Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia

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Top results for pneumonia

61. Anesthesia Assistance in Outpatient Colonoscopy and Risk of Aspiration Pneumonia, Bowel Perforation, and Splenic Injury (Abstract)

Anesthesia Assistance in Outpatient Colonoscopy and Risk of Aspiration Pneumonia, Bowel Perforation, and Splenic Injury The increase in use of anesthesia assistance (AA) to achieve deep sedation with propofol during colonoscopy has significantly increased colonoscopy costs without evidence for increased quality and with possible harm. We investigated the effects of AA on colonoscopy complications, specifically bowel perforation, aspiration pneumonia, and splenic injury.In a population-based (...) cohort study using administrative databases, we studied adults in Ontario, Canada undergoing outpatient colonoscopy from 2005 through 2012. Patient, endoscopist, institution, and procedure factors were derived. The primary outcome was bowel perforation, defined using a validated algorithm. Secondary outcomes were splenic injury and aspiration pneumonia. Using a matched propensity score approach, we matched persons who had colonoscopy with AA (1:1) with those who did not. We used logistic regression

2018 EvidenceUpdates

62. The Effects of Gastrointestinal Function on the Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effects of Gastrointestinal Function on the Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients. To investigate the effect of gastrointestinal function on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients.From August 2012 to June 2016, 160 critically ill patients in the ICU (Intensive Care Unit) of our hospital were selected as the research group; patients were divided equally into an observation group and a control group, 80 patients

2018 Open medicine (Warsaw, Poland) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63. Overview of pneumonia

Overview of pneumonia Overview of pneumonia - Summary of relevant conditions | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Overview of pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Introduction Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs with consolidation or interstitial lung infiltrates, most often categorised according to the causative organism. Typical symptoms might include fever, cough, dyspnoea, and chest pain. Because each (...) specific type of pneumonia may result from a different aetiology and pathogenic mechanism, each subtype also has its characteristic risk factors, signs, and symptoms. Related conditions Condition Description Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as pneumonia acquired outside hospital or healthcare facilities. Older patients in particular are often afebrile and may present with confusion and worsening of underlying diseases. The most common cause is Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known

2018 BMJ Best Practice

64. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia Hospital-acquired pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Hospital-acquired pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Most cases are caused by bacteria, especially aerobic gram-negative bacilli, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Acinetobacter species. Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (...) . Definition Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is an acute lower respiratory tract infection that is by definition acquired after at least 48 hours of admission to hospital and is not incubating at the time of admission. Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, et al. Management of adults with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: 2016 clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:e61-e111. http

2018 BMJ Best Practice

65. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection Chlamydia pneumoniae infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Chlamydia pneumoniae infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary A bacterial respiratory pathogen that is a frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adults. An obligate intracellular parasite that can only be isolated in tissue culture, although culture (...) is not widely available. Pneumonia due to Chlamydia pneumoniae cannot be differentiated clinically from pneumonia due to other atypical organisms, especially Mycoplasma pneumoniae . Serological diagnosis is complicated by the requirement for paired sera and the lack of FDA-approved serological assays. Treatment with macrolides, quinolones, or tetracyclines appears equally effective. Definition Chlamydia pneumoniae (an obligate intracellular bacterium) is a frequent respiratory pathogen in humans that occurs

2018 BMJ Best Practice

66. Aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia Aspiration pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Aspiration pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary Diagnosis is based on clinical signs or symptoms of pneumonia in a person with a history or risk factors for aspiration. Sputum or tracheal Gram stain reveals mixed flora. Infection usually involves the dependent lung lobe. Complications (...) of disease include lung abscess and empyema. Definition Aspiration pneumonia results from inhalation of oropharyngeal contents into the lower airways that leads to lung injury and resultant bacterial infection. It commonly occurs in patients with altered mental status who have an impaired gag or swallowing reflex. The bacteriology and presentation of aspiration pneumonia have changed over the past five decades. Older studies characterised an anaerobic pleuropulmonary syndrome, with necrotising pneumonia

