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Communicating Risk in PublicHealth Emergencies. A WHO Guideline for Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) policy and practice Communicating risk in publichealth emergencies A WHO guideline for emergency risk communication (ERC) policy and practiceCommunicating risk in publichealth emergencies A WHO guideline for emergency risk communication (ERC) policy and practiceCommunicating risk in publichealth emergencies: a WHO guideline for emergency risk communication (ERC) policy and practice ISBN (...) be the binding and authentic edition”. Any mediation relating to disputes arising under the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the medi- ation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization. Suggested citation. Communicating risk in publichealth emergencies: a WHO guideline for emergency risk com- munication (ERC) policy and practice. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY -NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) data. CIP data are available at http://apps.who.int
Strategies to improve treatment coverage in community-based publichealth programs: A systematic review of the literature. Community-based publichealth campaigns, such as those used in mass deworming, vitamin A supplementation and child immunization programs, provide key healthcare interventions to targeted populations at scale. However, these programs often fall short of established coverage targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of strategies used (...) to increase treatment coverage in community-based publichealth campaigns.We systematically searched CAB Direct, Embase, and PubMed archives for studies utilizing specific interventions to increase coverage of community-based distribution of drugs, vaccines, or other publichealth services. We identified 5,637 articles, from which 79 full texts were evaluated according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria and data were abstracted regarding strategy
Integrating a publichealth and human rights approach into mental health services for Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health (...) issues.The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad publichealth spectrum of Gazan society. Services are provided in terms of preventative publichealth at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Data reported here are from 2014-16.For primary prevention, our services include advocacy, public awareness, and media campaigns aimed at raising awareness about and preventing common mental disorders and behavioural difficulties in children. 35 878 people are estimated to have benefited
A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative publichealth interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom. Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative publichealth interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling (...) of local authority commissioned publichealth preventative interventions in the UK.Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation. The systematic review identified studies between January 1994 and February 2015, using five databases. We synthesized the studies to identify the key methods and examined results of the economic
Patient and public involvement in reducing health and care research waste As much as 85 % of health research is believed to be wasted because it is not published or reported, the design is poor or does not consider what is already known in the topic area. Although a great deal of work has been done in the UK to reduce research waste, the role of patients and the public has not been discussed.This paper describes a survey, on the role of patients in reducing research waste, which was carried out (...) of patients and the public has not been considered.Main A small survey was undertaken, as part of a larger programme of work on reducing health and care waste, to understand the role of patients in reducing research waste. The study showed that patients are interested in this issue particularly in relation to the prioritisation of research and patient and public involvement.Conclusions Patients undertake key roles in the research process including co-applicancy, project management, or as co-researchers
Health Implications of Climate Change: a Review of the Literature About the Perception of the Public and Health Professionals Through a systematic search of English language peer-reviewed studies, we assess how health professionals and the public, worldwide, perceive the health implications of climate change.Among health professionals, perception that climate change is harming health appears to be high, although self-assessed knowledge is low, and perceived need to learn more is high. Among (...) the public, few North Americans can list any health impacts of climate change, or who is at risk, but appear to view climate change as harmful to health. Among vulnerable publics in Asia and Africa, awareness of increasing health harms due to specific changing climatic conditions is high. Americans across the political and climate change opinion spectra appear receptive to information about the health aspects of climate change, although findings are mixed. Health professionals feel the need to learn more
A Web-Based Course on PublicHealth Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response: Survey Among Students and Faculty Web-based publichealth courses are becoming increasingly popular. "PublicHealth Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response" is a unique Web-based course in Hong Kong. This course aimed to fill a publichealth training gap by reaching out to postgraduates who are unable to access face-to-face learning.The aim of this paper was to use a structured
[Jurisdictions on the reimbursement of new medical technologies by publichealth insurance: A systematic review]. In Germany reimbursement for new medical technologies is often enforced before a social court. It is likely that these judicial decisions also affect the sickness funds' decisions on requests for reimbursement and thus patient access to new technologies in general.The aim of this study was to identify the technologies that have repeatedly generated court actions and whether
Perceptions of the quality of generic medicines: implications for trust in public services within the local health system in Tumkur, India Generic medicines are an important policy option to reduce out-of-pocket expenditure on medicines. However, negative perceptions of their quality affect utilisation and raise issues of confidence and trust in medicines and health services. The aim of the study was to test the quality of generic and branded medicines and explain negative perceptions towards (...) generic medicines.The study was part of a larger study on access to medicines. Information on various quality parameters was collected for branded medicines and branded and unbranded generic versions of the same medicines from government and private pharmacies in Karnataka in Southern India. To assess perceptions related to quality and drivers of preferred point of care (public vs private), focus group discussions were conducted with diabetes and hypertension patients, health workers and private
What approaches are there for monitoring and evaluation of global publichealth programmes? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing What approaches are there for monitoring and evaluation of global publichealth programmes? Nicola Pearce-Smith 26 th July 2018 What approaches are there for monitoring and evaluation of global publichealth programmes? KLS Evidence Briefing 26 th July 2018 Question This briefing summarises the evidence on the options for monitoring and evaluation (...) of global publichealth programmes, including types of indicators and qualitative vs quantitative measures, from January 1st 1980 to July 17th 2018. Key messages ? 3 areas to improve future evaluation of complex global health initiatives are : the importance of theory of change; the need to use multiple methods to address complexity; and the need to focus more on triangulation and synthesis of findings ? the BetterEvaluation Rainbow Framework can help evaluators navigate the choices available at each
Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health (...) Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes Recommendations Framework for Drugs for Rare Diseases: A Review of National and International Health Technology Assessment Agencies and Public Payers’ Decision-Making Processes Last updated: June 22, 2018 Project Number: ES0326-000 Product Line: Result type: Report The number of drug for rare diseases (DRD) in the pipeline and the number of marketed DRDs are expanding. As such, policy-makers and clinicians have struggled on how
Anisakis sensitization in different population groups and publichealth impact: A systematic review. Anisakis simplex spp. sensitization rates have increased worldwide, with a significant impact on health-care systems. To date, no clear-cut diagnostic criteria and laboratory algorithm have been established, so anisakiasis still represents an under-reported health problem whose clinical manifestations, when present, mimic the much more common allergic and digestive disorders. Aim of the study (...) misdiagnosis by improving the diagnostic approach and, consequently, providing more affordable estimates in order to address publichealth interventions on populations at high risk of exposure to Anisakis and to tailor health services related to specific groups.
