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Latest & greatest articles for metformin
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Efficacy of different antidiabetic drugs based on metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A network meta-analysis involving eight eligible randomized-controlled trials. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases globally and it is increasing in prevalence. It is one of the most expensive diseases with respect to total health care costs per patient as a result of its chronic nature and its severe complications. To provide a more effective treatment of type (...) 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), this study aims to compare different efficacies of six kinds of hypoglycemic drugs based on metformin, including glimepiride, pioglitazone, exenatide, glibenclamide, rosiglitazone, and vildagliptin, in T2DM by a network meta-analysis that were verified by randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). Eight eligible RCT in consistency with the aforementioned six hypoglycemic drugs for T2DM were included. The results of network meta-analysis demonstrated that the exenatide
Effect of the combined oral contraceptive pill and/or metformin in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review with meta-analyses. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a prevalence of 8%-13%. Given the prevalence, diverse health impacts and variation in care, rigorous evidence-based guidelines are needed in PCOS management. This systematic review with meta-analyses aimed to investigate the effect of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and/or metformin (...) in the management of hormonal and clinical features of PCOS, to inform international guidelines.Electronic databases were searched systematically from inception until 11 January 2017 to inform the guideline process. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials which investigated the effect of COCPs and/or metformin alone or combined on hormonal and clinical features in women with PCOS. Outcomes were prioritized as critical for informing a decision about an intervention or important or not important
Effect of metformin on the risk of prostate cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes by considering different confounding factors: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Preclinical studies have suggested the antitumorigenic properties of metformin on prostate cancer; results from epidemiological studies remain contradictory. We aim to investigate the evidence of metformin and the risk of prostate cancer. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched (...) for eligible studies. Meta-analyses were carried out using the most fully adjusted hazard ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Eighteen cohort studies and six case-control studies representing 2 009 504 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified. The pooled HR of prostate cancer for metformin therapy was 0.97 (0.84-1.12) in case-control studies and 0.94 (0.79-1.12) in cohort studies, respectively. In cohort studies, we found that there was a modest association in studies
Impact of metformin on the risk and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis in diabetics: a systematic review. Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the infectious diseases with a leading cause of death among adults worldwide. Metformin, a first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, may have potential for treating TB. The aims of the present systematic review were to evaluate the impact of metformin prescription on the risk of tuberculosis diseases, the risk of latent TB infection (LTBI (...) ) and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis among patients with diabetic mellitus.Databases were searched through March 2019. Observational studies reporting the effect of metformin prescription on the risk and treatment outcomes of TB were included in the systematic review. We qualitatively analyzed results of included studies, and then pooled estimate effects with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of different outcome using random-effect meta-analyses.This systematic review included 6980 cases from 12
The Effect of Metformin on Thyroid-Associated Serum Hormone Levels and Physiological Indexes: A Meta-Analysis. Many diseases can be treated with metformin. People with serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels higher than 10 mIU/L are at a risk of cardiovascular events. Some studies have suggested that metformin can lower serum TSH levels to a subnormal level in patients with hyperthyrotropinaemia or hypothyroidism.The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on serum (...) TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) levels and other associated physiological indices.A comprehensive search using the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central databases was undertaken for controlled trials on the effect of metformin on serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels and associated physiological indices. The primary outcome measures were serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels, thyroid size, thyroid nodule size, blood pressure, heart rate, body weight, and body mass index
Role of metformin in treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metformin is a first-line treatment for most patients with T2DM, and may have antiaging, antioxidant, and anti-tumour effects. A few published studies report the use of metformin for the treatment of COPD in patients with or without T2DM, but the results are inconsistent. This study (...) aimed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of metformin as a treatment option in patients with COPD. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database from their starting date to December 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, and retrospective researches reporting the use of metformin for treating patients with COPD were identified. We included a total of six articles (involving 3,467 participants) and found that metformin may benefit
Association of metformin use with ovarian cancer incidence and prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Some clinical and basic research studies have indicated that exposure to metformin might have protective effects against ovarian cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of metformin use on the risk of ovarian cancer occurrence and mortality.Multiple databases were searched to identify studies (...) on the association between use of metformin and risk of ovarian cancer or prognosis, up to August 2018. Relevant information for analysis was extracted. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate.Thirteen articles were included, of which six articles focused on ovarian cancer incidence and the others focused on prognosis. The pooled OR for ovarian cancer occurrence and mortality comparing metformin use with non-use or use of other hypoglycemic drugs was 0.76 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.93, p
The association between metformin therapy and risk of gynecological cancer in patients: Two meta-analyses. Recently, metformin, first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, has been reported to treat some gynecological tumors. However, these epidemiological studies have never been formally summarized. Considering a single study may lack the power to provide reliable conclusion, we performed two meta-analyses with different indicators to assess metformin's role in reducing the risk of gynecological (...) cancers.A systematic literature search was carried out in PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Embase database (last search was performed on August 15, 2018). The relative risk (RR) along with a random-effects model were performed on Revman 5.3 and STATA 15.1 for risks analyzing.A total of 1,710,080 patients in 7 studies were included in first meta-analysis. The results suggested metformin may reduce the risk of gynecological cancers (RR=0.49, 95%CI=0.29-0.82, and p=0.006). In the subgroup analyses: significantly
