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The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on public health or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Investment for health and well-being: a review of the social return on investment from publichealth policies to support implementing the Sustainable Development Goals by building on Health 2020 HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 51 Investment for health and well-being: a review of the social return on investment from publichealth policies to support implementing the Sustainable Development Goals by building on Health 2020 Mariana Dyakova | Christoph Hamelmann | Mark A. Bellis | Elodie (...) Besnier Charlotte N.B. Grey | Kathryn Ashton | Anna Schwappach | Christine ClarThe Health Evidence Network HEN – the Health Evidence Network – is an information service for publichealth decision-makers in the WHO European Region, in action since 2003 and initiated and coordinated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe under the umbrella of the European Health Information Initiative (a multipartner network coordinating all health information activities in the WHO European Region). HEN supports public
The tyranny of the averages and the indiscriminate use of risk factors in publichealth: The case of coronary heart disease Modern medicine is overwhelmed by a plethora of both established risk factors and novel biomarkers for diseases. The majority of this information is expressed by probabilistic measures of association such as the odds ratio (OR) obtained by calculating differences in average "risk" between exposed and unexposed groups. However, recent research demonstrates that even ORs (...) , in publichealth, we use the OR to calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF), although this measure fails to consider the DA of the risk factor it represents. Therefore, focusing on CHD and applying measures of DA, we re-examine the role of individual demographic characteristics, risk factors, novel biomarkers and PAFs in publichealth and epidemiology. In so doing, we also raise a more general criticism of the traditional risk factors' epidemiology. We investigated a cohort of 6103 men
Tea, talk and technology: patient and public involvement to improve connected health â€˜wearablesâ€™ research in dementia There are a growing number of mobile phones, watches and electronic devices which can be worn on the body to track aspects of health and well-being, such as daily steps, sleep and exercise. Dementia researchers think that these devices could potentially be used as part of future research projects, for example to help spot changes in daily activity that may signal the early (...) , researchers are recognising the potential for connected health devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, to generate high resolution data about patterns of daily activity and health outcomes. One aim of the Dementias Platform UK (DPUK) project is to provide researchers with a secure means to collect, collate and link data generated by such devices, thereby accelerating this type of research in the field of dementia. We aimed to involve members of the public in discussions about the acceptability
Evolutionary publichealth: introducing the concept. The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of publichealth. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence (...) . A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity. Ecological interactions that influence mortality risk, nutrient availability, and pathogen burden shape energy allocation strategies throughout the life course, thereby affecting diverse health outcomes. Publichealth interventions could improve their own effectiveness by incorporating an evolutionary perspective. In particular, evolutionary
Publichealth information in crisis-affected populations: a review of methods and their use for advocacy and action. Valid and timely information about various domains of publichealth underpins the effectiveness of humanitarian publichealth interventions in crises. However, obstacles including insecurity, insufficient resources and skills for data collection and analysis, and absence of validated methods combine to hamper the quantity and quality of publichealth information available (...) to humanitarian responders. This paper, the second in a Series of four papers, reviews available methods to collect publichealth data pertaining to different domains of health and health services in crisis settings, including population size and composition, exposure to armed attacks, sexual and gender-based violence, food security and feeding practices, nutritional status, physical and mental health outcomes, publichealth service availability, coverage and effectiveness, and mortality. The paper also
Evidence on publichealth interventions in humanitarian crises. Recognition of the need for evidence-based interventions to help to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of humanitarian responses has been increasing. However, little is known about the breadth and quality of evidence on health interventions in humanitarian crises. We describe the findings of a systematic review with the aim of examining the quantity and quality of evidence on publichealth interventions in humanitarian crises (...) to identify key research gaps. We identified 345 studies published between 1980 and 2014 that met our inclusion criteria. The quantity of evidence varied substantially by health topic, from communicable diseases (n=131), nutrition (n=77), to non-communicable diseases (n=8), and water, sanitation, and hygiene (n=6). We observed common study design and weaknesses in the methods, which substantially reduced the ability to determine causation and attribution of the interventions. Considering the major
