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The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on public health or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Comparison of registered and published intervention fidelity assessment in cluster randomised trials of publichealth interventions in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review Cluster randomised trials (CRTs) are a key instrument to evaluate publichealth interventions. Fidelity assessment examines study processes to gauge whether an intervention was delivered as initially planned. Evaluation of implementation fidelity (IF) is required to establish whether the measured effects (...) of a trial are due to the intervention itself and may be particularly important for CRTs of complex interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, current CRT reporting guidelines offer no guidance on IF assessment. The objective of this review was to study current practices concerning the assessment of IF in CRTs of publichealth interventions in LMICs.CRTs of publichealth interventions in LMICs that planned or reported IF assessment in either the trial protocol
VA mobile apps for PTSD and related problems: publichealth resources for veterans and those who care for them Many publichealth agencies, including the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), have identified the use of mobile technologies as an essential part of a larger strategy to address major publichealth challenges. The VA's National Center for PTSD (NCPTSD), in collaboration with VA's Office of Mental Health and Suicide Prevention and the Defense Health Agency inside the U.S (...) ). There is growing evidence for the efficacy of several of these apps for reducing PTSD and other symptoms, and studies of providers demonstrate that the apps are engaging, easy-to-use, and provide a relative advantage to traditional care without apps. While publicly available apps do not collect or share personal data, VA has created research-enabled versions of many of its mental health apps to enable ongoing product enhancement and continuous measurement of the value of these tools to veterans and frontline
Social capital interventions in publichealth: A systematic review. Despite two decades of research on social capital and health, intervention studies remain scarce. We performed a systematic review on social capital interventions in publichealth and searched the Pubmed and PsychInfo databases. The majority of interventions we identified focused on individual level change (e.g. encouraging social participation), as opposed to community level change. We included 17 manuscripts in the systematic (...) review. We categorized studies according to the role of social capital in the interventions (as the direct target of intervention, as a channel/mediator, or as a segmenting variable) as well as the levels of interventions (individual, community levels vs. multilevel ). We conclude that the majority of interventions sought to directly strengthen social capital to influence health outcomes. Our review reveals (i) a lack of studies that incorporate a multilevel perspective and (ii) an absence
Facilitating evidence uptake: development and user testing of a systematic review summary format to inform publichealth decision-making in German-speaking countries Systematic reviews are an important source of evidence for publichealth decision-making, but length and technical jargon tend to hinder their use. In non-English speaking countries, inaccessibility of information in the native language often represents an additional barrier. In line with our vision to strengthen evidence-based (...) publichealth in the German-speaking world, we developed a German language summary format for systematic reviews of publichealth interventions and undertook user-testing with publichealth decision-makers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.We used several guiding principles and core elements identified from the literature to produce a prototype summary format and applied it to a Cochrane review on the impacts of changing portion and package sizes on selection and consumption of food, alcohol
Impacts of older people's patient and public involvement in health and social care research: a systematic review. patient and public involvement (PPI) in research has been linked with numerous beneficial impacts, however, evidence for older people's involvement is limited.to evaluate the impacts of involving older people in health and social care research on older co-researchers, academic researchers, and research processes and outcomes. A secondary aim was to explore critical success factors
Using patient and public involvement to improve the research design and funding application for a project aimed at fostering a more collaborative approach to the NHS health check: the CaVIAR project (better Care Via Improved Access to Records) Following an initial NHS Health Check appointment, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) suggest patients with QRISK2 scores of ≥10% should be offered advice on lifestyle and the risks and benefits of starting a statin. NICE (...) recommend GPs should ascertain patients' pre-existing knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk, explore health beliefs, assess readiness to change, offer support, and engage family members. Condensing this complex discussion into a short consultation may result in inadequate patient understanding of the benefits of preventive measures. An alternative approach is needed. We propose a digital adjunct giving patients the opportunity to interact with their health check results from home before returning
Delivery of publichealth services by community health workers (CHWs) in primary health care settings in China: a systematic review (1996â€“2016) Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been widely used in response to the shortage of skilled health workers especially in resource limited areas. China has a long history of involving CHWs in publichealth intervention project. CHWs in China called village doctors who have both treatment and publichealth responsibilities. This systematic review aimed (...) to identify the types of publichealth services provided by CHWs and summarized potential barriers and facilitating factors in the delivery of these services.We searched studies published in Chinese or English, on Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and CNKI for publichealth services delivered by CHWs in China, during 1996-2016. The role of CHWs, training for CHWs, challenges, and facilitating factors were extracted from reviewed studies.Guided by National Basic PublicHealth Service Standards
Six hours of task-oriented training optimizes walking competency post stroke: a randomized controlled trial in the publichealth-care system of South Africa To evaluate a minimal dose intervention of six 1-hour sessions of task-oriented circuit gait training including a caregiver over a 12-week period to persons post stroke in the South African publichealth sector.Stratified, single blinded, randomized controlled trial with three intervention groups.Persons post stroke ( n = 144, mean age 50
Effectiveness of capacity building interventions relevant to publichealth practice: a systematic review. This systematic review assessed the effectiveness of capacity building interventions relevant to publichealth practice. The aim is to inform and improve capacity building interventions.Four strategies were used: 1) electronic database searching; 2) reference lists of included papers; 3) key informant consultation; and 4) grey literature searching. Inclusion (e.g., published in English (...) ) and exclusion criteria (e.g., non-English language papers published earlier than 2005) are outlined with included papers focusing on capacity building, learning plans, or professional development plans within publichealth and related settings, such as non-governmental organizations, government, or community-based organizations relating to publichealth or healthcare. Outcomes of interest included changes in knowledge, skill or confidence (self-efficacy), changes in practice (application or intent
