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Latest & greatest articles for metformin
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The Effect of Metformin in Experimentally Induced Animal Models of Epileptic Seizure. Epilepsy is one of the common neurological illnesses which affects millions of individuals globally. Although the majority of epileptic patients have a good response for the currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), about 30-40% of epileptic patients are developing resistance. In addition to low safety profiles of most of existing AEDs, there is no AED available for curative or disease-modifying actions (...) for epilepsy so far.This systematic review is intended to evaluate the effect of metformin in acute and chronic animal models of an epileptic seizure.We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Sciences Direct, and grey literature in order to explore articles published in English from January 2010 to November 2018, using key terms "epilepsy," "seizure," "metformin," "oral hypoglycemic agents," and "oral antidiabetic drugs". The qualities of all the included articles were assessed according to the Collaborative Approach
A systematic review: the appraisal of the effects of metformin on lipoprotein modification and function. Metformin is a commonly prescribed anti-hyperglycaemic pharmacological agent, and it remains a staple in the management of type II diabetes. In addition to metformin's glucose lowering effects, research has indicated that metformin inhibits glycation-mediated and oxidative modification of lipoprotein residues. The purpose was to discuss the effects of metformin as it relates to high-density (...) lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modification.The purpose was to conduct a narrative and pragmatic review on the effects of metformin as it pertains to HDL and LDL modification.High-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration is a quantitative measure and therefore does not provide insight into its function, which is a qualitative property. Dysfunctional HDLs are unable to carry out functions normally associated with HDL because they can be modified by glycating agents. Metformin may
Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors Compared with Sulfonylureas in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Metformin: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. When metformin is insufficient for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the optimal adjunctive therapy is unclear. This meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors with sulfonylureas (SUs) as second-line therapy in patients with T2DM (...) inadequately controlled on metformin.We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled trials comparing SGLT2 inhibitors with SUs as add-on to metformin. Our primary endpoints were glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and change in weight. We assessed pooled data using a random-effects model.Five trials involving 4300 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Compared with SUs, SGLT2 inhibitors led to no significant
Efficacy of Metformin Treatment with Respect to Weight Reduction in Children and Adults with Obesity: A Systematic Review. Obesity and its related complications are increasing health issues. Since generally only minor weight loss is obtained with lifestyle intervention, additional pharmacological therapies such as metformin are often used.We conducted a systematic review to provide an overview of the efficacy of ≥ 6 months of metformin treatment in children and adults with respect to weight (...) , insulin resistance, and progression toward type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).In September 2018, we searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published in English using the keywords metformin, obesity/overweight, and weight loss. Prospective studies reporting weight/body mass index (BMI) as a primary or secondary outcome in patients with overweight/obesity with ≥ 6 months' metformin treatment were included. Included subjects were children and adults with overweight/obesity who
Role of metformin in overweight and obese people without diabetes: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of metformin for weight loss in overweight and obese people through a systematic review and network meta-analysis and to identify the most suitable dosage and intervention period for using metformin in adolescents and adults.We searched databases for studies published by April 2018. A total of 34 trials (44 analyses) involving 8461 participants (...) and 16 intervention arms were eligible. The study was registered with PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42017081053).Metformin was found to significantly decrease body mass index percentile (BMI) and had a tendency to decrease BMI (kg/m2) and weight (kg). Significant efficacy was observed in many subgroups. The metaregression may have identified the causes of heterogeneity as metformin dosage, control type, and intervention period. Network meta-analysis revealed
Anticancer activity of metformin: a systematic review of the literature. The anticancer activity of metformin has been confirmed against several cancer types in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms of metformin in the treatment of cancer are not fully understood. This systematic review aims to discuss the possible anticancer mechanism of action of metformin.A search through different databases was conducted, including Medline and EMBASE.A total of 96 articles were identified (...) of which 56 were removed for duplication and 24 were excluded after reviewing the title and abstract. A total of 12 research articles were included that describe different antiproliferative mechanisms that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of metformin.This analysis discussed the potential anticancer activity of metformin and highlighted the importance of AMPK as a potential target for anticancer therapy.
