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Latest & greatest articles for metformin
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Metformin Therapy Reduces Obesity Indices in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Purpose: Few studies have summarized findings for the effect of metformin on obesity indices. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of metformin on obesity indices among children and adolescents. Methods: Relevant articles published up to September 2018 were searched in SCOPUS, Medline, and Google Scholar using (...) appropriate keywords. All clinical trials that examined the effect of metformin on obesity indices in children and adolescents were included. Results: Overall, 38 studies, including 2199 participants (39.75% male and 60.25% female), were included. The pooled results indicated that metformin significantly reduced BMI [weighted mean difference (WMD): -1.07 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.43 to -0.72]. Same findings were found for waist circumference (WC) (WMD: -1.93 cm; 95% CI: -2.69 to -1.16
The effect of metformin therapy on incidence and prognosis in prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The relationship between metformin and prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. To clarify this association, the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched from their inception dates to May 23, 2018, using the keywords "metformin" and "prostate cancer" to identify the related studies. The results included incidence, overall survival (OS), PCa (...) -specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS), which were measured as hazard ratios (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using Review Manager 5.3 software. A total of 30 cohort studies, including 1,660,795 patients were included in this study. Our study revealed that metformin treatment improves OS, CSS and RFS in PCa (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59-0.88, P = 0.001; HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.94, P = 0.009; and HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87 P = 0.006, respectively) compared with non
Metformin therapy and cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. The relationship between metformin therapy and cognitive function in patients with T2D is unknown. Therefore, we determined the relationship between metformin therapy and cognitive function in patients with T2D using a meta-analysis.We systematically searched the Cochrane library, PubMed, and Embase to identify (...) studies showing correlations, and we calculated hazard ratios (HRs).We identified 10 studies including 254,679 participants. Metformin significantly reduced the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction in patients with T2D (HR 0.90; 95% CI [0.88, 0.92]). Compared with other hypoglycemic drugs, sulfonylureas also improved cognitive dysfunction (HR 0.92; 95% CI [0.88, 0.95]). Thiazolidinediones gave no statistically significant improvement in cognitive dysfunction (HR 0.97; 95% CI [0.87, 1.07]). The use
The Association of Premorbid Metformin Exposure With Mortality and Organ Dysfunction in Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. To examine the association between premorbid metformin exposure and mortality, hyperlactatemia, and organ dysfunction in sepsis.PubMed and EMBASE (with Medline via Ovid) databases were searched for all studies of premorbid metformin exposure and sepsis published between January 1974 and August 2018.Studies of at least 20 patients with sepsis that reported data (...) on metformin use, mortality, and/or organ dysfunction were independently selected.Two reviewers abstracted data on study design, settings, study quality, participants, metformin exposure, mortality, initial lactate levels, and organ dysfunction. Risk of bias was independently assessed.Eight observational studies fulfilled our criteria, comprising 4,144 patients with sepsis including 562 diabetics on metformin. Premorbid metformin exposure was associated with reduced mortality in sepsis (odds ratio, 0.57
Associations between metformin use and vitamin B Metformin is first-line therapy for patients with diabetes. However, it may lower vitamin B12 concentrations, which could have hematological or neurological implications. This meta-analyses reviewed all available studies on associations between metformin use and vitamin B12 levels, anemia, and neuropathy in diabetic patients.PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched to identify all relevant studies published in English (...) prior to March 2018. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for dichotomous outcomes and pooled mean differences (MDs) and 95% CIs were calculated for continuous outcomes.Thirty-one studies were included in the meta-analyses. Compared with diabetic patients not taking metformin, patients taking metformin had a significantly higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency (RR 2.09; 95% CI 1.49, 2.93; P < 0.0001; I2 = 64%) and significantly lower serum vitamin B12
Metformin and heart failure-related outcomes in patients with or without diabetes: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Metformin is considered a safe anti-hyperglycemic drug for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, information on its impact on heart failure-related outcomes remains inconclusive. The current systematic review explored evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting on the impact of metformin in modulating heart failure-related markers (...) in patients with or without T2D. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. Included studies were those assessing the use of metformin as an intervention, and also containing the comparison group on placebo, and all articles had to report on measurable heart failure-related indices in individuals with or without T2D. The modified Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the risk of bias. Overall, nine studies met the inclusion criteria
The effectiveness of metformin, oral contraceptives, and lifestyle modification in improving the metabolism of overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a network meta-analysis. We designed a network meta-analysis that investigated relatively different interventions that included the effects of metformin, oral contraceptives, and lifestyle modification on the metabolic parameters of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. In addition, we searched for eligible interventions that improved (...) % credibility intervals, and we calculated the surface cumulative rank curve.There were a total of 12 kinds of interventions: metformin, 2 mg cyproterone acetate plus 0.05 mg ethinylestradiol (EE/CA), 0.15 mg desogestrel plus 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol (EE/DSG), and 3 mg drospirenone plus 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol (EE/DRSP), lifestyle, exercise, diet, metformin + lifestyle, metformin + diet, EE/CA + lifestyle, metformin + EE/CA, and EE/DRSP + lifestyle from the 20 eligible RCTs that were included in this study
Effect of metformin on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery diseases: a systematic review and an updated meta-analysis. Metformin is the most widely prescribed drug to lower glucose and has a definitive effect on the cardiovascular system. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effects of metformin on mortality and cardiac function among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Relevant studies reported before October 2018 (...) . The cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality and incidence of CV events were lowered to adjusted HR (aHR) = 0.81, aHR = 0.67 and aHR = 0. 83 respectively after the patients with CAD were given metformin. Subgroup analysis showed that metformin reduced all-cause mortality in myocardial infarction (MI) (aHR = 0.79) and heart failure (HF) patients (aHR = 0.84), the incidence of CV events in HF (aHR = 0.83) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (aHR = 0.83), but had no significant effect on MI (aHR
Impacts of metformin on tuberculosis incidence and clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Accumulating evidence suggested that the use of metformin had more benefits for both prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) than non-metformin use in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM); however, it remains to be fully elucidated on this topic. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to determine the association (...) between metformin use and TB in patients with diabetes.The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Information Sciences Institute (ISI) Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from their inception to 15 April 2019. Studies that evaluated the use of metformin and TB disease were included. The quality of each study was evaluated through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). For pooled data, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated; otherwise, a systematic review.Seventeen
Comparison of the efficacy between NAC and metformin in treating PCOS patients: a meta-analysis. Our aim is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety by comparing N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) with metformin administrated by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for studies. 10 studies were considered eligible for inclusion (...) . NAC significantly reduced BMI and total testosterone, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rate, serum LH level, fasting insulin, and LH/FSH ratio. In conclusions, NAC may be considered as an alternative supplement to metformin, but large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of NAC in PCOS patients.
