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Latest & greatest articles for insulin
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Sliding scale insulin for non-critically ill hospitalised adults with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, function, or both. Hyperglycaemia in non-critically ill hospitalised people is associated with poor clinical outcomes (infections, prolonged hospital stay, poor wound healing, higher morbidity and mortality). In the hospital setting people diagnosed with diabetes receive insulin therapy as part of their treatment (...) in order to achieve metabolic control. However, insulin therapy can be provided by different strategies (sliding scale insulin (SSI), basal-bolus insulin, and other modalities). Sliding scale insulin is currently the most commonly used method, however there is uncertainty about which strategy provides the best patient outcomes.To assess the effects of SSI for non-critically ill hospitalised adults with diabetes mellitus.We identified eligible trials by searching MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS
A post-hoc pooled analysis to evaluate the risk of hypoglycaemia with insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) versus 100 U/mL (Gla-100) over wider nocturnal windows in individuals with type 2 diabetes on a basal-only insulin regimen The EDITION trials in type 2 diabetes demonstrated comparable glycaemic control with less nocturnal and anytime (24-hour) hypoglycaemia for insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) versus glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100). However, the predefined nocturnal window (0:00-5:59 AM (...) ) may not be the most relevant for clinical practice. This post-hoc analysis compared expansions of the predefined nocturnal interval during basal insulin treatment without prandial insulin. Patient-level, 6-month data, pooled from the EDITION 2 and 3 trials and the EDITION JP 2 trial (N = 1922, basal insulin only) were analysed. Accompanying hypoglycaemia during treatment with Gla-300 was compared to that during treatment with Gla-100, using predefined (0:00-5:59 AM) and expanded (10:00 PM-5:59 AM
Efficacy and safety of once-weekly dulaglutide versus insulin glargine in mainly Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin and/or a sulphonylurea: A 52-week open-label, randomized phase III trial To compare the efficacy and safety of once-weekly dulaglutide with that of insulin glargine in combination with metformin and/or a sulphonylurea in mainly Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).In this 52-week, randomized, parallel-arm open-label study, we enrolled patients (...) %) than in the glargine group at week 26 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Body weight decreased with dulaglutide and increased with glargine. The incidence and rate of total hypoglycaemia were lower with dulaglutide versus glargine. Gastrointestinal adverse events, including diarrhoea and nausea, were the most frequently reported for patients taking dulaglutide.Once-weekly dulaglutide provides greater improvement in HbA1c, with weight loss and less hypoglycaemia, than once-daily insulin
Efficacy of an Education Program for People With Diabetes and Insulin Pump Treatment (INPUT): Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is the most advanced form of insulin delivery, but it requires structured education to provide users with the necessary knowledge/skills and to support their motivation. Currently, no structured education program designed to provide this training has been evaluated. We developed a CSII-specific, structured (...) education program (Insulin Pump Treatment [INPUT]) and evaluated its impact on glycemic control, behavior, and psychosocial status.This was a multicenter, randomized, parallel trial with a 6-month follow-up. Eligible participants (age 16-75 years) currently were treated with insulin pump therapy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to the INPUT program or to usual care using a computer-generated algorithm, with study center as the stratification factor. The primary outcome was HbA1c change from
Empagliflozin as Adjunctive to Insulin Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes: The EASE Trials To evaluate the safety and efficacy of empagliflozin 10- and 25-mg doses plus a unique lower dose (2.5 mg) as adjunct to intensified insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D).The EASE (Empagliflozin as Adjunctive to inSulin thErapy) program (N = 1,707) included two double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials: EASE-2 with empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 243), 25 mg (n = 244), and placebo (n = 243), 52-week (...) treatment; and EASE-3 with empagliflozin 2.5 mg (n = 241), 10 mg (n = 248), 25 mg (n = 245), and placebo (n = 241), 26-week treatment. Together they evaluated empagliflozin 10 mg and 25 mg, doses currently approved in treatment of type 2 diabetes, and additionally 2.5 mg on 26-week change in glycated hemoglobin (primary end point) and weight, glucose time-in-range (>70 to ≤180 mg/dL), insulin dose, blood pressure, and hypoglycemia.The observed largest mean placebo-subtracted glycated hemoglobin
Do current guidelines for waist circumference apply to black Africans? Prediction of insulin resistance by waist circumference among Africans living in America To lower the risk of diabetes and heart disease in Africa, identification of African-centred thresholds for inexpensive biomarkers of insulin resistance (IR) is essential. The waist circumference (WC) thresholds that predicts IR in African men and women have not been established, but investigations recently conducted in Africa using
Advances in Glucose Monitoring and Automated Insulin Delivery: Supplement to Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines Endocrine Society guideline recommendations on diabetes technology in adults originate from the 2016 guideline titled "Diabetes Technology-Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Adults: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline." Society recommendations on diabetes technology in children are contained in the 2011
Glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia benefits with insulin glargine 300 U/mL extend to people with type 2 diabetes and mild-to-moderate renal impairment To investigate the impact of renal function on the safety and efficacy of insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) and insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100).A meta-analysis was performed using pooled 6-month data from the EDITION 1, 2 and 3 trials (N = 2496). Eligible participants, aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), were
Heart Failure After Ischemic Stroke or TIA in Insulin-Resistant Patients Without Diabetes Treated with Pioglitazone The IRIS trial (Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke) demonstrated that pioglitazone reduced the risk for both cardiovascular events and diabetes mellitus in insulin-resistant patients. However, concern remains that pioglitazone may increase the risk for heart failure (HF) in susceptible individuals.In IRIS, patients with insulin resistance but without diabetes mellitus (...) adjustments, pioglitazone did not increase the risk of HF and conferred net cardiovascular benefit in patients with insulin resistance and cerebrovascular disease. The risk of HF with pioglitazone was not modified by baseline HF risk. The IRIS experience may be instructive for maximizing the net benefit of this therapy.URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00091949.
