Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia

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Top results for pneumonia

541. New insights into transmission, diagnosis, and drug treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. (Abstract)

New insights into transmission, diagnosis, and drug treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Pneumocystis carinii has been recognized as a human pathogen for nearly 50 years. We present a case of P carinii infection that typifies clinical presentation in the era of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. The high incidence of P carinii pneumonia in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has served to focus laboratory and clinical research efforts on better (...) and have suggested that recently acquired infection, as opposed to reactivation of latent infection, may account for many cases of clinical disease. Diagnosis has been improved by the development of organism-specific monoclonal antibodies and, more recently, by polymerase chain reaction using multicopy gene targets, together with induced sputum or oral wash samples. Chemotherapeutic prophylaxis is very effective in preventing P carinii pneumonia; the combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains

2001 JAMA

542. Development and validation of a multifactorial risk index for predicting postoperative pneumonia after major noncardiac surgery. (Abstract)

Development and validation of a multifactorial risk index for predicting postoperative pneumonia after major noncardiac surgery. Pneumonia is a common postoperative complication associated with substantial morbidity and mortality.To develop and validate a preoperative risk index for predicting postoperative pneumonia.Prospective cohort study with outcome assessment based on chart review.100 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers performing major surgery.The risk index was developed by using data (...) on 160 805 patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery between 1 September 1997 and 31 August 1999 and was validated by using data on 155 266 patients undergoing surgery between 1 September 1995 and 31 August 1997. Patients with preoperative pneumonia, ventilator dependence, and pneumonia that developed after postoperative respiratory failure were excluded.Postoperative pneumonia was defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of nosocomial pneumonia.A total of 2466

2001 Annals of Internal Medicine

543. Macrolide resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. (Abstract)

Macrolide resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are the mainstays of empirical pneumonia therapy. Macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, is increasing in the United States. Whether resistance is a significant problem or whether macrolides remain useful for treatment of most resistant strains is unknown.To examine

2001 JAMA

544. Effect of mutations in Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene on outcome of P carinii pneumonia in patients with HIV-1: a prospective study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of mutations in Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene on outcome of P carinii pneumonia in patients with HIV-1: a prospective study. Investigators have reported that patients infected with Pneumocystis carinii containing mutations in the DHPS (dihydropteroate synthase) gene have a worse outcome than those infected with P carinii containing wild-type DHPS. We investigated patients with HIV-1 infection and P carinii pneumonia to determine if DHPS mutations were associated (...) ). For patients aged 40 years or older, four (14%) of 29 with the mutant and nine (56%) of 16 with the wild type died (0.25 [0.09-0.67]; p=0.005).These results, by contrast with those of previous studies, suggest that patients with wild-type P carinii do not have a better outcome than patients with the mutant when given co-trimoxazole. Our results suggest that presence of a DHPS mutation should be only one of several criteria guiding the choice of initial drug treatment of P carinii pneumonia in patients

2001 Lancet

545. A randomized trial of the discontinuation of primary and secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 04/98. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A randomized trial of the discontinuation of primary and secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 04/98. Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is indicated in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have less than 200 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter and in those with a history of P. carinii pneumonia. However, it is not clear whether (...) prophylaxis can be safely discontinued after CD4 cell counts increase in response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.We conducted a randomized trial of the discontinuation of primary or secondary prophylaxis against P. carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients with a sustained response to antiviral therapy, defined by a CD4 cell count of 200 or more per cubic millimeter and plasma HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA level of less than 5000 copies per milliliter for at least three months. Prophylactic treatment

2001 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

546. The new fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: clinical and economic perspectives

The new fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: clinical and economic perspectives The new fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: clinical and economic perspectives The new fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: clinical and economic perspectives Metge CJ, Vercaigne LM, Carrie A, Sarveiya V, Zhanel GG Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment (...) has been made for the HTA database. Citation Metge CJ, Vercaigne LM, Carrie A, Sarveiya V, Zhanel GG. The new fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: clinical and economic perspectives. Ottawa: Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment (CCOHTA) 2001: 15 Authors' objectives The overall goal of this report was to assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the new fluoroquinolones compared with other antibiotics available for the empirical treatment of community