The Effect of Metformin Therapy for Preventing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis. This study was to analyze the efficacy of metformin intervention in preventing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials or observational studies of metformin intervention in preventing symptoms of GDM during pregnancy were performed. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched through to now. The main (...) evaluated primary outcomes were incident of GDM, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and neonatal mortality. The evaluated secondary outcomes were mean difference of gestational age at birth and birth weight between metformin group and control group.We included 6 studies including 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 2 observational studies, and 1 non-RCT in our meta-analysis. A total of 643 patients were enrolled for a follow-up study with continued metformin therapy (n=341) or not (n=302) during pregnancy
Metformin improves survival in lung cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis. In recent years, many studies have investigated metformin and its effects on lung cancer. However, since previous studies have shown that the relationship between metformin and lung cancer is complicated, we performed a meta-analysis to analyze this relationship.An electronic database search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library. Outcomes were quantified with hazard ratios (...) and 95% confidence intervals to compare lung cancer survival in patients treated with or without metformin.Ten studies, involving 4397 participants, were included. In the pooled analysis, we found that metformin treatment significantly improved the survival of lung cancer patients (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.80; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that when stratified by geographic region, the hazard ratios for overall survival were 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.81, P
Monotherapy with Metformin versus Sulfonylureas and Risk of Cancer in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinemia are at an increased risk of developing malignancies. It remains to be fully elucidated whether the use of metformin, an insulin sensitizer, and/or sulfonylureas, insulin secretagogues, affects cancer incidence in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.A systematic (...) review and meta-analysis was performed to compare the risk of cancer incidence associated with monotherapy with metformin compared with monotherapy with sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.Search was performed throughout MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov up until December 2018. In this meta-analysis, each raw data (unadjusted) and study-specific (adjusted) relative risks (RRs) was combined
Association of preadmission metformin use and mortality in patients with sepsis and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Recent studies have reported that preadmission metformin users had lower mortality than non-metformin users in patients with sepsis and diabetes mellitus; however, these results are still controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational cohort data to determine the association (...) between preadmission metformin use and mortality in septic adult patients with diabetes mellitus.The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from their inception to September 30, 2018. Cohort studies that evaluated the use of metformin in septic adult patients with diabetes mellitus were included. The quality of outcomes was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The inverse variance method with random effects modelling was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs
Observational Studies on the Association Between Post-diagnostic Metformin Use and Survival in Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Objectives: To summarize and quantify the relationship between post-diagnostic metformin use and ovarian cancer (OC) survival. Methods: We systematically conducted an updated meta-analysis based on observational studies published up to December 31, 2018, identified from PubMed and Web of Science. Two team members independently extracted data (...) and assessed the quality of each study. Summary Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Results: Five cohort studies including 3,582 OC patients were included. All studies were graded as low risk of bias according to the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Post-diagnostic metformin use was associated with improved overall survival (summarized HR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.31-0.56; I2 = 0%, P = 0.842) and progression-free survival (summarized HR
Meta-Analysis of Microarray Expression Studies on Metformin in Cancer Cell Lines. Several studies have demonstrated that metformin (MTF) acts with variable efficiency as an anticancer agent. The pleiotropic anticancer effects of MTF on cancer cells have not been fully explored yet. By interrogating the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for microarray expression data, we identified eight eligible submissions, representing five different studies, that employed various conditions including different
Metformin therapy before conception versus throughout the pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systemic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. The results of studies that assessed the impact of metformin treatments on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are inconclusive. In addition, the impact of time and duration of metformin therapy for an optimum reduction of GDM has not been (...) reported in these studies. This study aimed to summarize current knowledge regarding the effect of metformin-therapy before conception versus throughout pregnancy on the risk of GDM in women with PCOS. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Both fixed and random effect models were used. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the on the study methodology. The association between the PCOS status and GDM was assessed using the univariate
Metformin Use and Lung Cancer Risk in Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antidiabetic medications (ADMs) can alter the risk of different types of cancer, but the relationship between lung cancer incidence and metformin remains controversial. Our aim was to quantitatively estimate the relationship between incidences of lung cancer and metformin in patients with diabetes in this meta-analysis.We performed a search in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library (...) until September 20, 2017. The odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR), and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using the random-effect model. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the study quality.A total of 13 studies (10 cohort studies and 3 case-control studies) were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to nonmetformin users, metformin probably decreased lung cancer incidence in diabetic patients (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P = 0.002