XULTOPHY (insulin degludec/liraglutide), antidiabetic Haute Autorité de Santé - XULTOPHY (insuline degludec/liraglutide), antidiabétique Développer la qualité dans le champ sanitaire, social et médico-social Recherche Évaluation & Recommandation La HAS Accréditation & Certification Outils, Guides & Méthodes Agenda Avis sur les Médicaments XULTOPHY (insuline degludec/liraglutide), antidiabétique Substance active (DCI) insuline degludec liraglutide DIABETOLOGIE - Mise au point Nature de la (...) demande Modification des conditions d'inscription Avis de la CT du 06 décembre 2017 Intérêt clinique important chez les diabétiques de type 2 mais pas d’avantage clinique démontré en cas d’échec du contrôle glycémique de l’association metformine / insuline basale XULTOPHY a l’AMM dans le traitement du diabète de type 2 de l’adulte pour améliorer le contrôle glycémique en association aux antidiabétiques oraux lorsque ceux-ci, seuls ou associés à une insuline basale, ne permettent pas d’obtenir un
Closed-loop insulin delivery in suboptimally controlled type 1 diabetes: a multicentre, 12-week randomised trial. The achievement of glycaemic control remains challenging for patients with type 1 diabetes. We assessed the effectiveness of day-and-night hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy in people with suboptimally controlled type 1 diabetes aged 6 years and older.In this open-label, multicentre, multinational, single-period, parallel randomised (...) controlled trial, participants were recruited from diabetes outpatient clinics at four hospitals in the UK and two centres in the USA. We randomly assigned participants with type 1 diabetes aged 6 years and older treated with insulin pump and with suboptimal glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 7·5-10·0%) to receive either hybrid closed-loop therapy or sensor-augmented pump therapy over 12 weeks of free living. Training on study insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring took place over
2018LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Production costs and potential prices for biosimilars of human insulin and insulin analogues High prices for insulin pose a barrier to treatment for people living with diabetes, with an estimated 50% of 100 million patients needing insulin lacking reliable access. As insulin analogues replace regular human insulin (RHI) globally, their relative prices will become increasingly important. Three originator companies control 96% of the global insulin market, and few biosimilar insulins (...) are available. We estimated the price reductions that could be achieved if numerous biosimilar manufacturers entered the insulin market.Data on the price of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) exported from India were retrieved from an online customs database. Manufacturers of insulins were contacted for price quotes. Where market API prices could not be identified, prices were estimated based on comparison of similarity, in terms of manufacturing process, with APIs for which prices were available
Insulin and glucose-lowering agents for treating people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Diabetes is the commonest cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Both conditions commonly co-exist. Glucometabolic changes and concurrent dialysis in diabetes and CKD make glucose-lowering challenging, increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia. Glucose-lowering agents have been mainly studied in people with near-normal kidney function. It is important to characterise existing knowledge of glucose (...) -lowering agents in CKD to guide treatment.To examine the efficacy and safety of insulin and other pharmacological interventions for lowering glucose levels in people with diabetes and CKD.We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 12 February 2018 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International
U500 Disposable Patch Insulin Pump: Results and Discussion of a Veterans Affairs Pilot Study We present a Veterans Affairs-sponsored pilot study of U500 concentrated insulin administered via disposable patch insulin pump (DPIP) vs twice-daily (BID) injections with an insulin pen in a case series format. We conducted a prospective, single-center, randomized, intent-to-treat pilot study. Ten participants were enrolled with poorly controlled diabetes, defined as hemoglobin A1C >8.0 and severe (...) insulin resistance defined as total daily dose >200 units. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either U500 DPIP or U500 BID insulin titration protocols for 14 weeks. A clinical pattern emerged where four participants randomized to the DPIP treatment arm were withdrawn early as the DPIP did not work well for the purpose studied. There was not a statistically significant difference in the rate of hypoglycemia between treatment arms. Based on our clinical experience and results, we argue
