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Latest & greatest articles for magnesium
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Dietary magnesium intake and blood pressure: a qualitative overview of the observational studies Dietary magnesium intake and blood pressure: a qualitative overview of the observational studies Dietary magnesium intake and blood pressure: a qualitative overview of the observational studies Mizushima S, Cappuccio FP, Nichols R, Elliott P Authors' objectives To re-assess the evidence from observational studies relating dietary magnesium intake to blood pressure (BP) in the light of recent reports (...) on this question. Searching MEDLINE (January 1966 to December 1995), BIDS-EMBASE (January 1980 to December 1995). Keywords searched for: magnesium, blood pressure and hypertension. Bibliographies of identified studies searched for further references and experts in the field contacted for further references. Papers in all languages were included. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Observational studies relating dietary intake of magnesium to BP. Specific interventions included
Magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia and eclampsia Magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia and eclampsia Magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia and eclampsia Witlin A G, Sibai B M Authors' objectives To review the available evidence regarding efficacy, benefits and risks of magnesium sulphate seizure prophylaxis in women with pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Searching MEDLINE (1966 to February, 1998). The search terms are given. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were scanned and experts (...) were consulted to provide additional references. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials of "historical interest", "classic" observational studies and recent retrospective studies. Specific interventions included in the review Magnesium sulphate therapy. Control therapies included phenytoin, diazepam, lytic cocktail, dihydralazine, methyl dopa, nifedipine, nimodipine, labetalol and placebo Participants
Randomised trial of magnesium in in-hospital cardiac arrest. Duke Internal Medicine Housestaff. The apparent benefit of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction, and the persistently poor outcome after cardiac arrest, have led to use of magnesium in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Because few data on its use in cardiac arrest were available, we undertook a randomised placebo-controlled trial (MAGIC trial).Patients treated for cardiac arrest by the Duke Hospital code team were randomly assigned (...) intravenous magnesium (2 g [8 mmoles] bolus, followed by 8 g [32 mmoles] over 24 h; 76 patients) or placebo (80 patients). Only patients in intensive care or general wards were eligible; those whose cardiac arrest occurred in emergency, operating, or recovery rooms were excluded. The primary endpoint was return of spontaneous circulation, defined as attainment of any measurable blood pressure or palpable pulse for at least 1 h after cardiac arrest. The secondary endpoints were survival to 24 h, survival
1997LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Evidence for magnesium sulfate as a tocolytic agent Evidence for magnesium sulfate as a tocolytic agent Evidence for magnesium sulfate as a tocolytic agent Macones G A, Sehdev H M, Berlin M, Morgan M A, Berlin J A Authors' objectives To assess the efficacy and side-effects of magnesium sulfate for acute tocolysis, compared with both placebo and beta-agonists. Searching Two authors independently searched MEDLINE from 1966 to 1996 for RCTs published in the English language, using the keywords (...) 'magnesium sulfate', 'premature labor' and 'tocolysis'. The bibliographies of the retrieved articles and obstetrical texts were also examined for additional studies. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the use of magnesium sulfate with placebo, ritodrine or ritodrine plus other beta-agonists, to prevent pre-term birth. Specific interventions included in the review Magnesium sulfate (4 g loading dose, followed by 3 to 5 g
Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia: an overview of the evidence from randomised trials Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia: an overview of the evidence from randomised trials Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia: an overview of the evidence from randomised trials Chien P F, Khan K S, Arnott N Authors' objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre (...) -eclampsia by a systematic overview of controlled clinical trials. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1995 using a combination of the keywords 'magnesium sulphate' and 'pregnancy', the search being limited to 'humans'. Reference lists of all known primary research and review articles were examined and additional relevant citations were identified. Articles frequently cited were subsequently used (in the Science Citation Index) to identify additional studies that had cited these articles. Study
Intravenous magnesium therapy for moderate to severe pediatric asthma: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?
ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative 58,050 patients entering 1086 hospitals up to 24 h (median 8 h) after the onset of suspected acute myocardial infarction (MI) with no clear contraindications to the study treatments (in particular, no cardiogenic shock or persistent severe (...) hypotension) were randomised in a "2 x 2 x 2 factorial" study. The treatment comparisons were: (i) 1 month of oral captopril (6.25 mg initial dose titrated up to 50 mg twice daily) versus matching placebo; (ii) 1 month of oral controlled-release mononitrate (30 mg initial dose titrated up to 60 mg once daily) versus matching placebo; and (iii) 24 h of intravenous magnesium sulphate (8 mmol initial bolus followed by 72 mmol) versus open control. There were no significant "interactions" between the effects
A comparison of magnesium sulfate with phenytoin for the prevention of eclampsia. Magnesium sulfate is used widely to prevent eclamptic seizures in pregnant women with hypertension, but few studies have compared the efficacy of magnesium sulfate with that of other drugs. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis with phenytoin for eclampsia has been recommended, but there are virtually no data to support its efficacy. Our objective was to compare magnesium sulfate with phenytoin in preventing seizures (...) in hypertensive women during labor.We randomly assigned women with hypertension who were admitted for delivery to receive either magnesium sulfate or phenytoin. The magnesium sulfate regimen consisted of a 10-g intramuscular loading dose followed by a maintenance dose of 5 g given intramuscularly every four hours. For women with severe preeclampsia, an additional 4-g loading dose was given intravenously. The phenytoin regimen included a 1000-mg loading dose infused over a period of 1 hour, followed by a 500
Magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction Magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction Magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction Visser P J, Bredero A C, Hoekstra J B Authors' objectives To investigate the effect of intravenous magnesium on arrhythmias and mortality in acute myocardial infarction (MI). Searching A MEDLINE search from 1991 to December 1993 was carried out, and a search of the bibliographies of two meta-analyses was undertaken. No search strategy was given (...) . Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review 9 double-blind trials and one single-blind clinical trial. The results of two meta-analyses of these studies are also reported. Specific interventions included in the review Intravenous magnesium administered in pharmacological doses. Dosage varied between 12 and 92 mmol magnesium sulfate or magnesium chloride, given in one dose or in separate doses on 3 successive days. Participants included in the review Patients with confirmed
Efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism: a methodology review and summary of outcomes Efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism: a methodology review and summary of outcomes Efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism: a methodology review and summary of outcomes Pfeiffer S I, Norton J, Nelson L, Shott S Authors' objectives To assess the effectiveness of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism, and to review (...) the methodology of studies in this area. Searching MEDLARS, PsycINFO and Mental Health Abstracts were searched, and the references of all studies published from 1975 were cross-checked. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials and uncontrolled studies were included. Specific interventions included in the review Vitamin B6 with magnesium. Participants included in the review Persons with autism were included
Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2) The second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2) examined the effect of an intravenous regimen of magnesium sulphate in 2316 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Treatment, according to a double-blind randomised protocol, was started with a loading injection, before any thrombolytic therapy (...) , and continued with a maintenance infusion for a further 24 h. Cause-specific mortality of randomised patients has now been examined over 1.0-5.5 (mean 2.7) years of follow-up. Mortality rate from ischaemic heart disease was reduced by 21% (95% CI 5-35%, p = 0.01) and all-cause mortality rate reduced by 16% (2-29%, p = 0.03) in magnesium-treated patients. Magnesium protects the contractile function of the myocardium from reperfusion injury ("stunning") in experimental models; this observation accords
1994LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Reduction in blood pressure with a low sodium, high potassium, high magnesium salt in older subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. To examine the effect of a reduced sodium and increased potassium and magnesium intake on blood pressure.Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.General population of a suburb of Rotterdam.100 men and women between 55 and 75 years of age with untreated mild to moderate hypertension.During 24 weeks the intervention group received a mineral salt (sodium (...) : potassium: magnesium 8:6:1) and foods prepared with the mineral salt. Controls received common salt and foods.Change in blood pressure.Complete follow up was achieved for 97 of the 100 randomised subjects. Systolic blood pressure (mean of measurements at weeks 8, 16, and 24) fell by 7.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 4.0 to 11.2) and diastolic blood pressure by 3.3 mm Hg (0.8 to 5.8) in the mineral salt group compared with the controls, with a 28% decrease in urinary sodium excretion and a 22% increase
Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. To investigate the effect of long term oral magnesium treatment on incidence of cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction.Double blind, placebo controlled parallel study in which patients were randomised to treatment or placebo.Two coronary care units and corresponding outpatient clinics.468 survivors of an acute myocardial infarction (289 men and 178 women (...) ) aged 31-92.One tablet of 15 mmol magnesium hydroxide or placebo daily for one year.Incidences of reinfarction, sudden death, and coronary artery bypass grafting in one year.There was no significant difference between treatment and placebo groups in the incidence of each of the three cardiac events, but when the events were combined and drop outs were excluded from calculations there was a significantly higher incidence of events in the treatment group (56/167 v 33/153; relative risk 1.55 (95
Intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: results of the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2) The cardiovascular actions of the magnesium ion at pharmacological concentrations include coronary and systemic vasodilatation, platelet inhibition, and antiarrhythmic effects. Magnesium has also been reported to protect myocardial tissue in experimental models of ischaemia and reperfusion. Several small clinical trials in suspected acute (...) myocardial infarction have suggested that early mortality can be reduced by intravenous infusion of magnesium salts in the acute phase, but none has been of sufficient size to be conclusive. We therefore conducted a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study in 2316 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction who received either intravenous magnesium sulphate (8 mmol over 5 min followed by 65 mmol over 24 h) or physiological saline. The primary outcome measure was 28-day mortality, which
1992LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Magnesium administration and dysrhythmias after cardiac surgery. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. To determine whether magnesium administration is effective in reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.A tertiary acute-care 500-bed university teaching hospital.Over a 6-month period, 100 patients electively scheduled for cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass were studied.Fifty patients (...) were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride, 2 g, and 50 patients received placebo intraoperatively after the termination of cardiopulmonary bypass.Magnesium-treated patients had a significantly decreased frequency (P < .04) of postoperative ventricular dysrhythmias (eight [16%] of 50) compared with placebo-treated patients (17 [34%] of 50). Patients who were normomagnesemic postoperatively had new supraventricular dysrhythmias less frequently (P < .03) than patients
Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. The hypotheses that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have low red blood cell magnesium and that magnesium treatment would improve the wellbeing of such patients were tested in a case-control study and a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, respectively. In the case-control study, 20 patients with CFS had lower red cell magnesium concentrations than did 20 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and social (...) class (difference 0.1 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.15). In the clinical trial, 32 patients with CFS were randomly allocated either to intramuscular magnesium sulphate every week for 6 weeks (15 patients) or to placebo (17). Patients treated with magnesium claimed to have improved energy levels, better emotional state, and less pain, as judged by changes in the Nottingham health profile. 12 of the 15 treated patients said that they had benefited from treatment, and in 7 patients
1991LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Efficacy of potassium and magnesium in essential hypertension: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. To evaluate the antihypertensive activity of potassium given alone or in combination with magnesium in patients with mild hypertension.A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover trial of 32 weeks' duration.Cardiology outpatient department, Sassoon General Hospitals, Pune, India.37 Adults with mild hypertension (diastolic blood pressure less than 110 mm Hg).Patients (...) received either placebo or potassium 60 mmol/day alone or in combination with magnesium 20 mmol/day in a crossover design. No other drug treatment was allowed.Blood pressure and heart rate assessed at weekly intervals and biochemical parameters at monthly intervals.Potassium alone or in combination with magnesium produced a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p less than 0.001) and a significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentration (p less than 0.05); other
Intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of acute asthma in the emergency department. Conventional nebulized beta-agonist therapy has met with disappointing results in an increasing number of moderate to severe asthmatics who may be characterized as "poor responders." Thirty-eight patients suffering from acute exacerbations of moderate to severe asthma were treated in an emergency department with an intravenous infusion of saline placebo or 1.2 g of magnesium sulfate after conventional (...) ). Intravenous magnesium sulfate may represent a beneficial adjunct therapy in patients with moderate to severe asthma who show little improvement with beta-agonists.
Intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 273 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were randomised to receive either magnesium intravenously or placebo immediately on admission to hospital. Of 130 patients with proven AMI 56 received magnesium and 74 received placebo. During the first 4 weeks after treatment mortality was 7% in the magnesium group and 19% in the placebo group. In the magnesium group 21% of patients (...) had arrhythmias that needed treatment, compared with 47% in the placebo group. No adverse effects of intravenous magnesium were observed.
1986LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Magnesium therapy in neonatal tetany. 104 infants with symptomatic hypocalcaemia were randomly allocated to treatment with calcium gluconate, phenobarbitone, or magnesium sulphate. Infants treated with magnesium sulphate had higher plasma-calcium concentrations after 48 hours' treatment and fewer convulsions during and after the treatment period. Magnesium sulphate is recommended as the treatment of choice in symptomatic neonatal tetany whether or not there is hypomagnesaemia.