2018 BMJ Best Practice

67. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary The organism was known formerly as Pneumocystis carinii . Still the most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. Suspicion for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is based on clinical signs or symptoms (...) of pneumonia in a person with immune suppression, especially when due to HIV infection. Diagnosis is made by detection of the organism in either induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The treatment of choice is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). The incidence of PCP is declining with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PCP prophylaxis. Definition Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection of the lung caused by the fungal organism Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known

2018 BMJ Best Practice

68. Atypical pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia Atypical pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Atypical pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: May 2018 Summary Community-acquired and often seen in young adults living in close proximity. Diagnosis is mostly clinical. Molecular-based diagnosis of throat swabs or sputum can be performed. Serology can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment is often outpatient (...) based with a macrolide antibiotic or doxycycline. Extrapulmonary manifestations may occur, especially in M pneumoniae infections. Definition Atypical bacterial pneumonia is caused by atypical organisms that are not detectable on Gram stain and cannot be cultured using standard methods. The most common organisms are Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , and Legionella pneumophila . Atypical bacterial pneumonia generally is characterised by a symptom complex that includes headache, low

2018 BMJ Best Practice

69. Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Community-acquired pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Risk factors relate to environment, lifestyle factors, patient status, and comorbidities. Typically characterised by a new lung infiltrate on chest x-ray, together with one or more of the following: fever, chills, cough (...) , sputum production, dyspnoea, myalgia, arthralgia, pleuritic pain. Diagnosis should include a chest x-ray, although this has been challenged by studies using CT scanning. Initial treatment is empirical with antibiotics, following international guidelines and local epidemiology. Definition Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as pneumonia acquired outside hospital or healthcare facilities. Clinical diagnosis is based on a group of signs and symptoms related to lower respiratory tract infection

2018 BMJ Best Practice

70. Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia

Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary An inflammatory disorder involving both the peripheral bronchioles and alveoli simultaneously. It has distinctive radiographic findings, histological features (...) , and response to corticosteroids (unlike usual interstitial pneumonia). Most common type is idiopathic BOOP; other types include focal nodular, post-infection, drug-related, rheumatological, immunological, organ transplantation, radiotherapy, environmental, and miscellaneous BOOP. Accounts for 20% to 30% of all cases of chronic infiltrative lung diseases. It occurs equally among men and women, and is not related to smoking. High-resolution chest CT scan shows bilateral patchy triangular ground glass

2018 BMJ Best Practice

71. Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia?

Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? – Clinical Correlations Search Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? January 16, 2018 6 min read By Calvin Ngai, MD Peer Reviewed A 71-year-old Caucasian woman with hypertension presented with a 2-day history of productive cough and fever. She was living (...) alone and had no history of any recent hospitalizations. On examination, she was alert and oriented but slightly tachypneic; her lungs were clear to auscultation bilaterally. Laboratory tests were significant for a white blood cell count of 18,000 m L with 89% neutrophils. The chest x-ray showed a right lower lobe infiltrate. She was admitted and started on antibiotics for treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). She improved clinically, and after remaining afebrile for 48 hours, she

2018 Clinical Correlations

72. New Sepsis Definition (Sepsis-3) and Community-acquired Pneumonia Mortality. A Validation and Clinical Decision-Making Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

New Sepsis Definition (Sepsis-3) and Community-acquired Pneumonia Mortality. A Validation and Clinical Decision-Making Study The Sepsis-3 Task Force updated the clinical criteria for sepsis, excluding the need for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. The clinical implications of the proposed flowchart including the quick Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and SOFA scores are unknown.To perform a clinical decision-making analysis of Sepsis-3 (...) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.This was a cohort study including adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia from two Spanish university hospitals. SIRS, qSOFA, the Confusion, Respiratory Rate and Blood Pressure (CRB) score, modified SOFA (mSOFA), the Confusion, Urea, Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure and Age (CURB-65) score, and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) were calculated with data from the emergency department. We used decision-curve analysis to evaluate the clinical usefulness

