Latest & greatest articles for influenza

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Top results for influenza

781. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine on responses to concurrently administered diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. (Abstract)

Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine on responses to concurrently administered diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. To assess whether serum antibody responses to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine were affected by coadministration of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polyribosylribitol phosphate polysaccharide-tetanus protein (PRP-T) conjugate vaccine when given to patients at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.Randomized, double-blind

1992 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

782. Achieving compliance with influenza immunization of medical house staff and students. A randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Achieving compliance with influenza immunization of medical house staff and students. A randomized controlled trial. To determine the optimal method to increase influenza immunization rates of medical house staff and students.Prospective randomized trial and cross-sectional survey.Four hundred forty-two internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, and general surgery residents and junior medical students.The four interventions employed were (1) an educational memorandum outlining vaccine (...) that only 32% had ever been previously immunized against influenza, yet 70% stated that they had worked despite having influenzalike symptoms.A high rate of immunization of house staff and medical students can be achieved most effectively by offering vaccine in clinics and conferences. Continued education about influenza immunization is necessary for physicians and medical students.

1992 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

783. The efficacy in Navajo infants of a conjugate vaccine consisting of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide and Neisseria meningitidis outer-membrane protein complex. (Abstract)

The efficacy in Navajo infants of a conjugate vaccine consisting of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide and Neisseria meningitidis outer-membrane protein complex. Several conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b have been developed in the search for one that induces protection even in young infants. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a conjugate vaccine that links the H. influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide to the outer-membrane protein complex (OMPC (...) ) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. We conducted a double-blind, placebo, controlled trial in Navajo infants, who are at high risk for systemic infections caused by H. influenzae type b. The infants were randomly assigned to receive the first dose of vaccine or placebo at 42 to 90 days of age and the second at 70 to 146 days of age.Of the infants in the trial, 2588 were assigned to receive the vaccine and 2602 to receive placebo. The mean follow-up was 269 days in the vaccine group and 267 days

1991 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

784. Antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (Abstract)

Antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for serious infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae, yet there are few data on their antibody responses to the H. influenzae type b vaccines.We evaluated antibody responses in 248 men who were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of either the H. influenzae type b polysaccharide (PRP) vaccine (...) or the polysaccharide-mutant diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (PRP-CRM). The subjects were stratified into four groups: seronegative men (67 subjects), men with asymptomatic HIV infection (79), men with symptomatic HIV infection (47), and men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (55).Before immunization, the subjects with AIDS had the lowest PRP-antibody titers; 40 percent had titers below the putative protective level (less than 0.15 micrograms per milliliter). In the seronegative subjects, those

1991 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

785. Haemophilus influenzae diphtheria protein conjugate immunization after therapy in splenectomized patients with Hodgkin disease. (Abstract)

Haemophilus influenzae diphtheria protein conjugate immunization after therapy in splenectomized patients with Hodgkin disease. 2294819 1990 02 06 2004 11 17 0003-4819 112 2 1990 Jan 15 Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. Haemophilus influenzae diphtheria protein conjugate immunization after therapy in splenectomized patients with Hodgkin disease. 143-4 Jakacki R R Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Luery N N McVerry P P Lange B B eng Clinical Trial Journal Article (...) Randomized Controlled Trial United States Ann Intern Med 0372351 0003-4819 0 Antibodies, Bacterial 0 Bacterial Vaccines 0 Diphtheria Toxoid 0 Haemophilus Vaccines 0 Haemophilus influenzae type b-polysaccharide vaccine-diphtheria toxoid conjugate AIM IM Adolescent Adult Antibodies, Bacterial biosynthesis Bacterial Vaccines adverse effects immunology Child Diphtheria Toxoid adverse effects immunology Female Haemophilus Infections prevention & control Haemophilus Vaccines Haemophilus influenzae immunology

1990 Annals of Internal Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

786. A randomized, prospective field trial of a conjugate vaccine in the protection of infants and young children against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. (Abstract)

A randomized, prospective field trial of a conjugate vaccine in the protection of infants and young children against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Haemophilus influenzae type b is the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in young children. The capsular polysaccharide vaccine does not protect children at greatest risk (those under the age of 18 months), but a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine has proved to be more immunogenic in this age group.We enrolled 114,000 (...) infants in Finland in an open, prospective, randomized trial of a H. influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (polyribosylribitol phosphate-diphtheria toxoid [PRP-D]). Children born on odd-numbered days were vaccinated at the ages of 3, 4, 6, and 14 to 18 months; those born on even-numbered days formed the control group and received the same vaccine at the age of 24 months.After three doses of the vaccine there were 4 cases of verified bacteremic H. influenzae type

1990 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

787. Limited efficacy of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Alaska Native infants. The Alaska H. influenzae Vaccine Study Group. (Abstract)