Metformin Use and Kidney Cancer Survival Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Metformin has been associated with improved survival outcomes in various malignancies. However, studies in kidney cancer are conflicting. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between metformin and kidney cancer survival.We searched Medline and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2017 to identify studies evaluating the association between metformin use (...) . The direction of association for metformin use was toward benefit for recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-2.74), progression-free survival (pooled HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66-1.07), cancer-specific (pooled HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.48-1.09), and overall survival (pooled HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.09), though none reached statistical significance. Metaregression found no study-level characteristic to be associated with the effect size, and there was no strong evidence of publication
Efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin as add-on to metformin for type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in several databases across PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Medline, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from (...) inception to 12 March 2019. After the extraction of data from eligible studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for quality and analyzed statistically. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% CIs were used to evaluate efficacy and safety end-points. Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses based on intervention times were also performed.Results: Five RCTs with 847 patients were included. Compared to metformin alone, ipragliflozin as an adjuvant to metformin
Metformin and Colorectal Cancer - A Systematic Review. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The development of preventive strategies in CRC has been the subject of much research. Multiple studies have shown an association between diabetes and CRC. In addition to its glucose-lowering properties, metformin might have an additional role in the prevention and treatment of CRC. OUR OBJECTIVE: was to summarize findings on role of metformin in colorectal (...) cancer.We conducted a systematic review of the PubMed and Cochrane databases from January 2005 to December 2017 in search for studies on the association between metformin and CRC.Of the total of 189 studies identified by the search, we excluded 123 studies and reviewed the remaining 66 studies on cell lines, animals, patients with diabetes, and healthy subjects. In vitro and animal studies have shown a protective effect of metformin use on the incidence of CRC and amplification of the therapeutic
Metformin in the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in diabetic patients: A systematic review. Preventive effect of metformin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not entirely clear. We aimed to evaluate the use of metformin as a protective factor of HCC in diabetic patients.We carried out an electronic search on PUBMED/MEDLINE, Web of Science and LILACS databases, with no limit of date, from April 2017 to January 2019. Eligible studies included cohort and case-control studies. We adressed (...) data about the use of metformin on the risk of HCC development. Two independent reviewers extracted the data. We evaluated the quality of studies by using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and carried out a meta-analysis using random-effects models.The electronic searches identified 747 studies. After reading abstracts and titles, we excluded 327 duplicated papers and 383 irrelevant references. Eight studies were selected; four case-control and four cohort studies. All studies have observed
Cost Utility of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Metformin Monotherapy Failed Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated ailments are leading economic burdens to society. Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are recent antidiabetic medications with beneficial clinical efficacy. This meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively pool the incremental net benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors (...) in T2DM patients who failed metformin monotherapy.Relevant economic evaluation studies of T2DM patients were identified from PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library, and the Tufts Cost-Effective Analysis Registry until June 2018. Studies were eligible if they studied T2DM patients who failed metformin monotherapy and assessed the cost-effectiveness/utility between SGLT2 inhibitors and other treatments. Details of the study characteristics, economic model inputs, costs, and outcomes were
Oral Semaglutide Versus Empagliflozin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Uncontrolled on Metformin: The PIONEER 2 Trial Efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analog oral semaglutide and the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on metformin.Patients were randomized to once-daily open-label treatment with oral semaglutide 14 mg (n = 412) or empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 410) in a 52-week trial. Key end (...) at week 26 (treatment policy), but oral semaglutide was significantly better than empagliflozin at week 52 (trial product -4.7 vs. -3.8 kg; P = 0.0114). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with oral semaglutide.Oral semaglutide was superior to empagliflozin in reducing HbA1c but not body weight at 26 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on metformin. At week 52, HbA1c and body weight (trial product estimand) were significantly reduced versus empagliflozin. Oral semaglutide
Protective effects of metformin, statins and anti-inflammatory drugs on head and neck cancer: A systematic review. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin, statins and anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on head and neck cancer (HNC). Specifically, the potential beneficial effects on risk, survival and recurrence based on epidemiological studies. PRISMA guidelines were followed. After searching MEDLINE (PubMed), IBECS, LILACS and the Cochrane Central Register (...) for Controlled Trials, 13 studies met the inclusion criteria and so underwent qualitative synthesis (six studies for metformin and seven for NSAIDs). No studies were found for statins. Studies varied in their methodological quality. Meta-analyses showed that metformin exerts significant beneficial effects on HNC risk (RR = 0.71 95% CI 0.61-0.84) and overall survival (RR = 1.71 95% CI 1.20-2.42). Qualitative synthesis also suggests an apparently dose-response relationship and increased benefit when
Topiramate and Metformin Are Effective Add-On Treatments in Controlling Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Background: Antipsychotic drugs may lead to side effects such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. The current systematic review and network meta-analysis analyzes and provides an update on the clinical performance of these add-ons in comparison to placebo on body weight and body mass index (BMI) reductions. Methods (...) (SUCRA) values. Outcomes: From 614 potential studies identified, 27 eligible studies (n = 1,349 subjects) were included. All the studies demonstrated low to moderate risk of bias. For the analysis of body weight change, all add-ons except Ranitidine showed significant weight reductions comparing to placebo. The effectiveness rank based on SUCRA results from highest to lowest was Sibutramine, Topiramate, Metformin, Reboxetine, Ranitidine, and placebo. A similar pattern was seen for BMI change