2018 EvidenceUpdates

73. Pneumonia caused by proton pump inhibitors (PPI)

Pneumonia caused by proton pump inhibitors (PPI) MED CHECK - TIP December 2017 / Vol.3 No.9 · Page 27 -The Informed Prescriber C N o 9 M ED HECK D e ce m b e r 2 0 1 7 WHO downgrades Tamiflu Suvorexant : A hypnotic causing cataplexy Insomnia, Sleep Duration, Harm of hypnotics PPI causes Pneumonia Editorial WHO downgraded oseltamivir (Tamiflu) New Products Hypnotic (sleeping pill), suvorexant (brand name Belsomra) A substance that causes narcolepsy and cataplexy Teriparatide More harm than (...) benefit: Review Insomnia, Optimal Sleep Duration and Harm of Sleeping pills Pneumonia caused by proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (1) meta-analysis (2) Critical appraisal of a study CONTENTS (December 2017, Vol. 3, No. 9 ) 28 29 34 36 40 42 Volume 3 Page 28 · MED CHECK - TIP December 2017/ Vol.3 No.9 WHO downgrades Tamiflu after reviewing evidence WHO (World Health Organization) reviews their model list of essential medicines every two years. In the revision launched in June 2017, oseltamivir (Tamiflu

2018 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

75. Primary care: Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children

Primary care: Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log (...) in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children Article Text

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine

76. Influence of environmental conditions and pollution on the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of environmental conditions and pollution on the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections Fossil fuel derived pollutants (SO2, NO), dry air and cold increase the incidence of S. pneumoniae infections http://ow.ly/RnLW30gogb1.

2017 ERJ open research

77. Cost of treating ventilator-associated pneumonia post cardiac surgery in the National Health Service: Results from a propensity-matched cohort study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost of treating ventilator-associated pneumonia post cardiac surgery in the National Health Service: Results from a propensity-matched cohort study Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Most of the cost data that are available relate to general intensive care patients in privately remunerated institutions. This study assessed the cost of managing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a cardiac intensive care unit in the National (...) Health Service in the United Kingdom.Propensity-matched study of prospectively collected data from the cardiac surgical database between April 2011 and December 2014 in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery (n = 3416). Patients who were diagnosed as developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, as per the surveillance definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia (n = 338), were propensity score matched with those who did not (n = 338). Costs of treating post-op cardiac surgery patients in intensive

2017 Journal of the Intensive Care Society

78. Evaluation of severity score-guided approaches to macrolide use in community-acquired pneumonia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of severity score-guided approaches to macrolide use in community-acquired pneumonia International guidelines including those in the UK, Japan, Australia and South Africa recommend the avoidance of macrolides in patients with low-severity community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We hypothesised that severity scores are poor predictors of atypical pneumonia and response to macrolide therapy, and thus, inadequate tools for guiding antibiotic prescriptions.Secondary analysis of four (...) independent prospective CAP datasets was conducted. The predictive values of the CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index (PSI) for clinically important groups of causative pathogens were evaluated. The effect of macrolide use according to risk class was assessed by multivariable analysis. Patients (3297) were evaluated, and the predictive values of CURB-65 and PSI for atypical pathogens were poor (AUC values of 0.37 and 0.42, respectively). No significant differences were noted among the effects of macrolide

2017 EvidenceUpdates

79. Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children (...) with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defined and are widely used to triage children for referral and second-line therapy.In 2011 it was estimated that approximately 120 million new cases of pneumonia occur globally each year in children under five years of age, of which 14 million become severe episodes. Hospitalisation for severe pneumonia in children places

2017 Cochrane

80. Bacteremia Prediction Model for Community-acquired Pneumonia: External Validation in a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bacteremia Prediction Model for Community-acquired Pneumonia: External Validation in a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Many studies have described constructing a prediction model for bacteremia in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but these studies were not validated in external heterogeneous groups. The objective of this study was to test the generalizability of a previous bacteremia prediction model for CAP by external validation.This multicenter retrospective cohort analysis was performed

2017 EvidenceUpdates