The Effect of Metformin on Mortality Among Diabetic Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Most data suggest that cancer patients with diabetes have worse outcomes, which may be reversed with metformin. Metformin might modulate the clinical outcomes of diabetic cancer patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on published studies over the past five years to summarize the effects of metformin on diabetic cancer patients.We systematically searched (...) for studies that were published over the past five years. Then, we evaluated these studies for inclusion and extracted the relevant data. The summary risk estimates for the association between metformin treatment and all-cause mortality (ACM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) were analyzed using random or fixed-effects models. Stratified analyses by cancer site and country were also conducted.Based on the 42 studies included in our analysis (37 015 diabetic cancer patients), we found a significant
Effect of adjuvant use of metformin on periodontal treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The aim of the study was to perform a systematic review of the literature regarding the adjuvant effects of metformin on the results of mechanical periodontal treatment.First, a search on the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was performed up to March 2018. Randomized clinical trials with at least 3 months of follow-up and using metformin associated with mechanical periodontal treatment were (...) included in the review. As comparison group, mechanical or periodontal therapy alone or in combination with placebo. The studies should involve adults with at least 30 years of age diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. For the evaluation of the risk of bias of the articles, the Cochrane Collaboration tool was used.Studies (1912) were retrieved and 4 were included in the review. The articles are all from the same research center and used metformin in gel at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, or 1.5
Meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors and incretin based agents combination therapy vs. SGLT2i alone or add-on to metformin in type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and incretin-based agents combination therapy produces more benefits than SGLT2is alone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing (...) SGLT2is plus Dipeptidyl-Peptidase 4 inhibitors (SGLT2is/DPP4is) or glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (SGLT2is/GLP-1RAs) against SGLT2is as monotherapy or add-on to metformin in T2DMs. A total of 13 studies with 7350 participants were included. Combination with GLP-1RAs exhibited more HbA1c reduction (WMD: -0.8; 95% CI, -1.14 to -0.45%), weight loss (-1.46; 95% CI, -2.38 to -0.54 kg), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction (-2.88; 95% CI, -4.52 to -1.25 mmHg) versus SGLT2is alone
Cardiovascular risk following metformin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from meta-analysis. Pharmacologic therapy for T2DM has proven benefits in terms of reducing elevated blood glucose levels and reducing microvascular complications. However, the impact of metformin on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and cardiovascular mortality is less clear. We carried out this meta-analysis on all published studies to estimate the overall cardiovascular risk following metformin (...) treatment in patients with T2DM.We searched the PubMed, Embase and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases for all articles. The odds ratio (OR) corresponding to the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess the cardiovascular risk following metformin treatment in patients with T2DM. The statistical heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Q-test and I2 statistics.We collected 16 studies including 25 comparisons with 1,160,254 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Effects of metformin on blood lipid profiles in nondiabetic adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. To evaluate the effects of metformin on serum lipid profiles in nondiabetic adults through a comprehensive meta-analysis.In the present meta-analysis, randomized and controlled trials were collected by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Libraries from inception to April 2019. Compared with placebos, the effects of metformin treatment on lipid profiles in nondiabetic adults (...) were evaluated.Forty-seven studies from 45 articles including 5731 participants were enrolled. Pooled results showed that metformin had significant effects on total cholesterol (mean change -6.57 mg/dl; 95% CI -9.66, -3.47; P = 0.000) and LDL-c (mean change -4.69 mg/dl; 95% CI -7.38, -2.00; P = 0.001), but insignificant effects on HDL-c (mean change -4.33 mg/dl; 95% CI -9.62, 0.96; P = 0.109) and triglyceride (mean change -0.85 mg/dl; 95% CI -0.36, 2.06; P = 0.169). Significant heterogeneities were
GLP-1 receptor agonists versus metformin in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by comparing their effect with that of metformin. Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WanFang Database, CNKI) dating from their establishment to June 2018 were searched to find all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting (...) the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists versus metformin for patients with PCOS. Therapeutic variables included menstrual cycle, sex hormone and clinical manifestations, glucose metabolism and other metabolic indexes. Eight RCTs among 462 related articles were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonists were more effective in improving insulin sensitivity (standard mean difference [SMD] -0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.74 to -0.06, P = 0.02) and reducing body mass
