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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Centre for Reviews and Dissemination CRD summary This well-conducted review assessed the effects of population level tobacco control interventions on smoking related health inequalities. The authors concluded (...) that these interventions have the potential to reduce health inequalities for disadvantaged groups. A need for further rigorous research in a number of specific areas was identified. Given the level of evidence presented, the authors' conclusions are likely to be reliable. Authors' objectives To evaluate the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities of smoking. Searching BIOSIS Previews, CINAHL, Cochrane library, EMBASE, EconLit, HMIC, HTA, ISI Technology Assessment database, MEDLINE
Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Fayter D, Main C, Misso K, Ogilvie D, Petticrew M, Sowden A, Stirk L, Thomas S, Whitehead M, Worthy G Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA (...) . No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Fayter D, Main C, Misso K, Ogilvie D, Petticrew M, Sowden A, Stirk L, Thomas S, Whitehead M, Worthy G. Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking. York: University of York. CRD Report 39. 2008 Authors' objectives The overall aims of this project were: To synthesise the best available evidence about the differential effects of population tobacco control interventions
Child wellbeing and income inequality in rich societies: ecological cross sectional study. To examine associations between child wellbeing and material living standards (average income), the scale of differentiation in social status (income inequality), and social exclusion (children in relative poverty) in rich developed societies.Ecological, cross sectional studies.Cross national comparisons of 23 rich countries; cross state comparisons within the United States.Children and young people.The (...) Unicef index of child wellbeing and its components for rich countries; eight comparable measures for the US states and District of Columbia (teenage births, juvenile homicides, infant mortality, low birth weight, educational performance, dropping out of high school, overweight, mental health problems).The overall index of child wellbeing was negatively correlated with income inequality (r=-0.64, P=0.001) and percentage of children in relative poverty (r=-0.67, P=0.001) but not with average income (r
The global impact of income inequality on health by age: an observational study. To explore whether the apparent impact of income inequality on health, which has been shown for wealthier nations, is replicated worldwide, and whether the impact varies by age.Observational study.126 countries of the world for which complete data on income inequality and mortality by age and sex were available around the year 2002 (including 94.4% of world human population).Data on mortality were from the World (...) Health Organization and income data were taken from the annual reports of the United Nations Development Programme.Mortality in 5-year age bands for each sex by income inequality and income level.At ages 15-29 and 25-39 variations in income inequality seem more closely correlated with mortality worldwide than do variations in material wealth. This relation is especially strong among the poorest countries in Africa. Mortality is higher for a given level of overall income in more unequal nations.Income
Resources for mental health: scarcity, inequity, and inefficiency. Resources for mental health include policy and infrastructure within countries, mental health services, community resources, human resources, and funding. We discuss here the general availability of these resources, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Government spending on mental health in most of the relevant countries is far lower than is needed, based on the proportionate burden of mental disorders (...) inefficiencies in financing mechanisms and interventions, and an overconcentration of resources in large institutions. Scarcity of available resources, inequities in their distribution, and inefficiencies in their use pose the three main obstacles to better mental health, especially in low-income and middle-income countries.
Social inequalities in self reported health in early old age: follow-up of prospective cohort study. To describe differences in trajectories of self reported health in an ageing cohort according to occupational grade.Prospective cohort study of office based British civil servants (1985-2004).10 308 men and women aged 35-55 at baseline, employed in 20 London civil service departments (the Whitehall II study); follow-up was an average of 18 years.Physical component and mental component scores (...) was only 4.5 years. Although mental health improved with age, the rate of improvement is slower for men and women in the lower grades.Social inequalities in self reported health increase in early old age. People from lower occupational grades age faster in terms of a quicker deterioration in physical health compared with people from higher grades. This widening gap suggests that health inequalities will become an increasingly important public health issue, especially as the population ages.
