Latest & greatest articles for public health

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Top results for public health

401. Assisted dying in dementia: a systematic review of the international literature on the attitudes of health professionals, patients, carers and the public, and the factors associated with these. (Full text)

Assisted dying in dementia: a systematic review of the international literature on the attitudes of health professionals, patients, carers and the public, and the factors associated with these. Assisted death and dementia is a controversial topic that, in recent years, has been subject to considerable clinical, ethical and political debate.This paper reviews the international literature on attitudes towards assisted dying in dementia and considers the factors associated with these.A systematic (...) literature search was conducted in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Excerpta Medica Database, PsychINFO and Web of Science between 1992 and August 2013. Electronic and hand searches identified 118 potential relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the full inclusion criteria and were screened using a quality assessment tool.Health professionals hold more restrictive views towards assisted dying, which appear less affected by their cultural background, than the public, patients

2014 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry PubMed abstract

402. A systematic review of barriers to data sharing in public health. (Full text)

A systematic review of barriers to data sharing in public health. In the current information age, the use of data has become essential for decision making in public health at the local, national, and global level. Despite a global commitment to the use and sharing of public health data, this can be challenging in reality. No systematic framework or global operational guidelines have been created for data sharing in public health. Barriers at different levels have limited data sharing but have (...) only been anecdotally discussed or in the context of specific case studies. Incomplete systematic evidence on the scope and variety of these barriers has limited opportunities to maximize the value and use of public health data for science and policy.We conducted a systematic literature review of potential barriers to public health data sharing. Documents that described barriers to sharing of routinely collected public health data were eligible for inclusion and reviewed independently by a team

2014 BMC public health PubMed abstract

403. A systematic review and meta-analysis of phase I inactivated vaccines to reduce shedding of Coxiella burnetii from sheep and goats from routes of public health importance. (Abstract)

A systematic review and meta-analysis of phase I inactivated vaccines to reduce shedding of Coxiella burnetii from sheep and goats from routes of public health importance. Q fever in humans and coxiellosis in livestock are both caused by Coxiella burnetii. The public health importance of vaccination against C. burnetii shedding from sheep and goats was evaluated using systematic review and meta-analysis to provide evidence for policy direction to prevent potential zoonotic spread. Publications (...) reporting shedding of C. burnetii in vaginal and uterine secretions, milk, placenta and faeces were included. A single observational (one goat) and seven experimental (four goat and three sheep) vaccine studies were included in the review. No relevant publications on other interventions were identified. Random effects meta-analyses were performed for the risk of shedding in individuals in the control and vaccinated groups and for the mean difference in the level of bacterial shedding in sheep and goats

2014 Zoonoses and public health

404. Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. (Full text)

Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic (...) search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various

2014 International journal of environmental research and public health PubMed abstract

405. Communicating Uncertainty - Ebola, Public Health, and the Scientific Process. (Full text)

Communicating Uncertainty - Ebola, Public Health, and the Scientific Process. 25394322 2015 01 07 2015 05 05 1533-4406 372 1 2015 Jan 01 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Communicating uncertainty--Ebola, public health, and the scientific process. 7-9 10.1056/NEJMp1413816 Rosenbaum Lisa L Dr. Rosenbaum is a national correspondent for the Journal. eng Journal Article 2014 11 13 United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 AIM IM G Ital Nefrol. 2015 Jan-Feb;32(1). pii: gin (...) /32.1.2 25774579 Africa, Western epidemiology Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) Communication Disasters Epidemics prevention & control Forecasting Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola epidemiology prevention & control Humans Public Health United States 2014 11 14 6 0 2014 11 14 6 0 2015 1 8 6 0 ppublish 25394322 10.1056/NEJMp1413816

2014 NEJM PubMed abstract

406. Panic, Paranoia, and Public Health - The AIDS Epidemic's Lessons for Ebola. (Full text)

Panic, Paranoia, and Public Health - The AIDS Epidemic's Lessons for Ebola. 25372947 2015 01 05 2014 12 18 1533-4406 371 25 2014 Dec 18 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Panic, paranoia, and public health--the AIDS epidemic's lessons for Ebola. 2348-9 10.1056/NEJMp1413425 Gonsalves Gregg G Mr. Gonsalves is the codirector of the Yale Global Health Justice Partnership, Yale Law School and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, and an AIDS activist; Mr. Staley (...) is a longtime AIDS activist. Staley Peter P eng Journal Article 2014 11 05 United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 AIM IM Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome epidemiology psychology Epidemics Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola epidemiology psychology Humans Public Health Practice Social Discrimination United States 2014 11 6 6 0 2014 11 6 6 0 2015 1 6 6 0 ppublish 25372947 10.1056/NEJMp1413425