2001 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

547. New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation

New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation Metge C J, Vercaigne L, Carrie A, Zhanel G G Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA (...) database. Citation Metge C J, Vercaigne L, Carrie A, Zhanel G G. New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation. Ottawa: Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment/Office Canadien de Coordination de l'Evaluation des Technologies de la Sante (CCOHTA) 2001: 75 Authors' objectives This report aims to critically review and compare, both clinically and economically, the new fluoroquinolones for the empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

2001 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

548. Treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with roxithromycin and effect on neointima proliferation after coronary stent placement (ISAR-3): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with roxithromycin and effect on neointima proliferation after coronary stent placement (ISAR-3): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Vascular infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae might boost inflammatory responses that play a pivotal part in neointima formation, which is the main cause of restenosis after stenting. Our aim was to investigate whether or not treatment of C pneumoniae infection with antibiotics prevents restenosis after (...) with respect to titre of C pneumoniae in serum. Analysis was by intention to treat.Rate of angiographic restenosis was 31% (157 lesions) in the roxithromycin group and 29% (148) in the placebo group (relative risk 1.08 [95% CI 0.92-1.26]; p50.43), corresponding to a rate of target vessel revascularisation of 19% (120) and 17% (105), respectively (1.13 [0.95-1.36]; p50.30). The combined 1-year rates of death and myocardial infarction were 7% (36) in the roxithromycin group and 6% (30) in the placebo group

2001 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

549. New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation

New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation New fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: a clinical and economic evaluation Metge C J, Vercaigne L, Carrie A, Zhanel G G Authors' objectives To critically review and compare the new fluoroquinolones (FQs) with each other and with current comparator antibiotics for the empiric treatment of community-acquired (...) pneumonia (CAP). Searching MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 1993 to December 1999 for publications in the English language. The full search strategy was presented in the report. In addition, the reference lists from retrieved articles were examined and the proceedings of the 39th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1999) were also searched. All manufacturers of the new FQs were contacted for information on unpublished studies. Study selection Study designs

2001 DARE.

550. Treatment of nosocomial postoperative pneumonia in cancer patients: a prospective randomized study

Treatment of nosocomial postoperative pneumonia in cancer patients: a prospective randomized study Treatment of nosocomial postoperative pneumonia in cancer patients: a prospective randomized study Treatment of nosocomial postoperative pneumonia in cancer patients: a prospective randomized study Raad I, Hachem R, Hanna H, Abi-Said D, Bivins C, Walsh G, Thornby J, Whimbey E, Huaringa A, Sukumaran A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria (...) for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The health interventions examined in the study were piperacillin/tazobactam (P/T) 4.5 g IV every 6 hours versus clindamicyn 900 mg plus aztreonam 2 g IV every 8 hours (CI/Az) for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in cancer patients. All patients were also treated with amikacin

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

551. A pneumonia practice guideline and a hospitalist-based reorganization lead to equivalent efficiency gains

A pneumonia practice guideline and a hospitalist-based reorganization lead to equivalent efficiency gains A pneumonia practice guideline and a hospitalist-based reorganization lead to equivalent efficiency gains A pneumonia practice guideline and a hospitalist-based reorganization lead to equivalent efficiency gains Reddy J C, Katz P P, Goldman L, Wachter R M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of clinical practice guidelines and the creation of a managed care service (MCS) to contain costs without compromising quality of care. The clinical practice guideline for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was written by a multidisciplinary team on the basis of the American Thoracic Society guidelines

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

552. Effect of reusing suction catheters on the occurrence of pneumonia in children

Effect of reusing suction catheters on the occurrence of pneumonia in children Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

553. Continuous subglottic suctioning for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: potential economic implications