Integrating emergency risk communication (ERC) into the publichealth system response: Systematic review of literature to aid formulation of the 2017 WHO Guideline for ERC policy and practice. The World Health Organization (WHO) commissioned a systematic review of literature to facilitate evidence syntheses for the development of emergency risk communication (ERC) guidelines for its member states. The goal of this review was to integrate ERC best practices into governmental and non-governmental (...) health systems for all emergencies of publichealth concern, by addressing three questions: (1) to identify best practices for the integration of ERC into national and international publichealth preparedness; (2) to identify mechanisms to establish effective intra-agency, inter-agency, and/or cross-jurisdictional information sharing; and (3) to identify methods to coordinate risk communication activities between responding agencies across organizations and levels of response. The review covered
Menthol cigarettes and the publichealth standard: a systematic review. Although menthol was not banned under the Tobacco Control Act, the law made it clear that this did not prevent the Food and Drug Administration from issuing a product standard to ban menthol to protect publichealth. The purpose of this review was to update the evidence synthesis regarding the role of menthol in initiation, dependence and cessation.A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes (...) strength and consistency of the associations in these studies support that the removal of menthol from cigarettes is likely to reduce youth smoking initiation, improve smoking cessation outcomes in adult smokers, and in turn, benefit publichealth.
Patient and public involvement in health literacy interventions: a mapping review If people can read, understand and act on health information to better their health and reduce illness, they are thought to have "adequate" health literacy. Poor health literacy can mean people are less able to access health care and manage their health. Health literacy tends to worsen as adults get older, and is especially poor in adults age 65 and over. Ideally, health literacy interventions target people before (...) age 65, to establish good skills and habits before people have many health problems associated with ageing. It is also good if researchers consult ordinary people, including patients and the public (PPI) when planning a programme to try to improve health literacy. This may help ensure individual needs are catered for.We therefore looked for studies that described any role of patient or public representatives in the research planning stages. We explored how the representatives contributed to each
Dementia care in publichealth in Brazil and the world: A systematic review. This study aimed to identify in the recent scientific literature, information on health care provided to people with dementia, dementia costs and its resource implications for public health.This was a systematic review of the literature in which the articles were consulted from the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. The review sample consisted of 45 articles.Examination of the studies identified the current (...) scenario of dementia in relation to publichealth and public policy in Brazil and the world. The analyzed studies revealed key information on aspects of dementia in the world. There was consensus on the high prevalence of the syndrome and on the significant cost of health care and public policy for assisting the elderly with dementia.The importance of planning and implementing new public policies was recognized, since these are essential for the organization and management of health services
Integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation for healthcare and publichealth: A systematic review. Social justice is the moral imperative to avoid and remediate unfair distributions of societal disadvantage. In priority setting in healthcare and publichealth, social justice reaches beyond fairness in the distribution of health outcomes and economic impacts to encompass fairness in the distribution of policy impacts upon other dimensions of well-being. There is an emerging (...) awareness of the need for economic evaluation to integrate all such concerns. We performed a systematic review (1) to describe methodological solutions suitable for integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation, and (2) to describe the challenges that those solutions face. To be included, publications must have captured fairness considerations that (a) involve cross-dimensional subjective personal life experience and (b) can be manifested at the level of subpopulations. We identified
Narratives of community engagement: a systematic review-derived conceptual framework for publichealth interventions. Government policy increasingly supports engaging communities to promote health. It is critical to consider whether such strategies are effective, for whom, and under what circumstances. However, 'community engagement' is defined in diverse ways and employed for different reasons. Considering the theory and context we developed a conceptual framework which informs understanding (...) about what makes an effective (or ineffective) community engagement intervention.We conducted a systematic review of community engagement in publichealth interventions using: stakeholder involvement; searching, screening, appraisal and coding of research literature; and iterative thematic syntheses and meta-analysis. A conceptual framework of community engagement was refined, following interactions between the framework and each review stage.From 335 included reports, three products emerged: (1
Histology and Cytopathology Capacity in the PublicHealth Sector in Kenya Histology and cytopathology services are necessary for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the current capacity of Kenya's pathology laboratories is unknown. A national survey was conducted among public sector pathology laboratories to assess their capacity to perform histology, fine-needle aspiration, and bone marrow aspiration.Between April and June 2017, we identified all public hospitals that provide pathology (...) accreditation, but only for clinical pathology services.This study describes the current status of histology and cytopathology capacity in Kenya's public sector hospitals. It provides useful baseline information needed by the Ministry of Health to develop necessary capacity building and referral-strengthening interventions. A high proportion of hospitals are working to achieve accreditation points toward their commitment to providing quality services to the Kenyan public.