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Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on pneumonia or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Pharmacoeconomic considerations associated with the use of intravenous-to-oral moxifloxacin for community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic considerations associated with the use of intravenous-to-oral moxifloxacin for community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic considerations associated with the use of intravenous-to-oral moxifloxacin for community-acquired pneumonia Davis S L, Delgado G, McKinnon P S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The present study compared three pharmacy intervention (PI) strategies for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): intravenous (IV) beta-lactam plus a macrolide (no PI strategy); IV beta-lactam, with or without a macrolide, switched to an oral (PO) PI (PI
Pneumococcal pneumonia in the UK: how herd immunity affects the cost-effectiveness of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) Pneumococcal pneumonia in the UK: how herd immunity affects the cost-effectiveness of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) Pneumococcal pneumonia in the UK: how herd immunity affects the cost-effectiveness of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) McIntosh E D, Conway P, Willingham J, Hollingsworth R, Lloyd A Record Status This is a critical (...) . Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population comprised the whole UK population. For adult cases of pneumococcal pneumonia, only those that were hospital-treated were considered and not those that were community-treated. Only infants and young children aged 1 month to less than 5 years were considered to have received vaccination. Setting The setting was community care. The economic analysis was carried out in the UK. Dates to which data relate The effectiveness
Cost-effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin in mechanical ventilation-associated nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cost-effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin in mechanical ventilation-associated nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cost-effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin in mechanical ventilation-associated nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Machado A R (...) , Arns C D, Follador W, Guerra A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of linezolid (LIN), an oxazolidinone-class antimicrobial agent, for the treatment of mechanical ventilation-associated nosocomial pneumonia
A cost-effectiveness analysis of antibiotic therapy in macrolide-resistant community-acquired pneumonia A cost-effectiveness analysis of antibiotic therapy in macrolide-resistant community-acquired pneumonia A cost-effectiveness analysis of antibiotic therapy in macrolide-resistant community-acquired pneumonia Earnshaw S R, Candrilli S D, Fernandes A W, Higashi M K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of an extended-release (ER) formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMX/CLA) for the treatment of macrolide-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was compared with the advanced macrolide, clarithromycin ER. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study
Incidence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: population-based assessment. The prevalence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has risen in recent years after the introduction of new macrolides and their increased use. We assessed emergence of macrolide-resistant invasive S pneumoniae disease in Atlanta, GA, USA, before and after the licensing, in February 2000, of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate (...) ). Striking reductions were seen in children younger than 2 years (82% decrease) and in those 2-4 years (71% decrease), age-groups targeted to receive pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Significant declines were also noted in adults aged 20-39 (54%), 40-64 (25%), and 65 years and older (39%). Macrolide resistance in invasive S pneumoniae disease in Atlanta, after increasing steadily from 4.5 per 100,000 in 1994 to 9.3 per 100,000 in 1999, fell to 2.9 per 100,000 by 2002. Reductions in disease caused by mefE
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia among US Military personnel deployed in or near Iraq. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by respiratory failure, radiographic infiltrates, and eosinophilic infiltration of the lung.To describe a case series of AEP, illustrate the clinical features of this syndrome, and report the results of an epidemiologic investigation.Epidemiologic investigation of cases of AEP identified both retrospectively and prospectively
Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs. Reduction of gastric acid secretion by acid-suppressive therapy allows pathogen colonization from the upper gastrointestinal tract. The bacteria and viruses in the contaminated stomach have been identified as species from the oral cavity.To examine the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and occurrence of community-acquired pneumonia.Incident acid-suppressive drug users with at least 1 year (...) of valid database history were identified from the Integrated Primary Care Information database between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2002. Incidence rates for pneumonia were calculated for unexposed and exposed individuals. To reduce confounding by indication, a case-control analysis was conducted nested in a cohort of incident users of acid-suppressive drugs. Cases were all individuals with incident pneumonia during or after stopping use of acid-suppressive drugs. Up to 10 controls were matched
Oral amoxicillin versus injectable penicillin for severe pneumonia in children aged 3 to 59 months: a randomised multicentre equivalency study. Injectable penicillin is the recommended treatment for WHO-defined severe pneumonia (lower chest indrawing). If oral amoxicillin proves equally effective, it could reduce referral, admission, and treatment costs. We aimed to determine whether oral amoxicillin and parenteral penicillin were equivalent in the treatment of severe pneumonia in children aged (...) 3-59 months.This multicentre, randomised, open-label equivalency study was undertaken at tertiary-care centres in eight developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America. Children aged 3-59 months with severe pneumonia were admitted for 48 h and, if symptoms improved, were discharged with a 5-day course of oral amoxicillin. 1702 children were randomly allocated to receive either oral amoxicillin (n=857) or parenteral penicillin (n=845) for 48 h. Follow-up assessments were done at 5 and 14
2004LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important patient safety issue in critically ill patients.To develop an evidence-based guideline for the prevention of VAP.MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.The authors systematically searched for relevant randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews that involved mechanically ventilated adults and were published
Association between carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Children. Widespread pneumococcal conjugate vaccination may bring about epidemiologic changes in upper respiratory tract flora of children. Of particular significance may be an interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, in view of the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S aureus.To examine the prevalence and risk factors of carriage of S pneumoniae and S (...) aureus in the prevaccination era in young children.Cross-sectional surveillance study of nasopharyngeal carriage of S pneumoniae and nasal carriage of S aureus by 790 children aged 40 months or younger seen at primary care clinics in central Israel during February 2002.Carriage rates of S pneumoniae (by serotype) and S aureus; risk factors associated with carriage of each pathogen.Among 790 children screened, 43% carried S pneumoniae and 10% carried S aureus. Staphylococcus aureus carriage among S
Colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children. A trial with a 7-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine in children with recurrent acute otitis media showed a shift in pneumococcal colonisation towards non-vaccine serotypes and an increase in Staphylococcus aureus-related acute otitis media after vaccination. We investigated prevalence and determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and S aureus in 3198 healthy children aged 1-19 (...) years. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S pneumoniae was detected in 598 (19%) children, and was affected by age (peak incidence at 3 years) and day-care attendance (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.18). S aureus carriage was affected by age (peak incidence at 10 years) and male sex (OR 1.46, 1.25-1.70). Serotyping showed 42% vaccine type pneumococci. We noted a negative correlation for co-colonisation of S aureus and vaccine-type pneumococci (OR 0.68, 0.48-0.94), but not for S aureus and non-vaccine
Impact of childhood vaccination on racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Historically, incidence of pneumococcal disease in the United States has been higher among blacks than among whites. Following recommendation of a new 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children in October 2000, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease has declined dramatically, but the impact of vaccination on racial disparities in incidence of pneumococcal disease
Relative rates of non-pneumonic SARS coronavirus infection and SARS coronavirus pneumonia. Although the genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been sequenced and a possible animal reservoir identified, seroprevalence studies and mass screening for detection of subclinical and non-pneumonic infections are still lacking.We cloned and purified the nucleocapsid protein and spike polypeptide of SARS-CoV and examined their immunogenicity with serum from patients (...) with SARS-CoV pneumonia. An ELISA based on recombinant nucleocapsid protein for IgG detection was tested with serum from 149 healthy blood donors who donated 3 years previously and with serum positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV (by indirect immunofluorescence assay) from 106 patients with SARS-CoV pneumonia. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV was studied with the ELISA in healthy blood donors who donated during the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong, non-pneumonic hospital inpatients, and symptom-free health
Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells and the diagnosis of pneumonia. The diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia in patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation remain a difficult challenge. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and its expression on phagocytes is specifically up-regulated by microbial products. The presence of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid from patients (...) receiving mechanical ventilation may be an indicator of pneumonia.We conducted a prospective study of 148 patients receiving mechanical ventilation in whom infectious pneumonia was suspected. A rapid immunoblot technique was used to measure sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid. Two independent intensivists who were unaware of the results of the sTREM-1 assay determined whether community-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia were present or absent.The final diagnosis was community
International prospective study of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: implications of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in nosocomial Infections. Commonly encountered nosocomially acquired gram-negative bacteria, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae, produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) as an antibiotic resistance mechanism.To determine whether microbiology laboratories should report the presence of ESBLs and to establish the infection-control implications of ESBL-producing (...) organisms.Prospective observational study.12 hospitals in South Africa, Taiwan, Australia, Argentina, the United States, Belgium, and Turkey.440 patients with 455 consecutive episodes of K. pneumoniae bacteremia between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 1997; of these, 253 episodes were nosocomially acquired.The K. pneumoniae isolates were examined for the presence of ESBLs. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the molecular epidemiology of nosocomial bacteremia with ESBL-producing K
Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition representing a significant disease burden for the community, particularly for the elderly. Because antibiotics are helpful in treating CAP, they are the standard treatment and CAP thus contributes significantly to antibiotic use, which is associated with the development of bacterial resistance and side-effects. Although several studies have been published concerning CAP (...) of 622 patients aged 12 years and older diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia were included. The quality of the studies and of the reporting was variable. A variety of clinical, radiological and bacteriological diagnostic criteria and outcomes were reported. Overall there was no significant difference in the efficacy of the various antibiotics under study.Currently available evidence from RCTs is insufficient to make evidence-based recommendations for the choice of antibiotic to be used
Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in adults. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a naturally-occurring cytokine that has been shown to increase neutrophil function and number. Exogenous administration of recombinant G-CSF (filgrastim, pegfilgrastim or lenograstim) has found extensive use in the treatment of febrile neutropaenia, but its role in the treatment of infection in non-neutropaenic hosts is less well (...) defined.We explored the role of G-CSF as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in non-neutropaenic adults.We searched the following electronic databases in 2003 and updated the search in 2004: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004); MEDLINE (January 1966 to March Week 1, 2004); EMBASE (1998 to December 2003); online databases of clinical trials; and reference lists of articles. We also contacted study authors, manufacturers
Zinc for severe pneumonia in very young children: double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Early reversal of severity signs--chest indrawing, hypoxia, and tachypnoea--improves outcome. We postulated that zinc, an acute phase reactant, would shorten duration of severe pneumonia and time in hospital.In a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in Matlab Hospital, Bangladesh, 270 children aged 2-23 months were (...) randomised to receive elemental zinc (20 mg per day) or placebo, plus the hospital's standard antimicrobial management, until discharge. The outcomes were time to cessation of severe pneumonia (no chest indrawing, respiratory rate 50 per min or less, oxygen saturation at least 95% on room air) and discharge from hospital. Discharge was allowed when respiratory rate was 40 per minute or less for 24 consecutive hours while patients were maintained only on oral antibiotics.The group receiving zinc had
2004LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high