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Anthropology in publichealth emergencies: what is anthropology good for? Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (2013-2016) and Zika virus (2015-2016) bring renewed recognition of the need to understand social pathways of disease transmission and barriers to care. Social scientists, anthropologists in particular, have been recognised as important players in disease outbreak response because of their ability to assess social, economic and political factors in local contexts. However (...) , in emergency publichealth response, as with any interdisciplinary setting, different professions may disagree over methods, ethics and the nature of evidence itself. A disease outbreak is no place to begin to negotiate disciplinary differences. Given increasing demand for anthropologists to work alongside epidemiologists, clinicians and publichealth professionals in health crises, this paper gives a basic introduction to anthropological methods and seeks to bridge the gap in disciplinary expectations
Extensive use of monosodium glutamate: A threat to publichealth? 29743864 2018 11 14 1611-2156 17 2018 EXCLI journal EXCLI J Extensive use of monosodium glutamate: A threat to publichealth? 273-278 10.17179/excli2018-1092 Niaz Kamal K Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Bioscience and Agri-Food and Environmental Technology, University of Teramo-64100, Italy. Zaplatic Elizabeta E Faculty of Bioscience and Agri-Food and Environmental Technology, University of Teramo-64100
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of total and site specific cancers in Japanese population: large case-cohort study within Japan PublicHealth Center-based Prospective Study cohort. To evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and the subsequent risk of overall and site specific cancer in a large cohort study.Nested case-cohort study within the Japan PublicHealth Center-based Prospective Study cohort.Nine publichealth
Communicating Risk in PublicHealth Emergencies. A WHO Guideline for Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) policy and practice Communicating risk in publichealth emergencies A WHO guideline for emergency risk communication (ERC) policy and practiceCommunicating risk in publichealth emergencies A WHO guideline for emergency risk communication (ERC) policy and practiceCommunicating risk in publichealth emergencies: a WHO guideline for emergency risk communication (ERC) policy and practice ISBN (...) be the binding and authentic edition”. Any mediation relating to disputes arising under the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the medi- ation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization. Suggested citation. Communicating risk in publichealth emergencies: a WHO guideline for emergency risk com- munication (ERC) policy and practice. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY -NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) data. CIP data are available at http://apps.who.int
Integrating a publichealth and human rights approach into mental health services for Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health (...) issues.The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad publichealth spectrum of Gazan society. Services are provided in terms of preventative publichealth at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Data reported here are from 2014-16.For primary prevention, our services include advocacy, public awareness, and media campaigns aimed at raising awareness about and preventing common mental disorders and behavioural difficulties in children. 35 878 people are estimated to have benefited
Patient and public involvement in reducing health and care research waste As much as 85 % of health research is believed to be wasted because it is not published or reported, the design is poor or does not consider what is already known in the topic area. Although a great deal of work has been done in the UK to reduce research waste, the role of patients and the public has not been discussed.This paper describes a survey, on the role of patients in reducing research waste, which was carried out (...) of patients and the public has not been considered.Main A small survey was undertaken, as part of a larger programme of work on reducing health and care waste, to understand the role of patients in reducing research waste. The study showed that patients are interested in this issue particularly in relation to the prioritisation of research and patient and public involvement.Conclusions Patients undertake key roles in the research process including co-applicancy, project management, or as co-researchers
Health Implications of Climate Change: a Review of the Literature About the Perception of the Public and Health Professionals Through a systematic search of English language peer-reviewed studies, we assess how health professionals and the public, worldwide, perceive the health implications of climate change.Among health professionals, perception that climate change is harming health appears to be high, although self-assessed knowledge is low, and perceived need to learn more is high. Among (...) the public, few North Americans can list any health impacts of climate change, or who is at risk, but appear to view climate change as harmful to health. Among vulnerable publics in Asia and Africa, awareness of increasing health harms due to specific changing climatic conditions is high. Americans across the political and climate change opinion spectra appear receptive to information about the health aspects of climate change, although findings are mixed. Health professionals feel the need to learn more
A Web-Based Course on PublicHealth Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response: Survey Among Students and Faculty Web-based publichealth courses are becoming increasingly popular. "PublicHealth Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response" is a unique Web-based course in Hong Kong. This course aimed to fill a publichealth training gap by reaching out to postgraduates who are unable to access face-to-face learning.The aim of this paper was to use a structured
Perceptions of the quality of generic medicines: implications for trust in public services within the local health system in Tumkur, India Generic medicines are an important policy option to reduce out-of-pocket expenditure on medicines. However, negative perceptions of their quality affect utilisation and raise issues of confidence and trust in medicines and health services. The aim of the study was to test the quality of generic and branded medicines and explain negative perceptions towards (...) generic medicines.The study was part of a larger study on access to medicines. Information on various quality parameters was collected for branded medicines and branded and unbranded generic versions of the same medicines from government and private pharmacies in Karnataka in Southern India. To assess perceptions related to quality and drivers of preferred point of care (public vs private), focus group discussions were conducted with diabetes and hypertension patients, health workers and private