Type 2 diabetes in adolescents: a severe phenotype posing major clinical challenges and publichealth burden. Type 2 diabetes in adolescence manifests as a severe progressive form of diabetes that frequently presents with complications, responds poorly to treatment, and results in rapid progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Although overall still a rare disease, adolescent type 2 diabetes now poses major challenges to paediatric and adult diabetes services in many (...) countries. Therapeutic options are heavily curtailed by a dearth of knowledge about the condition, with low numbers of participants and poor trial recruitment impeding research. Together with lifestyle modification, metformin remains the first-line therapy for adolescents with type 2 diabetes, although the majority rapidly progress to treatment failure and insulin therapy. Early bariatric surgery is controversial but has great potential to transform outcomes. Health systems must respond by both
How Is CDC Funded to Respond to PublicHealth Emergencies? Federal Appropriations and Budget Execution Process for Nonâ€“Financial Experts The federal budgeting process affects a wide range of people who work in publichealth, including those who work for government at local, state, and federal levels; those who work with government; those who operate government-funded programs; and those who receive program services. However, many people who are affected by the federal budget are not aware (...) of or do not understand how it is appropriated or executed. This commentary is intended to give non-financial experts an overview of the federal budget process to address publichealth emergencies. Using CDC as an example, we provide: (1) a brief overview of the annual budget formulation and appropriation process; (2) a description of execution and implementation of the federal budget; and (3) an overview of emergency supplemental appropriations, using as examples the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic
Mortality risks associated with emergency admissions during weekends and public holidays: an analysis of electronic health records. Weekend hospital admission is associated with increased mortality, but the contributions of varying illness severity and admission time to this weekend effect remain unexplored.We analysed unselected emergency admissions to four Oxford University National Health Service hospitals in the UK from Jan 1, 2006, to Dec 31, 2014. The primary outcome was death within 30 (...) . 18 313 (4·7%) patients admitted as weekday energency admissions and 6070 (5·1%) patients admitted as weekend emergency admissions died within 30 days (p<0·0001). 9347 individuals underwent 9707 emergency admissions on public holidays. 559 (5·8%) died within 30 days (p<0·0001 vs weekday). 15 routine haematology and biochemistry test results were highly prognostic for mortality. In 271 465 (53·9%) admissions with complete data, adjustment for test results explained 33% (95% CI 21 to 70
Implementing precision cancer medicine in the publichealth services of Norway: the diagnostic infrastructure and a cost estimate Through the conduct of an individual-based intervention study, the main purpose of this project was to build and evaluate the required infrastructure that may enable routine practice of precision cancer medicine in the publichealth services of Norway, including modelling of costs.An eligible patient had end-stage metastatic disease from a solid tumour. Metastatic
The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging publichealth risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood publichealth risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities (...) . A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a publichealth risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.
Mass incarceration, publichealth, and widening inequality in the USA. In this Series paper, we examine how mass incarceration shapes inequality in health. The USA is the world leader in incarceration, which disproportionately affects black populations. Nearly one in three black men will ever be imprisoned, and nearly half of black women currently have a family member or extended family member who is in prison. However, until recently the publichealth implications of mass incarceration were (...) unclear. Most research in this area has focused on the health of current and former inmates, with findings suggesting that incarceration could produce some short-term improvements in physical health during imprisonment but has profoundly harmful effects on physical and mental health after release. The emerging literature on the family and community effects of mass incarceration points to negative health impacts on the female partners and children of incarcerated men, and raises concerns that excessive
â€œHitting the spotâ€: Developing individuals with lived-experience of health and social care as facilitators to deliver a course to enhance public involvement in research â€“ a Welsh perspective Public involvement in research has become an important and integral part of the research process in health and social care, from the early stages of research prioritisation and development to the later stages of research conduct and dissemination. Learning and development opportunities, including (...) training, can assist the public and researchers in working together in the research process, and a training schedule exists in Wales for this purpose. One of the key components of this training schedule in Wales is the course Involving the Public in the Design and Conduct of Research: Building Research Partnerships. Building on the existing successes of this UK-wide course, first developed by Macmillan Cancer Support, a project was established between Health and Care Research Wales and Macmillan Cancer
A framework for public involvement at the design stage of NHS health and social care research: time to develop ethically conscious standards Researchers who conduct studies in health and social care are encouraged to involve the public as early as possible in the process of designing their studies. Before their studies are allowed to start researchers must seek approval from a Research Ethics Committee, which will assess whether the study is going to be safe and ethical for patients or healthy (...) and rewarding public involvement. The draft framework will help researchers to recognise the ethical issues when involving the public and is intended to be used voluntarily in a self-regulatory way. We believe that the draft framework requires further consultation and input from the wider research community and the public before endorsement by national UK bodies such as INVOLVE and the Health Research Authority (HRA).