Experimental BPA Exposure and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Response in Adult Men and Women Human cross-sectional and animal studies have shown an association of the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases, but no human experimental study has investigated whether BPA alters insulin/C-peptide secretion.Men and postmenopausal women (without diabetes) were orally administered either the vehicle or a BPA dose of 50 µg/kg body weight, which has (...) been predicted by US regulators (Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency) to be the maximum, safe daily oral BPA dose over the lifetime. Insulin response was assessed in two cross-over experiments using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; experiment 1) and a hyperglycemic (HG) clamp (experiment 2). Main outcomes were the percentage change of BPA session measures relative to those of the control session.Serum bioactive BPA after experimental exposure was at levels detected
Dicarbonyl Stress and Glyoxalase-1 in Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Glyoxalase-1 (GLO1) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic protein which plays a role in the natural maintenance of cellular health and is abundantly expressed in human skeletal muscle. A consequence of reduced GLO1 protein expression is cellular dicarbonyl stress, which is elevated in obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Both in vitro and pre-clinical models suggest (...) dicarbonyl stress per se induces insulin resistance and is prevented by GLO1 overexpression, implicating a potential role for GLO1 therapy in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Recent work has identified the therapeutic potential of novel natural agents as a GLO1 inducer, which resulted in improved whole-body metabolism in obese adults. Given skeletal muscle is a major contributor to whole-body glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, such GLO1 inducers may act, in part, through mechanisms
Medicines for Treatment Intensification in Type 2 Diabetes and Type of Insulin in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Low-Resource Settings: Synopsis of the World Health Organization Guidelines on Second- and Third-Line Medicines and Type of Insulin for the Con The World Health Organization developed these guidelines to provide guidance on selection of medicines for treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes and on use of insulin (human or analogue) in type 1 and 2 diabetes. The target audience (...) 2007 to 1 March 2017. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendations. The guideline was peer-reviewed by 6 external reviewers.Give a sulfonylurea to patients with type 2 diabetes who do not achieve glycemic control with metformin alone or who have contraindications to metformin (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence).Introduce human insulin treatment to patients
Efficacy of iGlarLixi, a fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine and lixisenatide, in patients with type 2 diabetes stratified as at high or low risk according to HEDIS measurements The Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measurements assess glycaemic goal attainment in patients with type 2 diabetes, incorporating factors including age and health status. Healthier patients are assigned a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) goal of <7% (low-risk [LR]) and individuals aged >65 (...) years or with comorbidities are assigned a goal of <8% (high-risk [HR]). This post-hoc analysis assessed the safety and efficacy of iGlarLixi, a fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (iGlar) and lixisenatide, in 1898 patients from the phase 3 LixiLan-L and LixiLan-O clinical trials, retrospectively classified as LR (n = 1181) or HR (n = 717). iGlarLixi was more effective in reducing HbA1c than comparators in both LR and HR patients across the LixiLan-L trial (change from baseline, 1.1
More Similarities Than Differences Testing Insulin Glargine 300 Units/mL Versus Insulin Degludec 100 Units/mL in Insulin-Naive Type 2 Diabetes: The Randomized Head-to-Head BRIGHT Trial To compare insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300) versus insulin degludec 100 units/mL (IDeg-100) in this first head-to-head randomized controlled trial.BRIGHT (NCT02738151) was a multicenter, open-label, active-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group, 24-week, noninferiority study in insulin-naive patients (...) mean difference -0.05% (95% CI -0.15 to 0.05) (-0.6 mmol/mol [-1.7 to 0.6])-demonstrating noninferiority of Gla-300 versus IDeg-100 (P < 0.0001). Hypoglycemia incidence and event rates over 24 weeks were comparable with both insulins, whereas during the active titration period (0-12 weeks) the incidence and rate of anytime (24-h) confirmed hypoglycemia (≤70 and <54 mg/dL) were lower with Gla-300. Both insulins were properly titrated and exhibited no specific safety concerns.Gla-300 and IDeg-100