Reductions in child mortality levels and inequalities in Thailand: analysis of two censuses. Thailand's progress in reducing the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) puts the country on track to achieve the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG). Whether this success has been accompanied by a widening or narrowing of the child mortality gap between the poorest and richest populations is unknown. We aimed to measure changes in child-mortality inequalities by household-level socioeconomic strata (...) of the Thai population between 1990 and 2000.We measured changes in the distribution of the U5MR by economic strata using data from the 1990 and 2000 censuses. Economic status was measured using household assets and characteristics. The U5MR was estimated using the Trussell version of the Brass indirect method.Average household economic status improved and inequalities declined between the two censuses. There were substantially larger reductions in U5MR in the poorer segments of the population. Excess
Tackling inequalities through the social determinants of health: Building the evidence base 1 Petticrew M., 1 Bambra C., 2 Gibson M., 3 Sowden A., 4 Whitehead M., 5 Wright K. 4 1. Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 2. Centre for Public Policy & Health, Durham University 3. MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow 4. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York 5. Division of Public (...) . Conclusions 49 8. Dissemination/Outputs 54 Acknowledgements 54 References………………………………………………………….……………….56 Appendices………………………………………………………………………….57 3 Preface: What this study adds to knowledge We know already that there are few evaluations of “wider public health” interventions, such as policies which affect the social determinants of health and health inequalities. From this project we find some suggestive evidence that certain categories of intervention may impact positively on inequalities
Effect of insulating existing houses on health inequality: cluster randomised study in the community. To determine whether insulating existing houses increases indoor temperatures and improves occupants' health and wellbeing.Community based, cluster, single blinded randomised study.Seven low income communities in New Zealand.1350 households containing 4407 participants.Installation of a standard retrofit insulation package.Indoor temperature and relative humidity, energy consumption, self
Do area-based interventions to reduce health inequalities work: a systematic review of evidence Do area-based interventions to reduce health inequalities work: a systematic review of evidence Do area-based interventions to reduce health inequalities work: a systematic review of evidence O'Dwyer LA, Baum F, Kavanagh A, Macdougall C CRD summary This review assessed whether area-based interventions reduced health inequalities with the finding that there was some evidence that area-based (...) interventions reduced inequalities. The authors' conclusions are suitably cautious in reflecting the available evidence and their recommendations for further research are likely to be reliable. Authors' objectives To assess whether area-based interventions reduce health inequalities. Searching More than 20 electronic databases and selected websites were searched (dates not reported). Reference lists of retrieved studies were screened. National and international organisations and individuals were contacted
Reducing inequalities from injuries in Europe. Injuries cause 9% of deaths and 14% of ill health in the WHO European Region. This problem is neglected; injuries are often seen as part of everyday life. However, although western Europe has good safety levels, death and disability from injury are rising in eastern Europe. People in low-to-middle-income countries in the Region are 3.6 times more likely to die from injuries than those in high-income countries. Economic and political change have led (...) to unemployment, income inequalities, increased traffic, reduced restrictions on alcohol, and loss of social support. Risks such as movement of vulnerable populations and transfer of lifestyles and products between countries also need attention. In many countries, the public-health response has been inadequate, yet the cost is devastating to individuals and health-service budgets. More than half a million lives could be saved annually in the Region if recent knowledge could be used to prevent injuries
Social inequalities in male mortality, and in male mortality from smoking: indirect estimation from national death rates in England and Wales, Poland, and North America. There are substantial social inequalities in adult male mortality in many countries. Smoking is often more prevalent among men of lower social class, education, or income. The contribution of smoking to these social inequalities in mortality remains uncertain.The contribution of smoking to adult mortality in a population can (...) and bottom social strata involved differences in risks of being killed at age 35-69 years by smoking (England and Wales 4%vs 19%, USA 4%vs 15%, Canada 6%vs 13%, Poland 5%vs 22%: four-country mean 5%vs 17%, four-country mean absolute difference 12%). Smoking-attributed mortality accounted for nearly half of total male mortality in the lowest social stratum of each country.In these populations, most, but not all, of the substantial social inequalities in adult male mortality during the 1990s were due