Continuous subglottic suctioning for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: potential economic implications Continuous subglottic suctioning for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: potential economic implications Continuous subglottic suctioning for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: potential economic implications Shorr A F, O'Malley P G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS (...) EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of endotracheal tubes (ETs) modified to permit continuous subglottic suctioning (CSS), to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

554. Prevention of coronary heart disease through treatment of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae? Estimation of possible effectiveness and costs

Prevention of coronary heart disease through treatment of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae? Estimation of possible effectiveness and costs Prevention of coronary heart disease through treatment of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae? Estimation of possible effectiveness and costs Prevention of coronary heart disease through treatment of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae? Estimation of possible effectiveness and costs Sanderson C, Kubin M Record Status This is a critical abstract (...) of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The screening for Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) and the use of antichlamydial antibiotics in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). Type of intervention Screening and treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

555. Early switch and early discharge strategies in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis

Early switch and early discharge strategies in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis Early switch and early discharge strategies in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis Early switch and early discharge strategies in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis Rhew D C, Tu G S, Ofman J, Henning J M, Richards M S, Weingarten S R Authors' objectives To evaluate the various criteria used in studies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP (...) ) for early switch from parenteral to oral antibiotics, to determine which is a safer strategy. In addition, to assess the impact of early switch and early discharge strategies on clinical outcomes and length of stay (LOS). Searching MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Best Evidence were searched using the following subject headings: 'pneumonia', 'respiratory tract infections', 'community-acquired infections', 'infection', 'guidelines', 'economics', 'meta-analysis', 'prospective studies

2001 DARE.

556. Ventilator-associated pneumonia with circuit changes every 2 days versus every week

Ventilator-associated pneumonia with circuit changes every 2 days versus every week Ventilator-associated pneumonia with circuit changes every 2 days versus every week Ventilator-associated pneumonia with circuit changes every 2 days versus every week Lien T C, Lin M Y, Chu C C, Kuo B I, Wang E D, Wang J H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) in the study were the absolute number of VAP cases and the rate of VAP per 1,000 ventilator days. VAP was defined according to CDC criteria. Pneumonia occurring within 24 hours after the initiation of mechanical ventilation, or 24 hours after the termination of ventilation, was not considered ventilator-associated. The baseline comparability of the study groups was not discussed. Effectiveness results The absolute number of VAP cases was 174 in the control group and 225 in the intervention group. The rate

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

557. Cost-effectiveness of gatifloxacin vs ceftriaxone with a macrolide for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

Cost-effectiveness of gatifloxacin vs ceftriaxone with a macrolide for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Cost-effectiveness of gatifloxacin vs ceftriaxone with a macrolide for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Cost-effectiveness of gatifloxacin vs ceftriaxone with a macrolide for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Dresser L D, Niederman M S, Paladino J A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion (...) on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Two antibiotic strategies for treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalisation were examined. The strategies were sequential intravenous (IV) to oral gatifloxacin, and IV ceftriaxone with or without erythromycin to oral clarithromycin. IV gatifloxacin was administered

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

558. Prevention of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia by Oral Decontamination A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study

Prevention of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia by Oral Decontamination A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2001 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

559. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate.We searched MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999 (...) , the incidence of pneumonia in the control group was similar to that in the antibiotic prophylaxis group; in the other two studies, the incidence of pneumonia was unusually high in the control group so these children had a higher complication rate than the antibiotic group. Four of the 764 children given antibiotics died compared with one of the 637 controls.The quality of the trials reviewed was poor, and they provide very weak evidence for giving antibiotics to all children with measles. Available evidence

2000 Cochrane

560. Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?

Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous? Penicillinbehandling ved pneumoni: oralt eller intravenøst? [Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?] Penicillinbehandling ved pneumoni: oralt eller intravenøst? [Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?] Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation (...) of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment. Penicillinbehandling ved pneumoni: oralt eller intravenøst? [Treatment of pneumonia with penicillins: oral or intravenous?] Copenhagen: Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment (DACEHTA). 2000 Authors' objectives The aim of this report is to consider the implications of giving penicillin by oral or intravenous administration to patients

2000 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.