What approaches are there for monitoring and evaluation of global publichealth programmes? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing What approaches are there for monitoring and evaluation of global publichealth programmes? Nicola Pearce-Smith 26 th July 2018 What approaches are there for monitoring and evaluation of global publichealth programmes? KLS Evidence Briefing 26 th July 2018 Question This briefing summarises the evidence on the options for monitoring and evaluation (...) of global publichealth programmes, including types of indicators and qualitative vs quantitative measures, from January 1st 1980 to July 17th 2018. Key messages ? 3 areas to improve future evaluation of complex global health initiatives are : the importance of theory of change; the need to use multiple methods to address complexity; and the need to focus more on triangulation and synthesis of findings ? the BetterEvaluation Rainbow Framework can help evaluators navigate the choices available at each
Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health (...) Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes Last updated: June 22, 2018 Project Number: ES0326-000 Product Line: Result type: Report The number of drug for rare diseases (DRD) in the pipeline and the number of marketed DRDs are expanding. As such, policy-makers and clinicians have struggled on how
Patient and public involvement in health literacy interventions: a mapping review If people can read, understand and act on health information to better their health and reduce illness, they are thought to have "adequate" health literacy. Poor health literacy can mean people are less able to access health care and manage their health. Health literacy tends to worsen as adults get older, and is especially poor in adults age 65 and over. Ideally, health literacy interventions target people before (...) age 65, to establish good skills and habits before people have many health problems associated with ageing. It is also good if researchers consult ordinary people, including patients and the public (PPI) when planning a programme to try to improve health literacy. This may help ensure individual needs are catered for.We therefore looked for studies that described any role of patient or public representatives in the research planning stages. We explored how the representatives contributed to each
Histology and Cytopathology Capacity in the PublicHealth Sector in Kenya Histology and cytopathology services are necessary for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the current capacity of Kenya's pathology laboratories is unknown. A national survey was conducted among public sector pathology laboratories to assess their capacity to perform histology, fine-needle aspiration, and bone marrow aspiration.Between April and June 2017, we identified all public hospitals that provide pathology (...) accreditation, but only for clinical pathology services.This study describes the current status of histology and cytopathology capacity in Kenya's public sector hospitals. It provides useful baseline information needed by the Ministry of Health to develop necessary capacity building and referral-strengthening interventions. A high proportion of hospitals are working to achieve accreditation points toward their commitment to providing quality services to the Kenyan public.
Transparency about the outcomes of mental health services (IAPT approach): an analysis of public data. Internationally, the clinical outcomes of routine mental health services are rarely recorded or reported; however, an exception is the English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service, which delivers psychological therapies recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for depression and anxiety disorders to more than 537 000 patients in the UK each (...) year. A session-by-session outcome monitoring system ensures that IAPT obtains symptom scores before and after treatment for 98% of patients. Service outcomes can then be reported, along with contextual information, on public websites.We used publicly available data to identify predictors of variability in clinical performance. Using β regression models, we analysed the outcome data released by National Health Service Digital and PublicHealth England for the 2014-15 financial year (April 1, 2014
The future of publichealth research The future of publichealth research Summary report of a workshop held 20-21 July 2017 The Academy of Medical Sciences The Academy of Medical Sciences The Academy of Medical Sciences is the independent body in the UK representing the diversity of medical science. Our mission is to promote medical science and its translation into benefits for society. The Academy’s elected Fellows are the United Kingdom’s leading medical scientists from hospitals, academia (...) , industry and the public service. We work with them to promote excellence, influence policy to improve health and wealth, nurture the next generation of medical researchers, link academia, industry and the NHS, seize international opportunities and encourage dialogue about the medical sciences. Opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily represent the views of all participants at the event, the Academy of Medical Sciences or its Fellows, the NIHR, or the Faculty of PublicHealth. All web
Identifying and Addressing the PublicHealth Risks of Splash Parks IDENTIFYING AND ADDRESSING THE PUBLICHEALTH RISKS OF SPLASH PARKS KEY MESSAGES • Recirculating splash parks have caused several large gastrointestinal outbreaks in recent years. • Outbreaks are typically linked to failure of the chlorination/ filtration systems and/or lack of secondary disinfection, such as ultraviolet light, but may also derive from user behaviour as well as design and operating conditions. • This document (...) . 1,2 Splash parks may take one of two basic designs, which influences the associated publichealth risks. Non-recirculating or flow-through parks discharge the water directly to waste and present a relatively low risk to their users as the design is based on using fresh potable water (Figure 1a). In contrast, recirculating parks collect water in an underground tank, apply some form of water treatment, and re-use the water again (Figure 1b). This presents an increased risk of contamination
Association of PublicHealth Initiatives With Outcomes for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest at Home and in Public Locations Little is known about the influence of comprehensive publichealth initiatives according to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) location, particularly at home, where resuscitation efforts and outcomes have historically been poor.To describe temporal trends in bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first-responder defibrillation for OHCAs stratified by home vs (...) public location and their association with survival and neurological outcomes.This observational study reviewed 8269 patients with OHCAs (5602 [67.7%] at home and 2667 [32.3%] in public) for whom resuscitation was attempted using data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014. The setting was 16 counties in North Carolina.Patients were stratified by home vs public OHCA. Publichealth initiatives to improve bystander and first
Civil rights as determinants of publichealth and racial and ethnic health equity: Health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States This essay examines how civil rights and their implementation have affected and continue to affect the health of racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Civil rights are characterized as social determinants of health. A brief review of US history indicates that, particularly for Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians (...) be considered a powerful arena for publichealth theorizing, research, policy, and action.