What is the contribution of smoking and socioeconomic position to ethnic inequalities in mortality in New Zealand? Mortality rates for Māori are twice those for non-Māori in New Zealand. We have assessed the contribution of tobacco smoking and socioeconomic position to these inequalities in 45-74-year-old census respondents during 1981-84 and 1996-99 (2.3 and 2.7 million person-years, respectively).We used linked census and mortality cohort datasets with measures of socioeconomic position (...) . The corresponding reductions in men were 5% in 1996-99 and -1% in 1981-84. The apparent contribution of socioeconomic factors to mortality differences between Māori and non-Māori non-Pacific was greatest for men (39% in 1981-84 and 37% in 1996-99) and increased over time for women (from 23% in 1981-84 to 32% in 1996-99).Although small, the contribution of smoking to ethnic inequalities in mortality increased over time and might grow more during the next two decades if differences in smoking between ethnic
Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study. Inequalities in health between different ethnic groups in New Zealand are most pronounced between Māori and Europeans. Our aim was to assess the effect of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on health inequalities in these two ethnic groups.We used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey to assess prevalence of experiences of self (...) -reported racial discrimination in Māori (n=4108) and Europeans (n=6269) by analysing the responses to five questions about: verbal attacks, physical attacks, and unfair treatment by a health professional, at work, or when buying or renting housing. We did logistic regression analyses to assess the effect of adjustment for experience of racial discrimination and deprivation on ethnic inequalities for various health outcomes.Māori were more likely to report experiences of self-reported racial
Does IQ explain socioeconomic inequalities in health? Evidence from a population based cohort study in the west of Scotland. To test the hypothesis that IQ is a fundamental cause of socioeconomic inequalities in health.Cross sectional and prospective cohort study, in which indicators of IQ were assessed by written test and socioeconomic position by self report.West of Scotland.1347 people (739 women) aged 56 in 1987.Total mortality and coronary heart disease mortality (ascertained between 1987
[Social inequalities in perinatal health in the Basque Autonomous Community] Desigualdades sociales en la salud perinatal en la CAPV [Social inequalities in perinatal health in the Basque Autonomous Community] Desigualdades sociales en la salud perinatal en la CAPV [Social inequalities in perinatal health in the Basque Autonomous Community] Latorre PM, Aizpuru F, De Carlos Y, Echevarria J, Fernandez-Ruanova B, Lete I, Martinez-Astorquiza T,Martinez C, Paramo S Citation Latorre PM, Aizpuru F, De (...) Carlos Y, Echevarria J, Fernandez-Ruanova B, Lete I, Martinez-Astorquiza T,Martinez C, Paramo S. Desigualdades sociales en la salud perinatal en la CAPV. [Social inequalities in perinatal health in the Basque Autonomous Community] Vitoria-Gasteiz: Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment (OSTEBA). D-07-05. 2006 Authors' objectives
"The aims we have proposed for this survey are as follows: 1) Increase our knowledge of the main factors that lead to social inequalities in perinatal health
Do urban regeneration programmes improve public health and reduce health inequalities: a synthesis of the evidence from UK policy and practice (1980-2004) Do urban regeneration programmes improve public health and reduce health inequalities: a synthesis of the evidence from UK policy and practice (1980-2004) Do urban regeneration programmes improve public health and reduce health inequalities: a synthesis of the evidence from UK policy and practice (1980-2004) Thomson H, Atkinson R, Petticrew M (...) on health, key socioeconomic determinants and health inequalities. Searching BIDS IBSS, COPAC, HMIC (from 1988), IDOX Information Service, Inside, MEDLINE, URBADISC/ACOMPLINE, Web of Knowledge were searched from 1980 to 2004; brief search terms were reported. Governmental departmental libraries, authors of national ABI evaluations and other identified experts were contacted, and the bibliographies of located documents and selected websites were screened. Study selection Study designs of evaluations
Educational inequalities in cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and older men and women in eight western European populations. Studies of socioeconomic disparities in patterns of cause of death have been limited to single countries, middle-aged people, men, or broad cause of death groups. We assessed contribution of specific causes of death to disparities in mortality between groups with different levels of education, in men and women, middle-aged and old, in eight western European (...) populations.We analysed data from longitudinal mortality studies by cause of death, between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 1997. Data were included for more than 1 million deaths in 51 million person years of observation.Absolute educational inequalities in total mortality peaked at 2127 deaths per 100000 person years in men, and at 1588 deaths per 100000 person years in women aged 75 years and older. In this age-group, rate ratios were greater than 1.00 for total mortality and all specific causes of death, apart
Social determinants of health inequalities. The gross inequalities in health that we see within and between countries present a challenge to the world. That there should be a spread of life expectancy of 48 years among countries and 20 years or more within countries is not inevitable. A burgeoning volume of research identifies social factors at the root of much of these inequalities in health. Social determinants are relevant to communicable and non-communicable disease alike. Health status