Limited efficacy of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Alaska Native infants. The Alaska H. influenzae Vaccine Study Group. The prevention of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease requires a vaccine that is effective when administered during the first six months of life. The infants of Alaska Natives are at particularly high risk of invasive H. influenzae type b disease.To evaluate the protective efficacy of a H. influenzae type b polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (...) conjugate vaccine (polyribosylribitol phosphate-diphtheria toxoid [PRP-D]), we enrolled 2102 Alaska Native infants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which either the vaccine or a saline placebo was administered at approximately two, four, and six months of age.After 3969 subject-years of follow-up and 32 episodes of H. influenzae type b disease, the overall incidence of invasive disease was not reduced significantly in the vaccinated subjects (6.0 cases per 1000 patient-years

1990 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

788. Frequency of adverse reactions to influenza vaccine in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Frequency of adverse reactions to influenza vaccine in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Concern about side effects constitutes a major deterrent to patient compliance with influenza vaccination, yet there is a paucity of data about the occurrence of adverse reactions in the population targeted for immunization. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial to compare the frequency of adverse reactions following administration of 1988-1989 trivalent split-antigen (...) influenza vaccine and saline placebo. Outpatient veterans 65 years of age or over (n = 336) were recruited by mail and were randomly assigned to receive vaccine followed 2 weeks later by placebo injection or placebo followed 2 weeks later by vaccine. There was no significant difference between influenza vaccine and placebo with respect ot the proportion of subjects reporting disability or systemic symptoms.

1990 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

789. Emergence and apparent transmission of rimantadine-resistant influenza A virus in families. (Abstract)

Emergence and apparent transmission of rimantadine-resistant influenza A virus in families. To determine whether rimantadine can protect family members from acquiring influenza A viral illness and to assess the possible selection of drug-resistant strains of virus, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in three communities during two influenza seasons. When influenza A occurred in a family, the members (including the index patient) were given either rimantadine (...) (adult oral dose, 200 mg per day) or placebo for 10 days. The presence of illness was monitored by daily recording of symptoms and temperature measurements; infection was determined by isolation of the virus and by serologic studies. Among households with documented influenza A infections, symptomatic illness occurred in one or more contacts in 10 of 28 families treated with rimantadine and in 10 of 209 families treated with placebo. Asymptomatic secondary influenza A infections were found in five

1989 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

790. Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in high-risk infants treated with bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin. (Abstract)

Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in high-risk infants treated with bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin. Apache Indian infants have a high frequency of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal infections. Forty percent of Hib infections in these infants occur before the age of six months, when active immunization may not be protective. To evaluate the efficacy of passive immunization with a human hyperimmune globulin (bacterial polysaccharide immune

1987 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

791. Cost-benefit analysis of two strategies for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection

Cost-benefit analysis of two strategies for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection Cost-benefit analysis of two strategies for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection Cost-benefit analysis of two strategies for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection Hay J W, Daum R S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Strategies for the prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-benefit analysis. Study population Hypothetical cohort of children. Setting The study was carried out in the USA. Dates to which data relate Price related to 1985. Source of effectiveness data Review of studies and opinions. Modelling

1987 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

792. Oral immunisation with killed Haemophilus influenzae for protection against acute bronchitis in chronic obstructive lung disease. (Abstract)

Oral immunisation with killed Haemophilus influenzae for protection against acute bronchitis in chronic obstructive lung disease. Fifty patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were randomly allocated to three groups, to assess whether an oral vaccine containing non-typable Haemophilus influenzae protected against acute bronchitis. The double-blind prospective study over a three-month winter period included two placebo groups and one test group. Oral immunisation with H influenzae induced (...) a tenfold reduction in the incidence of infection (p less than 0.001). During the subsequent winter, without further immunisation, protection by the vaccine was no longer statistically significant. There was no clear correlation between clinical protection and either carriage of H influenzae or the level of antibody to H influenzae antigen in saliva.

1986 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

793. Advantage of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A virus over inactivated vaccine for A/Washington/80 (H3N2) wild-type virus infection. (Abstract)

Advantage of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A virus over inactivated vaccine for A/Washington/80 (H3N2) wild-type virus infection. The efficacy of live attenuated cold-adapted (ca) reassortant influenza virus vaccine against experimental challenge with homologous wild-type virus 5 to 8 weeks after vaccination was compared with that of licensed inactivated vaccine in 81 seronegative (haemagglutination-inhibition antibody titre less than or equal to 1:8) college students. At a dose of 10 (...) -type virus than did infected inactivated virus vaccinees or unvaccinated controls. This striking reduction in virus shedding suggests that influenza transmission may be more efficiently interrupted with live than with inactivated virus vaccination.

