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Latest & greatest articles for measles
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Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Aaby P, Samb B, Simondon F, Seck A M, Knudsen K, Whittle H Authors' objectives To review the evidence of the protective efficacy against death of standard measles (...) immunisation in developing countries. Searching Index Medicus was searched from 1970 onwards. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Cohort studies and case-control studies were included. Specific interventions included in the review Schwartz standard titre measles vaccine (indirectly diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio immunisation). Participants included in the review Children from developing countries, vaccinated between 6 and 60 months, were included. Outcomes assessed
Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. The use of Edmonston-Zagreb high-titre (EZ-HT) vaccine at age 6 months has been recommended for countries in which measles before the age of 9 months is a substantial cause of death, but little is known about the long-term effects of high-titre live measles vaccines given early in life. In a randomised vaccine trial in a rural area of Senegal, children were randomly assigned at birth to three vaccine groups: EZ-HT (...) in multivariate analyses. These findings suggest a need to reconsider the use of high-titre measles vaccines early in life in less developed countries.
Immunization of six-month-old infants with different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccines. Because measles causes an estimated 2 million deaths per year among children in developing countries, including a substantial proportion of infants less than nine months old--the age at which vaccination is recommended--there has been interest in using different strains of vaccine and higher doses to achieve immunization of younger infants. We conducted a randomized trial of three (...) different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and of Schwarz measles vaccines in infants to evaluate the effect of the strain and dose of vaccine on the serologic response and acute adverse reactions to vaccination. Six-month-old infants received a standard, medium, or high dose of one of the vaccines, and nine-month-old infants received a standard dose. Antibody levels were measured before and after vaccination, by means of a plaque-reduction neutralization assay, in 1061 six-month-olds and 299 nine-month-olds
A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. Measles kills about 2 million children annually, and there is no specific therapy for the disease. It has been suggested that vitamin A may be of benefit in the treatment of measles.We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial involving 189 children who were hospitalized at a regional center in South Africa because of measles complicated by pneumonia, diarrhea, or croup. The children (median age, 10 months) were (...) ), and spent fewer days in the hospital (mean, 10.6 vs. 14.8 days; P = 0.01). Of the 12 children who died, 10 were among those given placebo (P = 0.05). For the group treated with vitamin A, the risk of death or a major complication during the hospital stay was half that of the control group (relative risk, 0.51; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.74).Treatment with vitamin A reduces morbidity and mortality in measles, and all children with severe measles should be given vitamin A supplements
Serological effects of Edmonston-Zagreb, Schwarz, and AIK-C measles vaccine strains given at ages 4-5 or 8-10 months. To examine the value of vaccinating children against measles at age 4-5 months three groups of children in Togo were randomly assigned to receive high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb, high-dose Schwarz, or AIK-C vaccines at that age. Two other groups were vaccinated at age 8-10 months, with either the standard Schwarz vaccine or the same batch of AIK-C as for early immunisation
Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau: protective efficacy. In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases (...) of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine.
Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in the Gambia: antibody response and side-effects. In a randomised trial, infants living in a large village in The Gambia were immunised either at 4 months of age with 40,000 plaque forming units (PFU) of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine or at the usual age of 9 months with 6000 TCID50 of a conventional Schwarz measles vaccine. Measles developed in 2 of 119 children who received the EZ vaccine, in 1 before and in the other after 9 (...) months of age. In the Schwarz group measles developed in 7 of 120 children--in 5 before and in 2 after 9 months of age. Serological responses measured at 5 months after vaccination and at 18 months of age were satisfactory in both groups although in the Schwarz group levels were on average 2-fold higher than in the EZ group. The frequencies of fever, cough, vomiting, and diarrhoea were no higher in the EZ vaccinees in the 3 weeks following vaccination than in age-matched non-immunised controls. Long
Effects of dose and strain of vaccine on success of measles vaccination of infants aged 4-5 months. Small-scale trials of the Edmonston-Zagreb (E-Z) measles vaccine were undertaken to determine the dose necessary to immunise 4-6-month-old infants. Antibody responses, measured 16 weeks after vaccination, were dose dependent: 40,000 plaque forming units given subcutaneously resulted in positive responses in all infants and higher antibody levels than doses of 20,000 or 10,000 units (10,000 units (...) gave a failure rate of 25%). In further trials the E-Z vaccine was compared with the Schwarz vaccine, both being given in subcutaneous doses of 40,000 plaque forming units. In infants aged 20 weeks the E-Z vaccine produced higher levels of measles antibody and in those aged 18 weeks its superiority showed in a lower proportion failing to respond (3 of 39 versus 19 of 35).
Frequency of true adverse reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial in twins. The vast majority of adverse reactions following immunisation of children with live measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine were shown in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 581 twin pairs to be only temporally but not causally related to the vaccination. The true frequency of side-effects caused by MMR vaccine, estimated from the discordance rates
Benefits, risks and costs of immunization for measles, mumps and rubella Benefits, risks and costs of immunization for measles, mumps and rubella Benefits, risks and costs of immunization for measles, mumps and rubella White C C, Koplan J P, Orenstein W A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment (...) on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population All infants in the United States. Setting The study was set in the USA. Dates to which data relate Price related to 1983. Modelling Epidemiological cohort model (model of survival and disease). Direct costs Direct costs were to the health service, and the patient. The price information
Vaccination against measles in the Canadian Arctic. 5951890 1966 04 10 2016 10 17 0098-7484 195 5 1966 Jan 31 JAMA JAMA Vaccination against measles in the Canadian Arctic. 342-4 Furesz J J Habgood M M eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Antibodies 0 Measles Vaccine AIM IM Antibodies Arctic Regions Body Temperature Canada Child Child, Preschool European Continental Ancestry Group Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Humans Infant (...) Inuits Measles immunology Measles Vaccine Neutralization Tests Vaccination 1966 1 31 1966 1 31 0 1 1966 1 31 0 0 ppublish 5951890