Exploratory studies to decide whether and how to proceed with full-scale evaluations of publichealth interventions: a systematic review of guidance Evaluations of complex interventions in publichealth are frequently undermined by problems that can be identified before the effectiveness study stage. Exploratory studies, often termed pilot and feasibility studies, are a key step in assessing the feasibility and value of progressing to an effectiveness study. Such studies can provide vital (...) information to support more robust evaluations, thereby reducing costs and minimising potential harms of the intervention. This systematic review forms the first phase of a wider project to address the need for stand-alone guidance for publichealth researchers on designing and conducting exploratory studies. The review objectives were to identify and examine existing recommendations concerning when such studies should be undertaken, questions they should answer, suitable methods, criteria for deciding
Patterns of authorship on community health workers in low-and-middle-income countries: an analysis of publications (2012â€“2016) Studies of authorship provide a barometer of local research capacity and ownership of research, considered key to defining appropriate research priorities, developing contextualised responses to health problems and ensuring that research informs policy and practice. This paper reports on an analysis of patterns of research authorship of the now substantial literature (...) on community health workers (CHWs) in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) for the 5-year period: 2012-2016.A search of five databases identified a total of 649 indexed publications reporting on CHWs in LMICs and meeting the inclusion criteria. The country, region and income classification of studies, affiliations (country, organisation) of lead (first) and last authors, proportions of all authors locally affiliated, programme area (eg, maternal child health) and funding source were extracted.The 649
Correction: Chu et al. Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water and Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis for Dose-Response Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. PublicHealth 2006, 3(4), 316â€“322 29735906 2019 11 20 1660-4601 15 5 2018 05 07 International journal of environmental research and publichealth Int J Environ Res PublicHealth Correction: Chu et al. Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water and Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis for Dose-Response Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. PublicHealth 2006, 3 (4 (...) ), 316⁻322. E929 10.3390/ijerph15050929 Chu Huei-An HA State of California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA 95814-5512, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org. Crawford-Brown Douglas D Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9EP, UK. email@example.com. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org. eng Journal Article Published Erratum 2018 05 07 Switzerland Int J Environ Res PublicHealth
Sustainable publichealth systems for rare diseases. In the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (RD-ACTION), a specific task was defined to identify mechanisms influencing sustainability, equity and resilience of health systems for rare diseases (RDs).Literature narrative review on health systems sustainability and resilience for RDs. Years: 2000-2015. Databases: PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOHost, EMBAL, PASCAL, EMBASE, STN International and GoogleScholar.interpretive synthesis concept (...) and thematic analysis (Dixon-Wood, et al.).97 papers and 4 grey literature publications were identified. Two main topics stand out: economic evaluation and networks. The first topic did not identify widely accepted criterion to assign more weight to individuals with greater health needs. Healthcare network are identified as increasingly important for sustainability and resilience, in all of their aspects: professional "expertise", "experience" networks of users and carers; policy, learning, and interest
Publichealth co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A systematic review. Publichealth co-benefits from curbing climate change can make greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies more attractive and increase their implementation. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence of these health co-benefits to improve our understanding of the mitigation measures involved, potential mechanisms, and relevant uncertainties.A comprehensive search for peer-reviewed (...) using narrative summaries.Thirty-six studies were identified. We identified GHG mitigation strategies in five domains - energy generation, transportation, food and agriculture, households, and industry and economy - which usually, although not always, bring co-benefits for publichealth. These health gains are likely to be multiplied by comprehensive measures that include more than one sectors.GHG mitigation strategies can bring about substantial and possibly cost-effective publichealth co-benefits
Anthropology in publichealth emergencies: what is anthropology good for? Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (2013-2016) and Zika virus (2015-2016) bring renewed recognition of the need to understand social pathways of disease transmission and barriers to care. Social scientists, anthropologists in particular, have been recognised as important players in disease outbreak response because of their ability to assess social, economic and political factors in local contexts. However (...) , in emergency publichealth response, as with any interdisciplinary setting, different professions may disagree over methods, ethics and the nature of evidence itself. A disease outbreak is no place to begin to negotiate disciplinary differences. Given increasing demand for anthropologists to work alongside epidemiologists, clinicians and publichealth professionals in health crises, this paper gives a basic introduction to anthropological methods and seeks to bridge the gap in disciplinary expectations
Voices from low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol of primary healthcare interventions within publichealth systems addressing intimate partner violence against women. Intimate partner violence (IPV) considerably harms the health, safety and well-being of women. In response, publichealth systems around the globe have been gradually implementing strategies. In particular, low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) have been developing innovative interventions (...) Literature Database (LILACS), Medecins Sans Frontieres, MEDLINE, Minority Health and Health Equity Archive, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scientific Electronic Library Online, (SciELO) and Social Policy and Practice. Studies will be in English, Spanish and Portuguese, published between 2007 and 2017, addressing IPV against women from LMIC, whose data quantitatively report on the impacts and outcomes for survivors and/or workers and/or publichealth systems preintervention and postintervention. Two trilingual
Extensive use of monosodium glutamate: A threat to publichealth? 29743864 2018 11 14 1611-2156 17 2018 EXCLI journal EXCLI J Extensive use of monosodium glutamate: A threat to publichealth? 273-278 10.17179/excli2018-1092 Niaz Kamal K Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Bioscience and Agri-Food and Environmental Technology, University of Teramo-64100, Italy. Zaplatic Elizabeta E Faculty of Bioscience and Agri-Food and Environmental Technology, University of Teramo-64100
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of total and site specific cancers in Japanese population: large case-cohort study within Japan PublicHealth Center-based Prospective Study cohort. To evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and the subsequent risk of overall and site specific cancer in a large cohort study.Nested case-cohort study within the Japan PublicHealth Center-based Prospective Study cohort.Nine publichealth