2014 NEJM PubMed abstract

407. Public health spending and population health: a systematic review. (Abstract)

Public health spending and population health: a systematic review. This systematic review synthesizes what is known about the relationship between public health spending and population health outcomes, as well as the pathways that may explain how outcomes vary with spending. It also discusses the limitations of the existing literature and identifies areas in need of future research.Studies included in this review were retrieved through an iterative process, primarily through key word searches (...) in two literature databases (PubMed and JSTOR) conducted in 2013. All retrieved studies underwent initial and secondary screening. Articles were included if they (1) examined the link between spending and outcomes or (2) explored pathways that mediate the relationship between spending and outcomes.Seventeen empirical studies and five literature reviews published between 1985 and 2012 were included in this review. Existing evidence suggests that increases in public health spending are associated

2014 American journal of preventive medicine

408. Norovirus outbreaks on commercial cruise ships: a systematic review and new targets for the public health agenda. (Full text)

Norovirus outbreaks on commercial cruise ships: a systematic review and new targets for the public health agenda. Noroviruses are recognized as the leading cause of human acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The rate of outbreaks on cruise ships has grown significantly in recent years. Given the potentially harmful consequences of outbreaks for passengers and crewmembers and the subsequently high costs for cruise companies, disease outbreaks on cruise ships represent a serious public health

2014 Food and environmental virology PubMed abstract

409. A systematic review of episodic volunteering in public health and other contexts. (Full text)

A systematic review of episodic volunteering in public health and other contexts. Episodic volunteers are a critical resource for public health non-profit activities but are poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to describe the empirical evidence about episodic volunteering (EV) in the public health sector and more broadly. Study location, focus and temporal trends of EV research were also examined.Twelve key bibliographic databases (1990-April week 2, 2014) were searched (...) , including Google Scholar. Empirical studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that identified participants as EVs who volunteered to support Not-for-Profit organisations in the health and social welfare sectors were included. EV definitions, characteristics, economic costs, antecedents and outcomes and theoretical approaches were examined.41 articles met initial review criteria and 20 were specific to the health or social welfare sectors. EV definitions were based on one or more of three

2014 BMC public health PubMed abstract

410. Findings series 41 - Public health implications of the pSoBid study

Findings series 41 - Public health implications of the pSoBid study Public health implications of the pSoBid study BRIEFING PAPER 41 FINDINGS SERIES April 20142 BRIEFING PAPER FINDINGS SERIES KEY POINTS Public health implications of the pSoBid study 41 Socioeconomic inequalities in health are essentially universal: poorer health is more common among people in less advantaged circumstances. The pSoBid study sought to examine associations between social deprivation and a variety of health (...) report 1 of The psychological, social and biological determinants of ill health (pSoBid) in Glasgow: a cross-sectional, population based study can be accessed via the GCPH website: www.gcph.co.uk. This report presents the full background to the study, a review of relevant literature, the complete study methodology and findings to date as a series of abstracts from published academic papers.3 BRIEFING PAPER FINDINGS SERIES Public health implications of the pSoBid study 41 INTRODUCTION This Briefing

2014 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

411. Concepts Series 12 - Resilience for public health

Concepts Series 12 - Resilience for public health February 2014 12 BRIEFING PAPER Resilience for public health: supporting transformation in people and communitiesBRIEFING PAPER 12 2 Resilience for public health: supporting transformation in people and communities • The resilience perspective offers a promising framework for supporting individuals and communities in times of crisis and against upheavals which are difficult to predict. • Resilience offers greatest value when it enables (...) , the economy, governance and infrastructure can be aligned to support resilience in individuals and communities. • Development of the various forms of social capital, particularly bridging and linking capital, are vital for allowing a variety of perspectives, and solutions to problems, to be heard and contribute to policy-making • As transformation is a key characteristic of resilience, this has implications for its measurement. KEY POINTS12 BRIEFING PAPER 3 Resilience for public health: supporting

2014 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

412. Mapping the impact of patient and public involvement on health and social care research: a systematic review. (Full text)

Mapping the impact of patient and public involvement on health and social care research: a systematic review. There is an increasing international interest in patient and public involvement (PPI) in research, yet relatively little robust evidence exists about its impact on health and social care research.To identify the impact of patient and public involvement on health and social care research.A systematic search of electronic databases and health libraries was undertaken from 1995 to 2009 (...) . Data were extracted and quality assessed utilizing the guidelines of the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2009 and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Grey literature was assessed using the Dixon-Woods et al. (2005) checklist.All study types that reported the impact PPI had on the health and/or social care research study.A total of 66 studies reporting the impact of PPI on health and social care research were included. The positive impacts identified enhanced the quality

2014 Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy PubMed abstract

413. Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions. (Full text)

Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions. Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors (...) for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that 'a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed'; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement.We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social

2014 Systematic reviews PubMed abstract

414. Mental Health First Aid is an effective public health intervention for improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour: a meta-analysis. (Full text)