1984 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

794. Influenza A prophylaxis with amantadine in a boarding school. (Abstract)

Influenza A prophylaxis with amantadine in a boarding school. In a boarding school for boys, where routine influenza vaccination is carried out annually, 267 boys were given amantadine (100 mg daily) and 269 received no specific treatment during an influenza A (H1N1) outbreak. 3 boys receiving amantadine and 29 boys receiving no medication had laboratory-proven influenza A. There are circumstances when the prophylactic use of amantadine may be justified for the control of influenza A outbreaks

1984 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

795. Prevention of Hemophilus influenzae type b disease. (Abstract)

Prevention of Hemophilus influenzae type b disease. To determine the efficacy of rifampin prophylaxis in eradication of oropharyngeal carriage of Hemophilus influenzae type b and prevention of secondary H influenzae type b disease, we conducted a multicenter placebo-controlled trial among selected persons with invasive H influenzae type b disease. Households and day-care classrooms were randomized so that their members received either rifampin (initially at a dose of 10 mg/kg/dose for two (...) to four days [rifampin-10], but subsequently at 20 mg/kg/dose for four days [rifampin-20]) or placebo. Pretherapy H influenzae type b colonization rates were similar in the treatment groups. Therapy with either rifampin regimen significantly reduced carriage (rifampin-20, 97%; rifampin-10, 63%; placebo, 28%). New acquisition of carriage was also significantly reduced by either rifampin regimen (rifampin-20 or rifampin-10, 2% v placebo, 6%). No rifampin-resistant H influenzae type b isolates emerged

1984 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

796. Ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza B virus infection. (Abstract)

Ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza B virus infection. In a randomized, controlled study, ribavirin small-particle aerosol was found to be effective in the treatment of influenza B virus infection in a group of college students. Eleven treated patients experienced significantly more rapid defervescence, disappearance of systemic illness, and reduction of virus shedding in nasal secretions than ten control patients treated with a saline aerosol. Antibody response to infection was similar

1983 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

797. A controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. (Abstract)

A controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. Four hundred fifty volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of the prophylactic effects of rimantadine and amantadine during an outbreak of influenza A. The subjects received drugs orally at a dose of 100 mg twice a day for six weeks. Influenza-like illness occurred in 41 per cent of the subjects receiving placebo but in only 14 per cent of those receiving (...) rimantadine and 9 per cent of these receiving amantadine (P less than 0.001 for either drug vs. placebo). Laboratory-documented influenza occurred in 21 per cent of placebo recipients, 3 per cent of rimantadine recipients, and 2 per cent of amantadine recipients (P less than 0.001). These findings represent efficacy rates of 85 per cent for rimantadine and 91 per cent for amantadine, as compared with placebo. More recipients of amantadine (13 per cent) than recipients of rimantadine (6 per cent; P less

1982 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

798. Safety and immunogenicity of a new Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in infants under one year of age. (Abstract)

Safety and immunogenicity of a new Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in infants under one year of age. 64 healthy infants 2-3 months old, were randomly assigned to one of three vaccination groups which received either diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP) vaccine, or PRP + P (with pertussis adjuvant) vaccine in three doses at intervals of 2 months. Local and systemic reactions occurred most (...) frequently after DPT vaccination and least frequently for PRP alone. Data for 60 infants from whom complete sera sets were available indicated that 70% of the infants who received three doses of PRP + P showed 2-fold or greater increases in titres of antibody to PRP with final values above the level assumed to give protection against invasive H. influenzae type b disease (greater than or equal to 0.15 microgram/ml). In contrast, less than 10% of the infants who received PRP vaccine alone showed 2-fold

1981 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

799. Ribavirin small-particle aerosol treatment of influenza. (Abstract)

Ribavirin small-particle aerosol treatment of influenza. In an outbreak of influenza virus A/England/333/80(H1N1) infections in college students, 14 randomly selected patients were treated by inhalation of ribavirin small-particle aerosol through a face mask. They retained an average estimated 1.15 g of drug in 23 h of treatment given over 3 days. 17 patients served as controls. Ribavirin aerosol treatment had a therapeutic effect judged by the highly significant reduction in height (...) and duration of fever, reduction in systemic illness, and disappearance of influenza virus from respiratory secretions. 1 additional patient with influenzal pneumonia caused by a strain of influenza virus A/Bangkok/79(H3N2) recovered promptly with ribavirin aerosol treatment.

1981 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

800. Rifampin prophylaxis for contacts of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. (Abstract)

Rifampin prophylaxis for contacts of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Rifampin prophylaxis (20 mg/kg once daily for four days) was used in close contacts of children with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) disease. Two hours after a dose, the concentration of rifampin in serum and saliva exceeded the minimum bactericidal concentrations of organisms obtained from four of the carriers. In both a randomized prospective and an open study, nasopharyngeal carriage was eradicated in 37 (95 (...) %) of 39 contacts. No cases of serious H influenzae disease occurred in four to six months of follow-up. At the dose and treatment schedule used, rifampin was safe and effective for eradication of HIB carriage.

1981 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain