be included. We will include randomized clinical trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, non-RCTs

2014 Systematic reviews PubMed abstract

1876. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: a systematic review. (Abstract)

Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: a systematic review. The objective of this review was to update evidence on when to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) to inform revision of the 2013 WHO guidelines for ART in low and middle-income countries.A systematic review and meta-analysis.We comprehensively searchescohorts. Outcomes were mortality, clinical progression, virologic failure, immunologic recover, and severe adverse events. We pooled data

2014 AIDS

1877. Systematic review of the proportion of pregnancy-related deaths attributed to HIV in population-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa. (Abstract)

Systematic review of the proportion of pregnancy-related deaths attributed to HIV in population-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa. To estimate the proportion of pregnancy-related deaths attributed to HIV in population-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa, and to document the methods used to make such attribution.Four databases were searched for studies on causes of maternal and pregnancy-related mortality published from 2003 to June 2013. Data were extracted, and meta-analysis of proportions (...) with random effects was used to obtain summary estimates.In the 19 studies found, the proportion of deaths attributed to HIV ranged from 0.0% to 27.0%. The summary proportion was 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 1.8–6.3), with high heterogeneity. Subregionally, the summary proportions were 1.1% (0.4–3.3%) in West Africa, 4.5%(1.7–11.2%) in East Africa and 26.1% (21.9–30.7%) in Southern Africa. Criteria for assigning HIV as a cause of maternal death were rarely reported, and overall, methods were poor.The

2014 Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH

1878. Hormonal contraception for women exposed to HIV infection. (Abstract)

Hormonal contraception for women exposed to HIV infection. Concern about a possible association of hormonal contraception with HIV acquisition has been raised by three types of evidence. Firstly, high-dose progestogen treatment greatly increases HIV acquisition in female non-human primates. Secondly, biological plausibility for a link between hormonal contraception anf HIV acquisition is provided by evidence of a hypo-oestrogenic state induced by progestogen contraception with vaginal mucosal (...) thinning, and evidence of effects on the humoral and cellular immune systems. Thirdly, some but not other large observational studies have found an increase in HIV acquisition among women using hormonal contraception.To determine, from the best available evidence, the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV acquisition.We used the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group trials search strategy.Published, unpublished and ongoing trials with random allocation, comparing hormonal with non-hormonal methods

2014 Cochrane

1879. Estimating the number of persons who inject drugs in the united states by meta-analysis to calculate national rates of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections. (Full text)

Estimating the number of persons who inject drugs in the united states by meta-analysis to calculate national rates of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections. Injection drug use provides an efficient mechanism for transmitting bloodborne viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Effective targeting of resources for prevention of HIV and HCV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is based on knowledge of the population size and disparity in disease (...) burden among PWID. This study estimated the number of PWID in the United States to calculate rates of HIV and HCV infection.We conducted meta-analysis using data from 4 national probability surveys that measured lifetime (3 surveys) or past-year (3 surveys) injection drug use to estimate the proportion of the United States population that has injected drugs. We then applied these proportions to census data to produce population size estimates. To estimate the disease burden among PWID by calculating

2014 PloS one PubMed abstract

1880. Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pigtailed macaque (Macaca leonina) (Full text)

Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pigtailed macaque (Macaca leonina) The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species of Old World monkey, and we previously found that PBMCs from M. leonina were susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which may be due to the absence of a TRIM5 protein restricting HIV-1 replication. Here we investigated the infection potentials of six laboratory adapted HIV-1 strains (...) , two HIV-1NL4-3-derived viruses encoding the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein from SIVmac239, replicated robustly in cells from M. leonina, which suggests that HSIV could effectively antagonize the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins expressed in cells of M. leonina. Therefore, our data demonstrate that M. leonina has the potential to be developed into a promising animal model for human AIDS.

2014 Zoological research PubMed abstract