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Latest & greatest articles for obesity
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on obesity or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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March 2016 through March 2017. Three hundred Saudi male students (from applied medical sciences in Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia) were classified according to BMI into lean, overweight and obese groups. For each individual, blood glucose, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin and 25-(OH) vitamin D were measured. In addition, Apal, BsmI and TaqI genotypes were performed for each individual from March 2016 through March 2017, through computer-based search of the following databases: PubMed, Web (...) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms as a risk factor for obesity in Saudi men The prevalence of obesity and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia has increased recently. Decreased physical activity might play a role in obesity. Previous studies showed an association between low vitamin D level and its receptor polymorphism with obesity development.To determine association of low vitamin D level and its receptor polymorphism with obesity in Saudi men.This case control study was carried out from
Obesity in individuals with schizophrenia: a case controlled study in Scotland Despite extensive clinical concern about rates of obesity in patients with schizophrenia, there is little evidence of the extent of this problem at a population level.To estimate levels of obesity in a national population sample by comparing patients with schizophrenia with matched controls.We calculated levels of obesity for each patient with schizophrenia from the national Primary Care Clinical Informatics Unit (...) database (n=4658) matched with age, gender and neighbourhood controls.We demonstrated a significant increased obesity hazard for the schizophrenia group using Cox regression analysis, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.94 (95% CI 1.81-2.10) (under the assumption of missing body mass index (BMI) indicating non-obesity) and OR=1.68 (95% CI 1.55-1.81) where no assumptions were made for missing BMI data.People with schizophrenia are at increased risk of being obese compared with controls matched by age, gender
Association between insulin resistance and preeclampsia in obese non-diabetic women receiving metformin To examine whether the reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is mediated by changes in insulin resistance.This was a secondary analysis of obese pregnant women in a randomised trial (MOP trial). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured in 384 of the 400 women who participated in the MOP trial. Homeostasis model assessment (...) = 0.643).Reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is unlikely to be due to changes in insulin resistance.
Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity (...) for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior
Red wine polyphenols do not improve obesity-associated insulin resistance: A randomized controlled trial Preclinical studies have suggested that polyphenols extracted from red wine (RWPs) favourably affect insulin sensitivity, but there is controversy over whether RWPs exert similar effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether RWPs improve insulin sensitivity in obese volunteers. Obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2 ) volunteers were randomly allocated to RWPs 600 mg/d (...) ] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 3.4 [2.8; 4.4]; end of study 2.9 [2.8; 5.9] mg/kg/min; P = .65), in Matsuda index (RWP group: median [IQR] baseline 3.3 [2.2; 4.8]; end of study 3.6 [2.4; 4.8] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 4.0 [3.0; 6.0]; end of study 4.0 [3.0; 5.2]; P = .88), or in HOMA-IR. This study showed that 8 weeks of RWP supplementation did not improve insulin sensitivity in 29 obese volunteers. Our findings were not consistent with the hypothesis that RWPs ameliorate
Setmelanotide for pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency obesity Setmelanotide for pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency obesity | Innovation Observatory toggle menu Menu Search View All Filter by Speciality Filter by Year Filter by Category This search function provides links to outputs produced by NIHR Innovation Observatory. These are briefing notes or reports on new or repurposed technologies. This search will not return all technologies currently in development as these outputs are produced as required (...) for our stakeholders. > > > Setmelanotide for pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency obesity Setmelanotide for pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency obesity September 2017 Body fat and food intake are regulated by signals from the brain to the gut. One of the important hormones that is responsible for this is pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). In a very small group of people there is a lack of this hormone (due to a genetic mutation), referred to as POMC deficiency. This causes severe overeating which leads to obesity
Orange juice with a high-fat meal prolongs postprandial lipemia in apparently healthy overweight/obese women. We investigated the postprandial response of lipid markers to a high-fat meal (HFM) with two different beverages in apparently healthy normal-weight and overweight/obese women.This crossover, randomized study enrolled 36 women, of whom 21 had normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 22 ± 1.8 kg/m2) and 15 had overweight/obesity (BMI 31 ± 3.7 kg/m2). In two different test days (...) -OJ in normal-weight women (p = 0.01) and returned to normal levels at 5h. TG increased at 3 hours with HFM-W (p = 0.01) and HFM-OJ (p = 0.02), and remained high at 5 hours (p = 0.03) in overweight/obese women. Complement C3 remained unchanged, but showed different responses between meals (p = 0.01 for positive incremental area under the curve [piAUC] HFM-OJ vs. HFM-W, respectively).In apparently healthy overweight/obese women compared with normal-weight ones, the concomitant intake of orange
Randomized phase III trial evaluating the role of weight loss in adjuvant treatment of overweight and obese women with early breast cancer (Alliance A011401): study design Excess body weight is a poor prognostic factor in women with early breast cancer, but the effect of weight loss on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality in women who are overweight or obese at the time of breast cancer diagnosis has not been evaluated. The Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology Breast Cancer
Effect of Post-Cesarean Delivery Oral Cephalexin and Metronidazole on Surgical Site Infection Among Obese Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown.To determine rates of SSI among obese women who receive (...) prophylactic oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery.Randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery for the prevention of SSI in obese women (prepregnancy BMI ≥30) who had received standard intravenous preoperative cephalosporin prophylaxis. Randomization was stratified by intact vs rupture of membranes prior to delivery. The study was conducted at the University
Metformin for Obesity in Prepubertal and Pubertal Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial Metformin has shown its effectiveness in treating obesity in adults. However, little research has been conducted in children, with a lack of attention on pubertal status. The objectives were to determine whether oral metformin treatment reduces BMI z score, cardiovascular risk, and inflammation biomarkers in children who are obese depending on pubertal stage and sex.This was a randomized, prospective (...) , double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, stratified according to pubertal stage and sex, conducted at 4 Spanish clinical hospitals. Eighty prepubertal and 80 pubertal nondiabetic children who were obese aged 7 to 14 years with a BMI >95th percentiles were recruited. The intervention included 1 g/d of metformin versus placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was a reduction in BMI z score. Secondary outcomes comprised insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk, and inflammation biomarkers.A
Effect of Internet-Based Guided Self-help vs Individual Face-to-Face Treatment on Full or Subsyndromal Binge Eating Disorder in Overweight or Obese Patients: The INTERBED Randomized Clinical Trial Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the criterion standard for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED), most individuals do not have access to this specialized treatment.To evaluate the efficacy of internet-based guided self-help (GSH-I) compared with traditional, individual face
Effect of a Baby-Led Approach to Complementary Feeding on Infant Growth and Overweight: A Randomized Clinical Trial Baby-led approaches to complementary feeding, which promote self-feeding of all nonliquid foods are proposed to improve energy self-regulation and lower obesity risk. However, to date, no randomized clinical trials have studied this proposition.To determine whether a baby-led approach to complementary feeding results in a lower body mass index (BMI) than traditional spoon (...) , 0.16; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.45). At 24 months, 5 of 78 infants (6.4%) were overweight (BMI≥95th percentile) in the control group compared with 9 of 87 (10.3%) in the BLISS group (relative risk, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6-5.7). Lower satiety responsiveness was observed in BLISS infants at 24 months (adjusted difference, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.41 to -0.07). Parents also reported less food fussiness (adjusted difference, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.51 to -0.14) and greater enjoyment of food (adjusted difference, 0.25; 95% CI
no place in the treatment regimen of obesity and overweight, given the relatively small percentage weight reduction, the high incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions as well as the considerable price of treatment. There is presently no evidence available on Saxenda's efficacy on hard endpoints such as mortality. 15 April 2016 The Danish Health Authority Islands Brygge 67 2300 København S Denmark Telephone: +45 72 22 74 00 (...) Saxenda (liraglutide) - for treatment of overweight Saxenda® (liraglutide) × Insert searchphrase to search the website Insert searchphrase to search the website > > > Saxenda® (liraglutide) Conclusion Saxenda is indicated for treatment of overweight in people with a BMI >30 or a BMI between 27 and 30 with at least one weight-related complication as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity. Saxenda contains liraglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue
Prevalence of Anemia, Overweight/Obesity, and Undiagnosed Hypertension and Diabetes among Residents of Selected Communities in Ghana The increasing numbers of lifestyle related chronic diseases in developing countries call for awareness, early detection, and effective management. The objective of this paper is to report the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and anemia among residents of selected communities in Ghana. The data comes from a community screening (...) %) were overweight/obese; 27.0% were hypertensive while 34.0% had diabetes. Also, 28.8% males compared to 37.8% females had diabetes (P = 0.015), while 28.2% males compared to 26.2% females were hypertensive (P = 0.635). There were differences in BMI (P < 0.0001), anemia (P = 0.007), and undiagnosed diabetes (P < 0.0001) and hypertension (P < 0.0001) by community (Takoradi versus Cape Coast) where the screening took place. Findings from the screening exercise call for improved public health education
Access and quality of parks and associations with obesity: A cross-sectional study Public health is increasingly engaging with multi-faceted obesity prevention efforts. Although parks represent key community assets for broader public health, they may not be distributed equitably and associations with obesity are equivocal. We investigated park access and quality relative to deprivation and obesity with individual-level data from the Yorkshire Health Study. Compared to the least deprived areas (...) , the moderately and most deprived areas had a greater park access and park quality in terms of features and amenities. However, parks in the moderately and most deprived areas also had the most safety concerns and incivilities. Although deprivation was associated with obesity, contrary to current policy guidance, both park access and quality appear less important for understanding variations in obesity within this study. Although sub-group analyses by deprivation tertile revealed that low quality park
Vascular Endothelial Regulation of Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that predisposes individuals to metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, all of which are related to an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. Identification of the pathogenic molecular mechanisms and effective therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. A well-accepted paradigm is that crosstalk between organs/tissues (...) regulation of obesity and the associated insulin resistance in fat, liver, and skeletal muscles, the classic targets of insulin. Outstanding questions and future research directions are highlighted. Identification of the mechanisms of vascular endothelial regulation of metabolism may offer strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity and the related metabolic complications.