The association between metformin and head and neck cancer survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Metformin has been associated with improved survival outcomes in various malignancies. However, observational studies in head and neck cancer are inconsistent.The study aimed to summarize and quantify the relationship between metformin use and the survival of head and neck cancer.We systematically conducted a meta-analysis based on cohort studies published up to Jan 18 (...) , 2020, identified from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Summary hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model.Seven retrospective cohort studies including 3,285 head and neck cancer patients were included. The association between use of metformin and cancer survival was not statistically significant: summarized HR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.66-1.18, P=0.413, I2=64.0%) for overall survival, summarized HR
The effect of metformin on gastric cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Metformin, a drug widely used in the treatment of diabetes, has proven preventive and survival benefits for various malignancies. However, the effect of metformin on gastric cancer risk and survival rate in T2DM patients remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of metformin on gastric cancer in T2DM patients.We (...) searched PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane Library for related studies up to October 22, 2019. Pooled hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed. All articles were evaluated by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.A total of 11 cohort studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The use of metformin was related to a significant 21% reduction in GC incidence (HR 0.790; 95% CI 0.624-1.001). Subgroup analysis
The Relationship Between Prostate Cancer and Metformin Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Study. Prostate cancer is the most common malignant cancer in men worldwide and after lung cancer, it is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prostate cancer and metformin consumption in men.The current study is a systematic and meta-analysis review based on the PRISMA statement. To access the studies (...) of domestic and foreign databases, Iran Medex, SID, Magiran, Iran Doc, Medlib, ProQuest, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and the Google Scholar search engine were searched during the 2009- 2018 period for related keywords. In order to evaluate the heterogeneity of the studies, Q test and I2 indicator were used. The data were analyzed using the STATA 15.1 software.In 11 studies with a sample size of 877058, the odds ratio of metformin consumption for reducing prostate cancer was estimated
Reduction in HbA1c with SGLT2 inhibitors vs. DPP-4 inhibitors as add-ons to metformin monotherapy according to baseline HbA1c: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. This study compared the reduction of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) with sodium-glucose cotransporter type-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) vs. dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) as add-ons to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with a specific focus on HbA1c changes according to baseline (...) HbA1c.Electronic databases were scrutinized for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the reduction of HbA1c from baseline (Δ HbA1c) with an SGLT2i or DPP-4i in patients with T2DM not well controlled by metformin monotherapy. The endpoint was Δ HbA1c using both indirect and direct comparisons.Overall, Δ HbA1c was slightly greater with SGLT2is (-0.80±0.20% from 8.03±0.35%; 44 analyses, 29 RCTs, 15 with two doses, n=9321) than with DPP-4is (-0.71±0.23% from 8.05±0.43%; 61 analyses, 59 RCTs, n=17,914; P
The effect of metformin on biomarkers associated with breast cancer outcomes: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose-response of randomized clinical trials. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to investigate the effect of metformin on biomarkers associated with breast cancer outcomes and to explore the dose-response relationship.A systematic search was performed from onset of the database (...) to January 2019 in MEDLINE/PubMed, SCOPUS, and Cochrane library to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the impact of metformin on insulin, glucose, CRP, leptin, body mass indices (BMI), cholesterol, Ki-67, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin-Resistance (HOMA-IR). Effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects models.Nine studies providing 1,363 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results
Meta-analysis: The efficacy of metformin and other anti-hyperglycemic agents in prolonging the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of metformin and other anti-hyperglycemic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).A systematic electronic search on keywords including HCC and different anti-hyperglycemic agents was performed through electronic databases including Medline (...) and EMBASE. The primary outcome was the overall survival (OS). The secondary outcomes were the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS).Six retrospective cohort studies were included for analysis: Four studies with curative treatment for HCC (618 patients with metformin and 532 patients with other anti-hyperglycemic agents) and two studies with non-curative treatment for HCC (92 patients with metformin and 57 patients with other anti-hyperglycemic agents). Treatment
Efficacy and safety of metformin and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in adults with type1 diabetes: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. To compare the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and metformin in adults with type1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).Randomized clinical trials until February 2019, designed to assess the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors/metformin in adults with T1DM, were searched on PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane (...) Library, and Web of Science. Safety and efficacy data were synthesized using Bayesian network meta-analyses.Twenty eligible studies with 5868 participants were included in network meta-analysis. SGLT2 inhibitors provided greater reductions in HbA1c than placebo (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.47, -0.32) and metformin (WMD: -0.32; 95%CI: -0.47, -0.14). Both SGLT2 inhibitors and metformin promoted greater reductions in body weight than placebo. SGLT2 inhibitors