Mental Health First Aid is an effective public health intervention for improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour: a meta-analysis. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a standardized, psychoeducational programme developed to empower the public to approach, support and refer individuals in distress by improving course participants' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to mental ill-health. The present paper aims to synthesize published evaluations of the MHFA programme in a meta-analysis (...) to estimate its effects and potential as a public mental health awareness-increasing strategy. Fifteen relevant papers were identified through a systematic literature search. Standardized effect sizes were calculated for three different outcome measures: change in knowledge, attitudes, and helping behaviours. The results of the meta-analysis for these outcomes yielded a mean effect size of Glass's Δ = 0.56 (95% CI = 0.38 - 0.74; p < 0.001), 0.28 (95% CI = 0.22 - 0.35; p < 0.001) and 0.25 (95% CI = 0.12

2014 International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England) PubMed abstract

415. Methods for assessing the quality of data in public health information systems: a critical review. (Abstract)

Methods for assessing the quality of data in public health information systems: a critical review. The quality of data in public health information systems can be ensured by effective data quality assessment. In order to conduct effective data quality assessment, measurable data attributes have to be precisely defined. Then reliable and valid measurement methods for data attributes have to be used to measure each attribute. We conducted a systematic review of data quality assessment methods (...) for public health using major databases and well-known institutional websites. 35 studies were eligible for inclusion in the study. A total of 49 attributes of data quality were identified from the literature. Completeness, accuracy and timeliness were the three most frequently assessed attributes of data quality. Most studies directly examined data values. This is complemented by exploring either data users' perception or documentation quality. However, there are limitations of current data quality

2014 Studies in health technology and informatics

416. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: opportunities for prevention and public health. (Abstract)

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: opportunities for prevention and public health. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which was enacted by the US Congress in 2010, marks the greatest change in US health policy since the 1960s. The law is intended to address fundamental problems within the US health system, including the high and rising cost of care, inadequate access to health insurance and health services for many Americans, and low health-care efficiency and quality (...) . By 2019, the law will bring health coverage--and the health benefits of insurance--to an estimated 25 million more Americans. It has already restrained discriminatory insurance practices, made coverage more affordable, and realised new provisions to curb costs (including tests of new health-care delivery models). The new law establishes the first National Prevention Strategy, adds substantial new funding for prevention and public health programmes, and promotes the use of recommended clinical

2014 Lancet

417. Examining variations of resting metabolic rate of adults: a public health perspective. (Full text)

Examining variations of resting metabolic rate of adults: a public health perspective. There has not been a recent comprehensive effort to examine existing studies on the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of adults to identify the effect of common population demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Thus, we reviewed the literature on RMR (kcal·kg(-1)·h(-1)) to determine the relationship of age, sex, and obesity status to RMR as compared with the commonly accepted value for the metabolic (...) equivalent (MET; e.g., 1.0 kcal·kg(-1)·h(-1)).Using several databases, scientific articles published from 1980 to 2011 were identified that measured RMR, and from those, others dating back to 1920 were identified. One hundred and ninety-seven studies were identified, resulting in 397 publication estimates of RMR that could represent a population subgroup. Inverse variance weighting technique was applied to compute means and 95% confidence intervals (CI).The mean value for RMR was 0.863 kcal·kg(-1)·h(-1

2014 Medicine and science in sports and exercise PubMed abstract

418. The debate over EU Clinical Trials Regulation: towards a model that meets real public health needs

The debate over EU Clinical Trials Regulation: towards a model that meets real public health needs Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''The debate over EU Clinical Trials Regulation: towards a model that meets real public health needs'', 1 July 2013 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > The debate over EU Clinical Trials Regulation: towards a model that meets real public health needs Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |  (...)  |   |   |   |   |  Spotlight The debate over EU Clinical Trials Regulation: towards a model that meets real public health needs In a text published in The Lancet (Vol 381, p1719-1720), Prescrire observes that the debate on proposed European clinical trials regulation offers a major opportunity to redirect clinical research and development towards a model that meets real public health needs. Improved access to clinical trial data would allow independent

2014 Prescrire

419. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology. (Abstract)

London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology. Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology (...) , and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation

2014 Lancet

420. From the bench to public health: population-level implementation intentions in colorectal cancer screening (Abstract)

From the bench to public health: population-level implementation intentions in colorectal cancer screening Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) using fecal occult blood test (FOBT) reduces mortality, yet screening adherence remains low.Enhancing FOBT adherence in a field experiment, using Implementation Intentions (II) technique.Participants were randomly assigned to a standard care group or to II experimental group.A test kit was mailed to 29,833 HMO-insured members in two waves in 2011 (...) screening, even in a mailed form rather than a face-to-face experimental situation. Mailed II is an inexpensive and effective method, applicable for public health.© 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

2014 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain